Questions tagged [syntax-trees]

Graphical representations of hierarchical analyses of grammatical relations. Requests to make syntax trees are off-topic.

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5 answers
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Why is dependency parsing so much faster than constituency parsing?

For example, Cer, Daniel M., et al. "Parsing to Stanford Dependencies: Trade-offs between Speed and Accuracy." LREC. 2010. : Why is dependency parsing so much faster than constituency parsing?
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4 answers
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What are the chief advantages & disadvantages of describing sentences with dependency vs. phrase structure trees?

What are the chief advantages & disadvantages of describing sentences with dependency vs. phrase structure (aka. constituency) trees? From what I've read, dependency grammar trees lack phrase ...
12 votes
0 answers
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Do "only if..." and "if... only then..." have the same LF representation?

I'm currently writing a term paper where I am comparing if... then..., only if..., and if... only then... statements. I've noticed that only if p q and if p, only then q have the same truth conditions ...
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10 votes
4 answers
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What is the difference between complements and adjuncts?

What is the difference between complements and adjuncts? I always have a problem drawing a tree diagram for the syntax structure of a sentence with placing complements with word level category and ...
9 votes
2 answers
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In what situation a constituency-based tree cannot be constructed from a dependency-based tree?

I am confused regarding the distinction dependency- vs. constituency-based tree: to me they look like they encompass the same information but presented differently. E.g. in the Wikipedia example the ...
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8 votes
2 answers
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Who is credited for the syntax tree in synthetic linguistics

I'd like to know who is the first person that introduced the tree of phrase structure in linguistics.
8 votes
1 answer
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Tree diagrams in CGEL

I have a question about this tree diagram in The Cambridge Grammar of The English Language (by Huddleston and Pullum): Please see the tree diagram in the red box of the nominal preposterous salary ...
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8 votes
3 answers
363 views

How often does an individual encounter a novel linguistic construction?

I've heard it said that most utterances we encounter on a day-to-day basis are novel. That is, the individual has never heard that exact sentence before in their life. My intuition is that the ...
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7 votes
2 answers
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Why are syntax trees binary trees?

In p.26 of An Introduction to Syntactic Analysis by Sportiche et al. (2013), the authors specify that syntax trees aren't allowed to have more than two children: We never find morphological trees in ...
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7 votes
1 answer
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Earley Parser: Ambiguity

I've got a pretty basic question concerning the Earley parser: In case of syntactic ambiguity ( S -> NP VP(V NP(NP PP)) vs. S -> NP VP(VP((V NP) PP) ), are both parses stored in one chart or in two? ...
7 votes
2 answers
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Basic syntax notation: noun phrase vs determiner phrase

I'm a first-semester student in linguistics and I need clarifications regarding the following trees: (1) and (2) My course notes seem to stick with the first kind of notation but when I read ...
7 votes
2 answers
810 views

Are there right-branching agglutinative languages?

The major agglutinative languages like Turkish and Japanese are also notable for being almost strictly left-branching, much more so than, say, English is right-branching. Is it a coincidence, or is ...
7 votes
1 answer
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Representing knowledge extracted from output of dependency parsing

I am working on a problem to represent knowledge extracted from a paragraph and rank it to produce abstractive summaries. I have implemented dependency parsing using Stanford NLP, which gives dot ...
6 votes
3 answers
2k views

What is the difference in a constituent and a phrase?

From Wikipedia: In syntactic analysis, a constituent is a word or a group of words that functions as a single unit within a hierarchical structure. A phrase is a sequence of one or more ...
6 votes
2 answers
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Infinitive verbs in syntax tree

I am just a little curious about the construction of syntactic trees when they involve infinitives in English. Basically, I want to know what role does the the "to" play? I don't think it is like a ...
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6 votes
1 answer
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V to T movement in German

Consider the the embedded clause "du Schach gespielt hast" in this sentence Ich glaube dass du Schach gespielt hast. I think that you chess played have ‘I think that you have ...
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5 votes
2 answers
1k views

How do contractions work in syntactic movement?

Specifically when the surface structure uncontracted would be ungrammatical. Eg: "Don't turtles live forever?" (Do turtles not live forever/*Do not turtles live forever). EDIT - Sorry if it's broad ...
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5 votes
4 answers
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Syntax trees for unaccusatives, unergatives and ergatives verbs (MP) within the split VP framework

The course I'm taking is based on Radford's Analysing English Sentences (2009). I'm having a lot of trouble analysing sentences within the split VP framework. There are very few examples in the book (...
5 votes
1 answer
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How do you draw a syntax tree for a sentence with a dummy subject?

I encounter difficulties when drawing a syntax tree for a sentence of expletive contruction. Should I mark the dummy subject "there" as a noun? Thx
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4 answers
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How widespread are Reed-Kellogg sentence diagrams?

A couple decades ago when I was in middle school in Colorado, I was briefly taught to diagram sentences using the Reed-Kellogg system. I have heard that the practice of teaching sentence diagramming ...
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5 votes
1 answer
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Why is "addressing" discontinuity/nonprojectivity important?

I was reading about dependency grammars on Wikipedia, and then, following up on the term "(non-)projectivity", was lead to the page about discontinuity. Now, the concept is quite easy to ...
5 votes
2 answers
919 views

X Bar Phrase Structure Question

I'm running into a bit of trouble constructing a tree for the following Lakota sentence: Wičháša ki hokšíla ki hená mathó wã wãyákapi ki slolyé man the boy the those bear a see ...
5 votes
1 answer
355 views

Difference between PRO and OP

What's the difference between PRO and OP? For example, on p. 142, the book "The Syntax of Chinese" presents the following tree (which is an analysis of indirect passives in Chinese): In this ...
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5 votes
1 answer
2k views

Immediate constituent analysis

Practicing immediate constituent analysis using a "toy" context-free phrase structure grammar of English is a great way to introduce undergraduate students to syntactic analysis. In the context of a ...
4 votes
3 answers
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Is triple branching necessary in making a syntax tree for 'the girl in the room waved to me'? [closed]

If 'the girl in the room' is my constituent, should I use triple branching under my first N'? The two options I am considering are below. Which would be correct?
4 votes
4 answers
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Syntax Trees examples

I just try syntax trees and realize that I have a few problems. I have a problem especially with two examples because I am very unsure how to handle the cases. In case 1, I do not know how to deal ...
4 votes
3 answers
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Analyzing negation with a syntactic tree [closed]

When I draw the syntactic tree of a sentence with "not", what kind of component would the "not" be? e.g. Jane did not go to school
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2 answers
777 views

How to search Penn TreeBank for arbitrary patterns?

What is a general way to parse the trees in the Penn TreeBank for arbitrary patterns, e.g. perhaps I want all trees which have a plural subject and whose sister VP has a modal verb daughter. ...
4 votes
2 answers
294 views

NP or DP for "that book"

When referring to phrases such as "that book", would it be considered a DP or a NP? I think it should be considered as a DP but I am not sure how to prove it using our given data. Some data ...
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4 votes
2 answers
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What software is used to make these X-bar trees?

I'm looking for software for illustrating tree diagrams am wondering whether anyone knows which was used to create the one in the post linked below. I have tried messaging the author, but had no ...
4 votes
2 answers
631 views

dependency or constituency treebank?

Most Treebank conversion which I found in the web are from constituency treebank to dependency treebank, I wonder why there is little works in the opposite direction? Does it mean that nowadays ...
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4 votes
2 answers
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Constituency-based parse trees and the word 'both' in noun phrases

I ran into a problem when doing a parse tree recently. It appears to be the word 'both' in the following sentence that is causing the trouble: It is evident for both you and the listener Obviously '...
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4 votes
1 answer
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What is the difference between vPs and v*Ps?

Why do I sometimes come across a label like v* instead of v in the literature? As I understood, it is the same thing.
4 votes
1 answer
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How do noun-noun compounds fit into a noun phrase in syntax?

I have a question regarding attributive nouns, or noun-noun compounds, and how they are integrated into syntactic rules for NP formation. Typically, the rule given in textbooks for forming a NP is the ...
4 votes
1 answer
258 views

What prevents verbs from taking more than a two or three complements/arguments?

So I'm writing a term paper for my introductory syntax class on Larson's and Jackendoff's theories of the structure of double object verbs. Jackendoff argues for a more linear, tertiary branching ...
4 votes
1 answer
216 views

When does do-support apply in wh-questions?

For reference, I'm working off of Carnie's Syntax (2002). In the book's framework, T → C movement is triggered by a [+Q] feature in C. In the case we have an auxiliary verb, it can raise to T and then ...
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1 answer
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Is "of the kitten" in "the paw of the kitten" a complement to the NP or an adjunct to the DP?

I'm drawing a tree for "the paw of the kitten" (from chapter 7 of Andrew Carnie's Syntax: A Generative Introduction). This chapter is "extending X-bar theory", so please keep that ...
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4 votes
2 answers
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What exactly is the SBAR label from the Penn TreeBank?

From this list of tags: SBAR - Clause introduced by a (possibly empty) subordinating conjunction. This site explains what a subordinating conjunction is. But how can you have an empty ...
4 votes
0 answers
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Stacking of prepositions in English?

The Cambridge Grammar Of The English Language recognises the existence of intransitive prepositions (p. 612): The case for allowing prepositions with no complements is most compelling where the same ...
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3 answers
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Are linking/copula verbs only followed by Adjectives and Nouns?

The diagram is from a lesson given by someone on YT. My question is with regard to the Adv phrases that follow the linking/copula verb. My understanding is that only predicate adjectives or predicate ...
3 votes
1 answer
686 views

How to treat adverbial phrases in X-bar theory

My question is about how to represent so-called adverbial phrases like "last night" or "all day". My confusion arises because there seems to be a consensus that these phrases are ...
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3 votes
5 answers
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How to Handle Conjunctions in Generative Syntax Tree without Abandoning Nontangling Condition

A few days ago, we had a conference on multidomination and I firstly saw an andP there. The solution was to simply abandon the conditions of well-formed phrase markers below: Single Mother Condition (...
3 votes
5 answers
172 views

Treebanks that contain both constituency and dependency parse trees

I am looking for treebanks that contain both constituency and dependency parse trees. Both should have been manually annotated (i.e. the dependency parse trees shouldn't have been obtained from the ...
3 votes
1 answer
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How does an AdvP attach in X-bar syntax?

I am studying Linguistics and for the life of me, I cannot seem to get my head around X bar theory. I have to figure out the X bar sytax tree of this sentence: "I love the cover of the book very ...
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1 answer
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How order of the syntax tree is formally/strictly proven?

An example from https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Concrete_syntax_tree : tree of "John hit the ball." . The tree branches are joined in this order: {John {hit {the ball}}}. Ie, "the" ...
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1 answer
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Difference between primary and secundary predicates(/argument small clauses) and their (overt) 'heads', and transition/ambiguity between the two

What is the exact difference between primary and secundary predicates? From what I understood, primary predicates are verbal and have a predicate head (usually a copula - he was a mine worker). ...
3 votes
1 answer
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Auxiliaries in generative grammar

In a course of introduction to Generative Grammar, my teacher told that auxiliary (Aux in the tree diagram) is the element that comes before the subject (NP) in an interrogative sentence. But I found ...
3 votes
1 answer
103 views

Is there a language whose syntactic structure accepts a specifier of a PP?

We know a preposition (in X-bar theory) is the head of a prepositional phrase and it has a complement that is the sister of this very preposition. However I've never seen a language with a constituent ...
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3 votes
2 answers
223 views

Compositional Semantics of relative clauses

How do relative pronouns (which, who, invisible which= WH) fit into a sentences compositionality? Given that relative clauses modify Noun Phrases, I'd expect them to be of type <et,<et>> ...
3 votes
1 answer
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How to analyze an NP with two determiners?

I have a phrase and I have to draw a tree structure of it. "These many awful photographs" is the phrase. The only thing that I don't get is the "many". "These" is DP, "awful" is the adjective, and "...

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