Questions tagged [syntax-trees]

Graphical representations of hierarchical analyses of grammatical relations. Requests to make syntax trees are off-topic.

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How does the syntax work for a phrase like "already much too cocky?"

I'm working on a syntax tree for the sentence "The belief that syntactic theory reveals the inner structure of sentences emboldened the already much too cocky professor," and I'm stuck on &...
3 votes
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47 views

Under the DP hypothesis, does anything ever go in the Spec of NP?

I attach Carnie's illustration of "several people who she kissed" below: My question is on the NP to N' branch (red boxed). I was taught that restrictive relatives clauses are adjuncts to ...
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Why are some Word Classes not Immediately Dominated by a Phrasal Category?

Source: pp 106-107, Syntax, A Generative Introduction (3 ed, 2012) by Andrew Carnie [6.] iv) English Phrase Structure Rules a) CP ⟶ (C) TP b) TP ⟶ {NP/CP} (T) VP c) VP ⟶ (AdvP+) V (NP) ({NP/...
2 votes
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Is there always at least one parse which accounts for all words cleanly using Phrase Structure Grammar trees?

A few small but related questions here. I'm looking at ways to define "sentence patterns", at least starting with English. That led me back to phrase structure grammars, which have nice and ...
4 votes
2 answers
197 views

Is there a language whose syntactic structure accepts a specifier of a PP?

We know a preposition (in X-bar theory) is the head of a prepositional phrase and it has a complement that is the sister of this very preposition. However I've never seen a language with a constituent ...
2 votes
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How do I identify constituents and clause boundaries?

I'm going through some practice exercises for an upcoming exam and trying to do syntax trees is really tripping me up. Could anyone please walk me through how they would break them down and how to ...
1 vote
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Is this syntactic tree correct so far? [closed]

*Not homework I have been doing practice problems, but I am really struggling with syntax trees. I think I have the first part of the tree, but I'm not sure about the rest. Here is the practice ...
3 votes
1 answer
2k views

Phrase structure tree of a Wh question [closed]

The sentence would be "Whose dirty underwear is this?". I assume that the base (is that called deep structure sentence?) would be "This is whose dirty underwear" but I'm not sure what ...
3 votes
1 answer
221 views

What is HMC in generative grammar?

I'm currently reading a Ph.D. thesis concerning the structure of English adjectives. These generative trees are used to illustrate the structure of the phrase "someone tall". The author ...
1 vote
1 answer
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What does a prime mean in a node label in a X-bar structure tree?

In Anderson's Essentials of Linguistics, a X-bar structure tree contains nodes labeled with '. What does the prime mean? What do N', V', and T' mean? Thanks.
3 votes
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Is an OBL argument in complement or adjunct position?

My syntax lecture materials on Arguementhood vs Adjuncthood explain that one difference between arguments and adjuncts lies in the participation in alternations: only arguments participate in ...
6 votes
1 answer
2k views

How do you draw a syntax tree for a sentence with a dummy subject?

I encounter difficulties when drawing a syntax tree for a sentence of expletive contruction. Should I mark the dummy subject "there" as a noun? Thx
1 vote
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On the argument structure of 'bet'

I have some problems with defining the argument structure of bet in the following pair of sentences: a) John bet £300 on Manchester United. b) John bet Bill £300 that Manchester United would win the ...
2 votes
0 answers
72 views

How to show the difference between the opaque reading and the transparent reading via syntax?

Is there any way using any version of Generative Grammar (EST, REST, GB, MP) to show the difference between "the transparent reading" and "the opaque reading" of the same line ...
2 votes
2 answers
79 views

Is it possible to have a repeated node appear under the same node? (Syntax Tree) [illustration provided]

Please help me understand these syntax trees (French and English). For context we are learning about the representation of movement in syntax trees. From my understanding, we'd have to use an X' under ...
3 votes
1 answer
236 views

Why are these adjectives being presented as adverbs in syntax tree (Carnie, 3rd Edition)?

I am in a Syntax class where we use the textbook Syntax: A Generative Introduction, 3rd Edition by Andrew Carnie. There is a tree presented in the chapter on x-bar theory that indicates that the words ...
3 votes
1 answer
80 views

Name for ongoing syntactic dependencies after a word

Consider the sentence "I love my dog." There are three syntactic dependencies in this sentence: (a) the subject dependency from "I" to "love," (b) the modifier dependency ...
8 votes
2 answers
252 views

How do syntacticians explain object pronouns in the subject position ("Me and him" or "Lui et moi")?

Me and a lot of other native English speakers sometimes use object pronouns as the subject of sentences if there's an "and" in the subject. This has been mentioned on Stack Exchange before ...
3 votes
1 answer
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Argumentation for the existence of Tense phrase

I could not find syntactic arguments to support the existence of a separate T(ense) category inside the tree for the sentence “John rarely spends the weekend with his family” As well as syntactic ...
3 votes
1 answer
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Auxiliaries in generative grammar

In a course of introduction to Generative Grammar, my teacher told that auxiliary (Aux in the tree diagram) is the element that comes before the subject (NP) in an interrogative sentence. But I found ...
4 votes
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78 views

In X-Bar theory, what could the Specifiers of PPs and AdvPs ever be?

In X-Bar theory, do prepositional phrases, adverbial phrases, adjectival phrases etc. ever have specifiers? What could they be? The only phrases I know the possible specifiers for are: Noun Phrases, ...
3 votes
1 answer
143 views

How does an AdvP attach in X-bar syntax?

I am studying Linguistics and for the life of me, I cannot seem to get my head around X bar theory. I have to figure out the X bar sytax tree of this sentence: "I love the cover of the book very ...
4 votes
3 answers
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Is triple branching necessary in making a syntax tree for 'the girl in the room waved to me'? [closed]

If 'the girl in the room' is my constituent, should I use triple branching under my first N'? The two options I am considering are below. Which would be correct?
1 vote
2 answers
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How to extract Subject-Verb-Object from a sentence?

Given a corpus of sentences, is there a way to extract subject-verb-object triplets? What is the state-of-art in detecting SVO triplets?
4 votes
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Stacking of prepositions in English?

The Cambridge Grammar Of The English Language recognises the existence of intransitive prepositions (p. 612): The case for allowing prepositions with no complements is most compelling where the same ...
8 votes
1 answer
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Tree diagrams in CGEL

I have a question about this tree diagram in The Cambridge Grammar of The English Language (by Huddleston and Pullum): Please see the tree diagram in the red box of the nominal preposterous salary ...
1 vote
2 answers
459 views

Should I conjoin two AdjP or two Adj inside one AdjP?

In an NP like "stronger but smaller storm", when drawing a tree, how do I know if I should conjoin two AdjP or two Adj inside one AdjP? I'm working in the framework of Carnie's book (3rd edition). ...
1 vote
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423 views

How do I treat phrasal verbs in X-bar theory?

I need to draw the tree of this sentence according to x-bar theory. She would back me up when it was needed What do I do with the phrasal verb with the pronoun in the middle? Thank you!
3 votes
5 answers
174 views

Treebanks that contain both constituency and dependency parse trees

I am looking for treebanks that contain both constituency and dependency parse trees. Both should have been manually annotated (i.e. the dependency parse trees shouldn't have been obtained from the ...
0 votes
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138 views

French V-to-T movement and modifier

I am struggling with this question that concerns the location of a modifier in a French sentence. How would you account for the last sentence? Thank you in advance.
3 votes
1 answer
416 views

What is the position of 'that' in the relative clause of this sentence?

Researchers report they have engineered an enzyme that can convert 90% of that same plastic back to its pristine starting materials. Does that originate in spec TP and move to spec CP like in this ...
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1 answer
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How to recognize Heads [closed]

I'm reading "Introduction to English linguistics" and in the chapter 4, there is a paragraph that I don't understand : The other crucial cluster of properties of heads concern their ...
2 votes
1 answer
94 views

How can the following phrase ambiguously have two trees: "expensive shoes from Italy"?

This is an exercise from "Introducing syntax" by Olaf Koeneman & Hedde Zeijlstra, 2017. The chapter this exercise is taken from deals with "Merge".
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Infinitive clauses in syntactic bracketing/trees [closed]

I am a little confused on how the bracketing of a sentence like “millie forced me to play” would look like when also breaking down the tenses within the phrase. Thank you!
5 votes
1 answer
554 views

Difference between PRO and OP

What's the difference between PRO and OP? For example, on p. 142, the book "The Syntax of Chinese" presents the following tree (which is an analysis of indirect passives in Chinese): In this ...
1 vote
1 answer
202 views

"STARBUCKESE" syntax problem

In standard English, one can’t put a PP before a head noun that the preposition modifies. For example, the NP in (a) is completely ungrammatical. a) *The with milk coffee. But there is a major chain ...
2 votes
1 answer
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Difference between the Merge postion and the base position

I was reading this analysis of the derivation below. And I wasn't familiar with the terminology "original Merge position." Is it just like "the base position"? Here is the sentence ...
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Why is the PP, according to this derivation, directly moved from the lower (farther) DP, not the nearer one?

The sentence being parsed: De CHOMSKY varios libros han ganado premios internacionales, no de Trotsky. of Chomsky several books have won awards international-PL, not of Trotsky Why is the PP on top ...
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1 answer
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Why two appearances of the past participle "ganado" in this derivation?

The sentence being parsed: De CHOMSKY varios libros han ganado premios internacionales, no de Trotsky. of Chomsky several books have won awards international-PL, not of Trotsky Could someone please ...
7 votes
1 answer
454 views

Representing knowledge extracted from output of dependency parsing

I am working on a problem to represent knowledge extracted from a paragraph and rank it to produce abstractive summaries. I have implemented dependency parsing using Stanford NLP, which gives dot ...
1 vote
0 answers
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How do you draw a x-bar tree with negative inversion? [closed]

For example: 'Never was I so offended' There is already a T to C inversion with 'was', where do we put the word 'Never'? And how should we label it? AdvP or Neg?
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1 answer
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In syntax trees, why aren't single-word phrases reduced to that word?

Why do phrases like "the car in Texas" break down into (NP (Det the) (N car) (PP (P in) (NP (N Texas)))) Why is the prepositional phrase "in Texas" constituted of the ...
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1 answer
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Handling enumerations in Generative syntax trees

How can we build syntax trees for sentences with enumerations? I have three sentences as examples: S1: John, Mary, Paul, Alice and Bob eat a cake. S2: I'm eating an apple, a pear, a cherry, a ...
4 votes
1 answer
1k views

How to treat adverbial phrases in X-bar theory

My question is about how to represent so-called adverbial phrases like "last night" or "all day". My confusion arises because there seems to be a consensus that these phrases are ...
6 votes
3 answers
3k views

What is the difference in a constituent and a phrase?

From Wikipedia: In syntactic analysis, a constituent is a word or a group of words that functions as a single unit within a hierarchical structure. A phrase is a sequence of one or more ...
2 votes
2 answers
571 views

Which nodes are meant by 'the specifier of a null active V' and 'this VP'?

Source: p 305. Syntax, A Generative Introduction (3 ed, 2012) by Andrew Carnie. To put some teeth to this claim then, we might propose that external arguments in actives are in fact generated in [1.] ...
3 votes
1 answer
279 views

Difference between primary and secundary predicates(/argument small clauses) and their (overt) 'heads', and transition/ambiguity between the two

What is the exact difference between primary and secundary predicates? From what I understood, primary predicates are verbal and have a predicate head (usually a copula - he was a mine worker). ...
5 votes
1 answer
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Why is "addressing" discontinuity/nonprojectivity important?

I was reading about dependency grammars on Wikipedia, and then, following up on the term "(non-)projectivity", was lead to the page about discontinuity. Now, the concept is quite easy to ...
1 vote
1 answer
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Meaning of superscript numbering in phrase structure trees

In some recent studies, I stumbled upon some seemingly conventional notation that I do not understand. In syntax structure trees, I often encounter superscript notations in various forms: $T^0$, $...
2 votes
0 answers
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How to determine structure of answer for a wh- question

Consider a wh-question (in english language) such as "Who closed the door?". Personally, I can determine that an answer will look like "NP closed the door.", where NP would be a ...

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