Questions tagged [syntax-trees]

Graphical representations of hierarchical analyses of grammatical relations. Requests to make syntax trees are off-topic.

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How to draw the tree diagram for this sentence? [closed]

Here is the sentence "That toy, I think they gave to the dog". Should "gave to the dog" be considered as VP and "to the dog" as PP?
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1answer
103 views

Is “of the kitten” in “the paw of the kitten” a complement to the NP or an adjunct to the DP?

I'm drawing a tree for "the paw of the kitten" (from chapter 7 of Andrew Carnie's Syntax: A Generative Introduction). This chapter is "extending X-bar theory", so please keep that ...
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2answers
443 views

A question about C-command

Does "John" c-command "himself" in this sentence? "Mary talked to John about himself."
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2answers
157 views

What is the position of the subject in a Greek sentence, whose word order is VSO?

The following is a Greek sentence Σε ποιόν φίλο νομίζεις ότι μιλάει ο άντρας; To which friend think.2SG that speak.3SG the man Its counterpart in ...
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44 views

How to solve this syntax question [closed]

Hello guys could anyone help me in solving these questions in syntax the sentence ; John's discussion of the riots in the meeting suddenly put all physics students right into huge turmoil. ps; I ...
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1answer
52 views

Is the following sentence a CP? Does it contain another CP?

Lies, do you think that she tells you? Is this sentence grammatical? Is the whole sentence a CP, in which lies is the CP Specifier and do is the head C? If yes, is that the C head of a second CP in ...
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1answer
89 views

How is the ungrammaticality of the following sentence explained?

Maria asked I read which book This sentence is ungrammatical. Is this because an IP I read cannot be a complement or sister to a V asked Is there a CP in this ungrammatical sentence?
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1answer
72 views

What is the position of 'that' in the relative clause of this sentence?

Researchers report they have engineered an enzyme that can convert 90% of that same plastic back to its pristine starting materials. Does that originate in spec TP and move to spec CP like in this ...
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1answer
45 views

Difference between PRO and OP

What's the difference between PRO and OP? For example, on p. 142, the book "The Syntax of Chinese" presents the following tree (which is an analysis of indirect passives in Chinese): In this ...
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0answers
21 views

Why should we assign the head to a word as early as possible in shift-reduce dependency parsing?

This is about dependency parsing. The operation set of a shift-reduce parser was changed so that an arc is added as early as possible. It's claimed that "the longer a word has to wait to get assigned ...
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1answer
35 views

What is the specifier in an IP where the complement of the verb is fronted?

In the sentence (IP) The book, I think that I gave you in which the object (complement of the verb of the CP "that I gave you") is fronted, is this fronted object the specifier of the whole IP? ...
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2answers
75 views

Compositional Semantics of relative clauses

How do relative pronouns (which, who, invisible which= WH) fit into a sentences compositionality? Given that relative clauses modify Noun Phrases, I'd expect them to be of type <et,<et>> ...
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96 views

Syntax trees associated with Prepositional Phrases as subject

Whenever we have a Prepositional Phrase as a subject, how should the dependency relations hold? Specifically, consider the following sentence: Before Wednesday does not work for me. One dependency ...
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2answers
174 views

What is non-headed phrase?

I know most of the phrases in English are headed phrases, like noun is the head of NP. But what is non-headed phrase?
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1answer
39 views

What is the syntactic status of subordinate clauses such as “what can be…”?

I am not clear about the syntactic analysis of the what-clauses in bold in the following b-sentences: (1a) These words are weak determiners. (1b) These words are what can be called weak determiners. ...
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1answer
60 views

How to provide evidence that my hypothesis is correct (the same structure but the constituents are different), syntactic structures, constituency

How can I provide evidence supporting the hypothesis, that is, prove by means of constituency tests that my hypothesis is correct? The sentences: (1) Jeff lost the watch with the big numbers (2) Jeff ...
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1answer
99 views

How to draw the NP “so little” in “He said so little” in a tree diagram?

He said so little. includes the NP so little, which doesn't include any noun. In the X-bar theory style tree diagram, how do you go about describing the NP? Do you have N' below the NP? Do you have ...
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49 views

What advantages might the Reed-Kellogg diagramming method provide over other diagramming methods?

What advantages might the Reed-Kellogg diagramming method provide over other diagramming methods, and is the R-K diagramming method English specific?
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2answers
286 views

What is the difference in a constituent and a phrase?

From Wikipedia: In syntactic analysis, a constituent is a word or a group of words that functions as a single unit within a hierarchical structure. A phrase is a sequence of one or more ...
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164 views

Tree diagrams in CGEL

I have a question about this tree diagram in The Cambridge Grammar of The English Language (by Huddleston and Pullum): Please see the tree diagram in the red box of the nominal preposterous salary ...
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1answer
66 views

Trying to add labels/descriptions and boxes to syntax tree in LaTeX [closed]

I'm trying to add descriptions to certain nodes in a Syntax tree. I'm using qtree, but I can't seem to find a way to do this. I'm also trying to box some, but not all of the nodes in the tree. Here's ...
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2answers
73 views

Does the relative clause (which suggests…) here function as an adjunct of the whole clause in front of it?

The high notes returned to his compositions towards the end of his life, which suggests he was hearing the works that were taking shape in his imagination. I'm not sure how to write up the syntax ...
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1answer
109 views

In X Bar Theory where can “ne” and “pas” be found?

I have read past papers on French negation and it says that it is accepted that the NegP in French is null, and "pas" is specifier to NegP. So what would "ne" be then? I haven't been able to find ...
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159 views

V to T movement in German

Consider the the embedded clause "du Schach gespielt hast" in this sentence Ich glaube dass du Schach gespielt hast. I think that you chess played have ‘I think that you have ...
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38 views

Sentence with two PPs, without recursive embedding of either in the other

I'm having some difficulty with finding an example of an English sentence which includes two consecutive prepositional phrases without embedding. Would "We ran off into the sunset" qualify?
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Struggling With Split Projections In My X Bar Tree Diagram

I am trying to complete this linguistics question but I am a bit stuck. I'm not sure if I'm using the AgrNomO projections correctly. I have attached the tree diagram, and here is the question: Draw ...
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2answers
222 views

Should I conjoin two AdjP or two Adj inside one AdjP?

In an NP like "stronger but smaller storm", when drawing a tree, how do I know if I should conjoin two AdjP or two Adj inside one AdjP? I'm working in the framework of Carnie's book (3rd edition). ...
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54 views

“Kim wants John to stop” — does a VP in this example contain another VP?

I'm trying to draw the syntax tree for the TP "Kim wants John to stop" (in the setting of Carnie's first three chapters). I guess it contains the NP "Kim" and the VP "wants John to stop". The VP ...
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1answer
188 views

Confusion about the CP and TP rule in Carnie

In the NP "the book that lies on the table", there is a CP ("that lies on the table"). Carnie has the following rule for CP:s: CP-> (C) TP and the following rule for TP: TP -> {NP/CP} (T) VP So ...
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1answer
50 views

Syntax tree for “the Middle East”

Does the NP "the Middle East" contain only the determiner "the" and the proper name (noun) Middle East? Or does it contain the AdjP which is the adjective "Middle"? Or is "the Middle East" a noun (a ...
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1answer
106 views

Parse Tree Formatter Tools?

I am looking for tools that can format parse trees. I want to be able to collapse and expand them. I understand that collapsing them is rather simple with regex or even simple search and replace, ...
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3answers
132 views

Parsing with CCGs - lambda part

I am following this video tutorial, starting 6th minute I would like to parse the following sentence square blue or round yellow pillow. For now I am interested in only how square and blue are ...
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52 views

Why are “joking aside” and “six hours ago” Postpositional Clauses?

This webpage outlines the "four grammatical forms that can function as the adjunct adverbial". In the tree underneath, I agree that "aside and "ago" are postpositions, but please see the question in ...
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75 views

Why isn't “why you are angry” a Pronoun or Adverb Clause?

This webpage outlines the "four grammatical forms that can function as the adjunct adverbial". In the tree underneath, isn't "why" the Head? If it is, oughtn`t Adjective Clause be a Pronoun or ...
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2answers
101 views

Constituency-based parse trees and the word 'both' in noun phrases

I ran into a problem when doing a parse tree recently. It appears to be the word 'both' in the following sentence that is causing the trouble: It is evident for both you and the listener Obviously '...
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0answers
199 views

English Syntax Tree: is the “to do X” a CP?

I have a sentence that says "He was required to work in the kitchen" (actually, another example, doesn't really matter, the question is in principle): what is the function of "to" here? Is it a ...
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1answer
618 views

Phrase structure tree of a Wh question

The sentence would be "Whose dirty underwear is this?". I assume that the base (is that called deep structure sentence?) would be "This is whose dirty underwear" but I'm not sure what ...
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2answers
263 views

Who is credited for the syntax tree in synthetic linguistics

I'd like to know who is the first person that introduced the tree of phrase structure in linguistics.
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2answers
86 views

trees with nice straight spines and not too vertical

I want to be able to typeset syntactic trees in a way that will achieve the following: straight spine when there is no label on the nonterminal node obtuse angle at each (binary) branch (so the tree ...
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131 views

Syntax tree for object control construction

I'm trying to figure out how to draw a syntax tree for this sentence: Sue reminded Mary to water the plants. I think this is object control, and should be analyzed this way: Sue [IP -ed [VP remind [...
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1answer
237 views

DP acting as AdvP?

Is it possible for a DP like "three times" to act as an AdvP ("He read the book three times.")? How would such a constituency tree look like? How does the DP modify the verb? Conversely, would the ...
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72 views

What is this method of drawing syntax trees?

I'm taking a course in generative grammar and I've reached a point where I don't know what's happening because I missed one class. Anyway, last time my tutor drew tree diagrams that I found a bit ...
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0answers
63 views

How are clauses containing adverbial clauses and free modifiers represented in syntax trees?

I know that relative clauses simply go in the noun phrase containing the noun they modify, but what about adverbial clauses and free modifiers? How do you represent a clause containing an adverbial ...
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42 views

Verbose tree diagram drawer for MP

Is there any tree diagram drawer software for English sentences which shows all features of nodes, all movements (and other things which happen like feature checking by c-command)?
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45 views

Do we assume Tense head for tenseless languages?

Do we assume a TP/IP projection for the syntax of a tenseless language?
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1answer
330 views

Drawing case specified trees for english gerunds

I'm reading Adger's Core Syntax book and am having a tough time with Exercise 1 of the functional categories chapter. The exercise is about gerunds. Gerunds are specified by the form of suffixing -...
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179 views

Drawing trees for DP's and Sentences

I'm reading Adger's book Core Syntax and am having trouble with one of the sentences in the last exercise in the Functional Categories chapter. The task is to draw and annotate the tree (bar level and ...
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2answers
78 views

What is the proper terminology for “I touch” in this sentence?

I am trying to diagram this sentence for a personal project: Everything I touch with tenderness pricks like a bramble. From what I understand, Everything is the subject, and pricks is the ...
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0answers
107 views

How does one deal with sentences starting with a connective?

While drawing syntax trees for spoken language and not ideal languages, how does one handle conjunctions and other particles appearing initially in sentences like: And that is that. (After a long ...
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54 views

Understanding the property of complementhood

In the following sentence: They can both speak French. How can French be the complement of the V-bar speak French? I have the following definition of the complement: A constituent X is the ...