Questions tagged [syntax]

The study of the internal structure of expressions, especially between words and phrases, and the principles and processes that determine it. This includes words order, but also the grammatical relations that hold between words, as well as structural ambiguity, binding, reference, and similar issues. Common approaches are numerous phrase structure grammars (GPSG, HPSG, LFG, G&B, X-bar, Minimalism, ...) and, on the other hand, dependency grammars.

Filter by
Sorted by
Tagged with
1
vote
1answer
28 views

Wh-movement Question

For wh-movements, I always think of what the sentence would have looked like if it wasn't a question (e.g. for sentence "which promise did he not keep?", I would think that the original ...
-1
votes
0answers
28 views

Syntactic Structure in Italian (case, agreement, or movement). Where can I find online information for this?

I am doing a school project where I have to discuss the Syntax Structure of Italian where I have to discuss case, agreement, or movement. Unfortunately, I can't find information online that I can use. ...
-1
votes
0answers
36 views

Chomsky's Syntactic Structures: Why is aa, bb not a finite state language?

In (10ii), Chomsky says, aa, bb, abba, baab [...] and in general, all sentences consisting of a string X followed by the 'mirror image' of X (i.e. X in reverse), and only these. Then he proceeds to ...
1
vote
1answer
55 views

Principles and Parameters vs. Government and Binding

I'm a little confused about the difference between P&P and GB. This Wikipedia article suggests that they are the same as grammar frameworks, from what I understood: Principles and parameters as a ...
2
votes
0answers
52 views

What factors determine how you continue the sentence “Are you together with your brother or…” with the word “sister”?

For example if I call my friend. I know he is wether with his brother or sister, and then I ask further: Are you together with your brother or... you can finish the question in several ways: ... ...
1
vote
0answers
25 views

Is the sequence of time adverbials, place adverbials and manner adverbials appearing in the same sentence universal or typologically determined?

For example, in English there is "I bought a dress with my friend at the mall yesterday" where the sequence is manner-place-time, while in Russian it is time-place-manner, in Mandarin it is ...
0
votes
0answers
20 views

Question about what can be put in the head of a CP (complementizer phrase)

I'd like to know which of the following words "then, no, when, is, has" becomes the head of a CP and which doesn't? I know that "wh" becomes a +Q and No is declarative, however ...
0
votes
0answers
50 views

What is the syntax of this clause “the one who spoke”

What is the syntax of the clause " . . . the one who spoke" in this sentence: "I am he, the one who spoke?" Is not the 3rd person pronoun the subject complement, and "the one ...
0
votes
1answer
48 views

Resultative secondary predicate

In the sentence 'John entered the room angry', can 'angry' be considered a resultative predicate? This sentence has the same construction as 'John painted the door green', but while 'green' describes ...
4
votes
1answer
129 views

Is “matrix clause” synonymous with “main clause”? What exactly is a matrix clause?

A lot of people seem to understand "matrix clause" as a synonym for "main clause". For instance, a comment I just chanced upon on a language SE site states: It's a synonym for ...
4
votes
2answers
102 views

Does the universal use of noun and verb phrases reflect how humans cognitively see the world as objects and relationships?

The question is: why are noun and verb phrases the basic building blocks of all grammar? Candidate answer: cognitively, we perceive the world as objects and relationships between objects. Thus, nouns ...
1
vote
1answer
44 views

Books recommendation on syntax, semantics and pragmatics interaction

Can anyone here suggest any texts that deals especially with the interaction between Semantics, Pragmatics and Syntax? I would like to understand how these various levels, especially syntax-semantics,...
1
vote
1answer
74 views

Best book for introduction to Syntax, with exercises

I am new to the field of linguistics and I was looking for some books in order to learn syntax. I put my eyes on two main textbooks: Basic English Syntax with Exercises, by Mark Newson (I was ...
8
votes
3answers
453 views

Did Proto-Indo-European put the adjective before or behind the noun?

Did PIE put the adjective behind the noun (like Romance languages usually do) or before the noun (like Germanic languages)?
2
votes
0answers
64 views

What limitations of generative grammar was Lakoff referring to?

In his keynote address in 2015, George Lakoff said the following (at 22:10) The whole idea of generative grammar fell apart. There were things that you could not do with it. Even if it was ...
0
votes
0answers
26 views

Are there such things as verbs that are experiential AND ditransitive?

Does any natural language have verbs that are both ditransitive and experiential? I'm working on a conlang in which ditransitive experiential verbs exist. For example, we could have verbs that mean &...
3
votes
0answers
40 views

Inverse scope reading

It is well known that any sentence with two or more quantifiers will result in in multiple possible readings depending on the ordering of the quantifiers. To take a known example (1), there will be ...
0
votes
1answer
60 views

For English, is there a finite set of patterns for constructing sentences?

I am wondering about conlangs and thinking about English currently. I'm wondering does English have a finite set of patterns for constructing sentences? That is, could you build a computer program ...
6
votes
2answers
178 views

What other languages, apart from Latin, mix elements from different syntactic constituents? And why mixing?

Latin has a curious syntactic possibility, which is mixing elements from different constituents, like in the sentence Mors et vita duello conflixere mirando which is translated by Wiktionary as ...
6
votes
2answers
157 views

Why is the subject outside the VP in most theories of syntax?

I'm trying to understand why in most theories of syntax, the subject of a sentence is the sister of the verb, and not the child eg: S -> NP VP instead of VP -> NP V (NP...) The latter feels more ...
1
vote
0answers
47 views

Tree Structures: Sentence breaks and TP vs. S as tree structure head

I am currently working on my Linguistics homework and I have to draw a tree diagram of the sentences: (1) Peter thinks Susan asked if she needs to resign. (2) Johnny said he wants to study French. The ...
1
vote
0answers
71 views

How do you distinguish verbs, nouns, and adjectives in Chinese?

I am messing around with a conlang and trying to figure out how to write sentences. Man this is hard, there are so many possibilities and I don't know where to start. But basically, I am looking at ...
3
votes
1answer
121 views

When does do-support apply in wh-questions?

For reference, I'm working off of Carnie's Syntax (2002). In the book's framework, T → C movement is triggered by a [+Q] feature in C. In the case we have an auxiliary verb, it can raise to T and then ...
4
votes
2answers
134 views

NP or DP for “that book”

When referring to phrases such as "that book", would it be considered a DP or a NP? I think it should be considered as a DP but I am not sure how to prove it using our given data. Some data ...
0
votes
1answer
82 views

Is this phrase or clause a clause?

Is "lefty loosey, righty tighty" a clause? Or what is "lefty loosey, righty tighty"? Or what part of speech is "lefty loosey, righty tighty"? Or what part of speech is ...
1
vote
0answers
48 views

Kayne on Conjunctions and Chomsky's Labelling Algorithm

I'm reading on coordination structures in relation to Chomsky's proposal of the Labelling Algorithm and stumbled upon Kayne (1994) The Antisymmetry of Syntax. In it, Kayne takes the view that ...
5
votes
0answers
96 views

What kind of syntax diagrams are these, found in a book on legal writing?

These don't look like syntax trees in undergrad linguistics syntax textbooks. Do linguists use these diagrams? What are they called? Page 343.     Diagrams for grammatical analysis are visual aids to ...
0
votes
2answers
99 views

Languages with overt determiners AND pronouns/proper nouns

I am currently performing a cross-linguistic investigation of determiner phrases, and I was wondering if there are languages out there where an overt determiner can occur with a pronoun or proper noun,...
2
votes
0answers
116 views

Origin of English's phrasal possessive

This site claimed that the phrasal possessive in English came from French influence, while the synthetic possessive is Germanic. Germanic Pattern: the king’s son - cf. German "des Königs Sohn&...
-2
votes
2answers
99 views

What exactly is a “garden path” sentence?

Is there a term for this type of ambiguous sentence? I think it's called a "Garden Path sentence"? Coastal Bank breached its loan commitment to the owner and the contractor threatened to ...
1
vote
0answers
75 views

Verb-ing after this phrase or clause “this is my first time”

Is the verb with '-ing' in the phrase or clause "this is my first time eating this" a gerund or a present participle verb? I think now I see that "this" probably is or means "...
2
votes
1answer
69 views

Morpheme breakdown of the word 'classification'

For the word classification, would it break down to 'class-ify-ation' or 'class-ify-ic-ation'. I am confused between the two because for the second one, classific isn't a word.
2
votes
0answers
39 views

Which (of the Germanic) languages support resultative constructions?

my question regards resultative constructions. Which of the Germanic languages supports resultative constructions? It would be awesome if you could suggest any literature regarding any language. ...
2
votes
0answers
40 views

Adjunct vs complement with intransitive verb

Tony came from outside the traditional media Am I right in thinking because came is intransitive that "outside the traditional media" is an adjunct rather than a subject complement?
3
votes
1answer
97 views

What is the difference between surface structure and logical form?

I'm still confused about the difference between these two concepts. Could you explain it with some examples? Thank you in advance!:)
0
votes
1answer
54 views

How is the 什么…都 (shénme … dou) construction in Standard Chinese usually analyzed?

Disclaimer: I am assuming that the example sentences listed here have been vetted by a native speaker, but since I'm not totally sure of this, I'll use a leading @ sign to show my uncertainty. If I am ...
1
vote
1answer
41 views

What is Hierarchy of Projections?

I know that Hierarchy of Projections for VP is T > (Neg) > (M) > (Perf) > (Prog) > v > V, but what does this mean? Does it mean in a tree "T is always higher than Neg, and Neg ...
0
votes
0answers
35 views

How do I know if ECM happens in a foreign language?

I have learned about ECM and how it works within the English language, but I don't understand it thoroughly. How would we be able to decide whether a language has ECM?
4
votes
1answer
121 views

Is it possible to produce a list of syntactic rules for a language?

I recently started a new job as an applied linguist engineer and one of the first tasks I was ask to do was to provide a list of syntactic rules that can produce French sentences (for an ...
1
vote
1answer
132 views

Is “Since + clause” a noun clause or adverbial clause in this phrase?

I wanted to know if "since + clause" was an adverbial clause or noun clause in the phrase or after the phrase "it's been a while since I've seen you.". I was thinking “it's been … ...
1
vote
1answer
61 views

What do the numbers 206.835, 1.015, 84.6, 0.39, 11.8, 15.59 mean in the Flesch reading ease and Flesch-Kincaid grade level formulas?

I am looking to understand what do these numbers mean in the formulas, and how do they affect results, and why they were specifically chosen. Here are the formulas: Flesh reading Ease = 206.835 - 1....
1
vote
1answer
71 views

Help with syntax analysis

Good day to everyone! Could somebody explain me why in the following sentence "that he was disappointed" is S (subject)? (It)-S (must be confessed)-V (that he was disappointed)-S.
0
votes
0answers
70 views

VSO languages and generative grammar

I'm wondering how generative grammar handles VSO languages It seems to me that the subject splits up the verb phrase, and so you're going to have to have some sort of movement going on and a different ...
0
votes
0answers
21 views

realation with Clause, parts of speech and Syntax

first, I would like to say sorry for my English. I have been learning English for a year and I’m not still good at it. I think you will have trouble for understanding my words. I’ve been learning ...
-4
votes
1answer
168 views

Is there evidence of a disposition for certain races to learn certain languages? [closed]

For example would those of Chinese descent have a disposition to learn Chinese? Chinese is a quite different language being logographic then say English which is alphabetic. Another example would be ...
3
votes
0answers
90 views

Does the stem of a word carry the sense information of its inflections?

From what I understand the lexeme or lemma of a word carries the sense information of the word, and hence for an inflected form like tablets, it can have a different lemma, each one for each sense of ...
4
votes
0answers
124 views

How does syntax of our language affect our thoughts?

Our language affects the way we perceive the world. I know it is not only because the words that don’t exist in one of the languages may exist in the other ones, but also because of the grammar. We ...
1
vote
0answers
40 views

Across languages, what, if any, syntactic or semantic differences distinguish compound verbs from serial verb constructions?

Across languages, what semantic or syntactic differences distinguish serial verb constructions from compound verbs? Let's disregard phonological differences for the purposes of this question. Let's ...
2
votes
0answers
71 views

“The more the merrier”

What is the linguistic status of utterances like "The more, the merrier"? In English it would not be considered a sentence because there is no verb. Yet, it fully stands on its own ...
4
votes
0answers
106 views

What would count as a counterexample to the Final-Over-Final Constraint?

I'm interested in what the constraints are on head-directionality and, in particular, which combinations of features are disfavored, unstable, or thought to be impossible. I came across the final-over-...

1
2 3 4 5
18