Questions tagged [syntax-trees]

Graphical representations of hierarchical analyses of grammatical relations. Requests to make syntax trees are off-topic.

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Parsing with CCGs - lambda part

I am following this video tutorial, starting 6th minute I would like to parse the following sentence square blue or round yellow pillow. For now I am interested in only how square and blue are ...
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Running C&C and Boxer

My goal is generate first order logic representation from natural language sentence. It looks combination of C&C and Boxer tools can do it. I found on reliable link to download them both: C&...
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Why are “joking aside” and “six hours ago” Postpositional Clauses?

This webpage outlines the "four grammatical forms that can function as the adjunct adverbial". In the tree underneath, I agree that "aside and "ago" are postpositions, but please see the question in ...
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Why isn't “why you are angry” a Pronoun or Adverb Clause?

This webpage outlines the "four grammatical forms that can function as the adjunct adverbial". In the tree underneath, isn't "why" the Head? If it is, oughtn`t Adjective Clause be a Pronoun or ...
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1answer
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Consistuency-based parse trees and the word 'both' in noun phrases

I ran into a problem when doing a parse tree recently. It appears to be the word 'both' in the following sentence that is causing the trouble: It is evident for both you and the listener Obviously '...
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English Syntax Tree: is the “to do X” a CP?

I have a sentence that says "He was required to work in the kitchen" (actually, another example, doesn't really matter, the question is in principle): what is the function of "to" here? Is it a ...
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1answer
117 views

Phrase structure tree of a Wh question

The sentence would be "Whose dirty underwear is this?". I assume that the base (is that called deep structure sentence?) would be "This is whose dirty underwear" but I'm not sure what ...
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235 views

Who is credited for the syntax tree in synthetic linguistics

I'd like to know who is the first person that introduced the tree of phrase structure in linguistics.
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75 views

trees with nice straight spines and not too vertical

I want to be able to typeset syntactic trees in a way that will achieve the following: straight spine when there is no label on the nonterminal node obtuse angle at each (binary) branch (so the tree ...
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Syntax tree for object control construction

I'm trying to figure out how to draw a syntax tree for this sentence: Sue reminded Mary to water the plants. I think this is object control, and should be analyzed this way: Sue [IP -ed [VP remind [...
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1answer
87 views

DP acting as AdvP?

Is it possible for a DP like "three times" to act as an AdvP ("He read the book three times.")? How would such a constituency tree look like? How does the DP modify the verb? Conversely, would the ...
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What is this method of drawing syntax trees?

I'm taking a course in generative grammar and I've reached a point where I don't know what's happening because I missed one class. Anyway, last time my tutor drew tree diagrams that I found a bit ...
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0answers
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How are clauses containing adverbial clauses and free modifiers represented in syntax trees?

I know that relative clauses simply go in the noun phrase containing the noun they modify, but what about adverbial clauses and free modifiers? How do you represent a clause containing an adverbial ...
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36 views

Verbose tree diagram drawer for MP

Is there any tree diagram drawer software for English sentences which shows all features of nodes, all movements (and other things which happen like feature checking by c-command)?
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Do we assume Tense head for tenseless languages?

Do we assume a TP/IP projection for the syntax of a tenseless language?
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1answer
134 views

Drawing case specified trees for english gerunds

I'm reading Adger's Core Syntax book and am having a tough time with Exercise 1 of the functional categories chapter. The exercise is about gerunds. Gerunds are specified by the form of suffixing -...
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0answers
119 views

Drawing trees for DP's and Sentences

I'm reading Adger's book Core Syntax and am having trouble with one of the sentences in the last exercise in the Functional Categories chapter. The task is to draw and annotate the tree (bar level and ...
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2answers
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What is the proper terminology for “I touch” in this sentence?

I am trying to diagram this sentence for a personal project: Everything I touch with tenderness pricks like a bramble. From what I understand, Everything is the subject, and pricks is the ...
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0answers
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How does one deal with sentences starting with a connective?

While drawing syntax trees for spoken language and not ideal languages, how does one handle conjunctions and other particles appearing initially in sentences like: And that is that. (After a long ...
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Understanding the property of complementhood

In the following sentence: They can both speak French. How can French be the complement of the V-bar speak French? I have the following definition of the complement: A constituent X is the ...
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1answer
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Syntax tree for this sentence [closed]

I am trying to find best way to get a syntax tree for this sentence: Planting seeds helps you grow your farm I thought of this: -------- S1 --------- | | --...
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How do we set comparative adverbs, from expressions like “more than x” on the syntax tree?

I'm trying to figure something out from Portuguese, but if you can answer me that based on English, it will help a lot. Thanks.
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2answers
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“there” and “everything” in linguistics is a “pronoun” or “noun”?

Regarding to drawing a syntax tree, "there" and "everything" in linguistics is a "pronoun" or "noun"? For example, 1. There is an apple. 2. It is not everything.
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How does Stanford SemgrexPattern tree matcher work?

I recently got a chance to look at Stanford's SemgrexPattern. https://nlp.stanford.edu/nlp/javadoc/javanlp/edu/stanford/nlp/semgraph/semgrex/SemgrexPattern.html I understand that it is used to match ...
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1answer
422 views

How do you draw a syntax tree for a sentence with a dummy subject?

I encounter difficulties when drawing a syntax tree for a sentence of expletive contruction. Should I mark the dummy subject "there" as a noun? Thx
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1answer
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If there is a version of linguistics that doesn't break sentences into tree structures

All linguistics I've seen breaks sentences into tree structures like this: The gloss is sort of a more flattened, chain-like structure, but it is much less formal than the syntax tree: Wondering if ...
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Parsing a sentence with the noun as the Predicator

Can the sentence "That professor is a syntactician," in which the DP "a syntactician" is the predicator, be parsed like a normal sentence, using x-bar theory, the Predicate Shell and the DP Hypothesis?...
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how to draw a tree digram in syntax [closed]

I am having trouble drawing a syntax tree for 2 sentences and I would appreciate it if someone could help me. The sentences are: a. Where will you put your car? b. Dave told Bill the rumor that John ...
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Drawing D structure trees [closed]

Can someone help me draw a D structure tree for: Is the cake certain to have been eaten by the students? Also if you could explain the reasoning behind why its drawn like that so i could get some ...
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Prepositional phrases ‘fronting’ a sentence

Hi Everybody (please help), I’m having trouble deciphering how to diagram a sentence with the adjunctive prepositional phrase at the front of the sentence. As from ‘The boy found the cat in the ...
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87 views

Linear order preserving syntactic trees

Two questions: Is the syntactic tree notation supposed to be Linear order preserving in general Linear order preserving for English Generally linear order preserving for English None of the above ...
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1answer
362 views

What software is used to make these X-bar trees?

I'm looking for software for illustrating tree diagrams am wondering whether anyone knows which was used to create the one in the post linked below. I have tried messaging the author, but had no ...
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0answers
37 views

Can SBAR be the first tag of a sentence?

I am new to parse trees, and if I understand correctly, SBAR indicates the beginning of a subordinate clause. From Penn Treebank II Tags: SBAR - Clause introduced by a (possibly empty) ...
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X-bar tree of the sentence “Why would she not have actually been giving him back the present yesterday?”

I'm having trouble with a particular x bar tree. We're mostly using Liliane Haegeman & Jacqueline Guéron's "English Grammar – A Generative Perspective" as our bible, with some adjustments, e.g. DP'...
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1answer
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Syntax tree help? [closed]

I have one sentence that is an optional practice question for my syntax class that I just cannot figure out. It's ambiguous as far as where the PP falls but I hope someone can help anyways by giving ...
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How are head nodes of a tree determined?

Below is a tree-representation of an action sequencing hierarchy, taken from Fischmeister et al 2016 (Journal Cortex). Could anyone explain (the paper does not) by which rationale the different nodes ...
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2answers
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Semantic parsing vs Propositional Representation

Propositional representation is explained on Wikipedia. How is semantic parsing different from propositional representation? Or is propositional representation the next step after you do semantic ...
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1answer
391 views

How do I draw these syntax structure trees? [closed]

I couldn't figure out how to draw the syntax tree diagrams for these sentences. Any help would be great Who said that John is nice? A teacher in my school said the children disliked him. What do you ...
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2answers
266 views

Description of various placements of PPs in a syntax tree

How would you describe the difference in modifications a PP can make to a VP i.e. [I want to visit them][before this time] versus [I want to [visit them before this time]] I understand there is ...
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1answer
138 views

What is the difference between vPs and v*Ps?

Why do I sometimes come across a label like v* instead of v in the literature? As I understood, it is the same thing.
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1answer
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Constituent borders

Let us imagine there to exist, for instance, a DP. We always observe the only head D on the left or the right of the phrase (depending upon the direction of branching). But every constituent naturally ...
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2answers
290 views

Is a complement of a verb treated any differently than an adjunct of a verb in a tree diagram?

When you draw a tree diagram in phrase structure grammars, should you draw a complement of a verb any differently than an adjunct of a verb by using different tree structures? (1) I slept on the ...
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2answers
465 views

How do contractions work in syntactic movement?

Specifically when the surface structure uncontracted would be ungrammatical. Eg: "Don't turtles live forever?" (Do turtles not live forever/*Do not turtles live forever). EDIT - Sorry if it's broad ...
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1answer
781 views

Auxiliaries in generative grammar

In a course of introduction to Generative Grammar, my teacher told that auxiliary (Aux in the tree diagram) is the element that comes before the subject (NP) in an interrogative sentence. But I ...
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1answer
308 views

How do you coreference a possesive pronouns with an x-bar tree?

Following Chomsky's linguistic theory (The Minimalist Program), r-expressions must be free, where free means that nothing should c-command it such that the indices have a non null intersection (if I ...
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2answers
510 views

What is the x-bar tree of 'I am proud of my students'? (having trouble with proud)

I am having trouble attaching the 'proud' to the 'am'. 'Am' is a verb and 'proud' is an adjective for the noun 'I', so should come as an adjunct for 'I', but here it would have to somehow come from ...
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0answers
401 views

X-bar: Put 'Where' in a Determiner Phrase or in an Adverb Phrase?

I'm currently working on an introductory guide to X-bar Theory for a group of students, and was wondering whether to classify a specific part as a Determiner Phrase or an Adverb Phrase. I have ...
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1answer
650 views

How do noun-noun compounds fit into a noun phrase in syntax?

I have a question regarding attributive nouns, or noun-noun compounds, and how they are integrated into syntactic rules for NP formation. Typically, the rule given in textbooks for forming a NP is the ...
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1answer
337 views

How to analyze an NP with two determiners?

I have a phrase and I have to draw a tree structure of it. "These many awful photographs" is the phrase. The only thing that I don't get is the "many". "These" is DP, "awful" is the adjective, and "...
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2answers
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semantics of bizarre usages in view of a second-language-speaker

Generative tradition, as far as I (an amateur) understand, revolves around the 'poverty of the stimulus' argument. So I can understand why I clearly get the meaning 'she shelved her books' or at ...