Questions tagged [syntax-trees]

Graphical representations of hierarchical analyses of grammatical relations. Requests to make syntax trees are off-topic.

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11
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2k views

Do “only if…” and “if… only then…” have the same LF representation?

I'm currently writing a term paper where I am comparing if... then..., only if..., and if... only then... statements. I've noticed that only if p q and if p, only then q have the same truth conditions ...
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1answer
337 views

Representing knowledge extracted from output of dependency parsing

I am working on a problem to represent knowledge extracted from a paragraph and rank it to produce abstractive summaries. I have implemented dependency parsing using Stanford NLP, which gives dot ...
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1answer
762 views

Phrase structure tree of a Wh question

The sentence would be "Whose dirty underwear is this?". I assume that the base (is that called deep structure sentence?) would be "This is whose dirty underwear" but I'm not sure what ...
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49 views

How should “at some time” be tagged in Universal Dependencies framework?

I want to tag a sentence Jones was unemployed at some time before he graduated. with UD tags. I'm not sure how to tag at some time. Stanford parser suggests the reading: case (time-6, at-4) det (...
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237 views

Particles and Words Affixing Heads and Phrases

In Malay, there are quite a few words and particles that can affix or modify both heads and phrases. The interrogative suffix -kah is one of them. -Kah affixing heads Tidak-kah sakit kecederaan ...
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1k views

The Syntax of 'Only'

The adverb 'only' is known to be able to come in a variety of positions. The following examples demonstrate that it may be generated in positions that aren't so simple to syntactically analyse. The ...
3
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0answers
175 views

Resource that gives examples of many different sentences described in tree diagrams

I've devoured the book "Beginning Syntax" by Linda Thomas, but there are areas it doesn't go into in enough depth (presumably to keep it simple). For example, modal auxiliary "ought to" - it doesn't ...
2
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1answer
47 views

How does one write out possessive pronouns under DP

Would for example "their" be divided into they and 's under the DP theory when writing out a tree?
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197 views

Tree diagrams in CGEL

I have a question about this tree diagram in The Cambridge Grammar of The English Language (by Huddleston and Pullum): Please see the tree diagram in the red box of the nominal preposterous salary ...
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0answers
98 views

Struggling With Split Projections In My X Bar Tree Diagram

I am trying to complete this linguistics question but I am a bit stuck. I'm not sure if I'm using the AgrNomO projections correctly. I have attached the tree diagram, and here is the question: Draw ...
2
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0answers
54 views

“Kim wants John to stop” — does a VP in this example contain another VP?

I'm trying to draw the syntax tree for the TP "Kim wants John to stop" (in the setting of Carnie's first three chapters). I guess it contains the NP "Kim" and the VP "wants John to stop". The VP ...
2
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0answers
248 views

English Syntax Tree: is the “to do X” a CP?

I have a sentence that says "He was required to work in the kitchen" (actually, another example, doesn't really matter, the question is in principle): what is the function of "to" here? Is it a ...
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65 views

How are clauses containing adverbial clauses and free modifiers represented in syntax trees?

I know that relative clauses simply go in the noun phrase containing the noun they modify, but what about adverbial clauses and free modifiers? How do you represent a clause containing an adverbial ...
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196 views

Drawing trees for DP's and Sentences

I'm reading Adger's book Core Syntax and am having trouble with one of the sentences in the last exercise in the Functional Categories chapter. The task is to draw and annotate the tree (bar level and ...
2
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0answers
110 views

How does one deal with sentences starting with a connective?

While drawing syntax trees for spoken language and not ideal languages, how does one handle conjunctions and other particles appearing initially in sentences like: And that is that. (After a long ...
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141 views

Prepositional phrases ‘fronting’ a sentence

Hi Everybody (please help), I’m having trouble deciphering how to diagram a sentence with the adjunctive prepositional phrase at the front of the sentence. As from ‘The boy found the cat in the ...
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144 views

Linear order preserving syntactic trees

Two questions: Is the syntactic tree notation supposed to be Linear order preserving in general Linear order preserving for English Generally linear order preserving for English None of the above ...
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120 views

How are head nodes of a tree determined?

Below is a tree-representation of an action sequencing hierarchy, taken from Fischmeister et al 2016 (Journal Cortex). Could anyone explain (the paper does not) by which rationale the different nodes ...
2
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0answers
559 views

X-bar: Put 'Where' in a Determiner Phrase or in an Adverb Phrase?

I'm currently working on an introductory guide to X-bar Theory for a group of students, and was wondering whether to classify a specific part as a Determiner Phrase or an Adverb Phrase. I have ...
2
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82 views

How is it possible for a single sentence to have both a raising to subject verb and an object control verb?

Basically what it says in the title. How would a sentence with both be parsed?
2
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2answers
429 views

Which nodes are meant by 'the specifier of a null active V' and 'this VP'?

Source: p 305. Syntax, A Generative Introduction (3 ed, 2012) by Andrew Carnie. To put some teeth to this claim then, we might propose that external arguments in actives are in fact generated in [1.] ...
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76 views

Correction of introductory IC analysis

I've attempted an IC analysis of the following sentences and was wondering if anyone with a bit more experience would be able to help with corrections or suggestions. Having discussed it thoroughly, ...
2
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0answers
885 views

X-bar analysis of Copular verbs?

Can someone help me with the analysis of copular or linking verbs in X-bar theory. What would be the position of subject in sentences like "Mary is beautiful". Is "Mary" the theme of adjectival ...
2
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0answers
133 views

Semi-automatic annotation tool like '@nnotate'

Is there an annotation tool for linguistic structure that compares to @nnotate? One of the major features of annotate is the annotation is semi-automatic, i.e., it uses a language model to make ...
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1answer
86 views

Difference between PRO and OP

What's the difference between PRO and OP? For example, on p. 142, the book "The Syntax of Chinese" presents the following tree (which is an analysis of indirect passives in Chinese): In this ...
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22 views

Why should we assign the head to a word as early as possible in shift-reduce dependency parsing?

This is about dependency parsing. The operation set of a shift-reduce parser was changed so that an arc is added as early as possible. It's claimed that "the longer a word has to wait to get assigned ...
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52 views

Why are “joking aside” and “six hours ago” Postpositional Clauses?

This webpage outlines the "four grammatical forms that can function as the adjunct adverbial". In the tree underneath, I agree that "aside and "ago" are postpositions, but please see the question in ...
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93 views

Why isn't “why you are angry” a Pronoun or Adverb Clause?

This webpage outlines the "four grammatical forms that can function as the adjunct adverbial". In the tree underneath, isn't "why" the Head? If it is, oughtn`t Adjective Clause be a Pronoun or ...
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45 views

Verbose tree diagram drawer for MP

Is there any tree diagram drawer software for English sentences which shows all features of nodes, all movements (and other things which happen like feature checking by c-command)?
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45 views

Do we assume Tense head for tenseless languages?

Do we assume a TP/IP projection for the syntax of a tenseless language?
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57 views

Understanding the property of complementhood

In the following sentence: They can both speak French. How can French be the complement of the V-bar speak French? I have the following definition of the complement: A constituent X is the ...
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63 views

Can SBAR be the first tag of a sentence?

I am new to parse trees, and if I understand correctly, SBAR indicates the beginning of a subordinate clause. From Penn Treebank II Tags: SBAR - Clause introduced by a (possibly empty) ...
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158 views

X-bar tree of the sentence “Why would she not have actually been giving him back the present yesterday?”

I'm having trouble with a particular x bar tree. We're mostly using Liliane Haegeman & Jacqueline Guéron's "English Grammar – A Generative Perspective" as our bible, with some adjustments, e.g. DP'...
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262 views

Average number of independent clauses in a compound sentence

I'm working on a NLP project, where we analyze large text samples (think a novel), and produce some metrics that help us answer interesting questions about the text. One of these metrics is average ...
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44 views

Researching extraposition in a syntactic treebank

I'm writing a paper on extraposition in English (and other right-branching discontinuities). I have found a lot of interesting theory on this but the instructions say that if possible concrete corpus ...
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0answers
347 views

How do PCFG parsers actually work?

I'm new to NLP. I have a few doubts about PCFG parser (NLTK). My understanding is that PCFG parser will return most probable parse tree. So if I'm parsing one sentence with PCFG parser, I'll be ...
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62 views

Is there a data set of elementary typical phrases translated in different languages?

To be more explicit, I think about a collection of "abstract" sentences which could be categorized in such a way that they would be easily identified in any language. For example, some typical phrases ...
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0answers
1k views

How to analyze this sentence in a tree diagram?

I tried to draw a tree diagram of this sentence In 1816 they were purchased by the British government and from then on displayed in the British Museum. but it leads nowhere. I think I'm fine ...
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1answer
146 views

Is a sentence, composed of mainclause and subclause, represented by one or two syntax-trees?

I read, that one sentence can have different syntax-trees what is considered a phrase is dependent on the grammar used there are a lot of grammars, basically divided into two groups: phrase-...
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33 views

How do I know if ECM happens in a foreign language?

I have learned about ECM and how it works within the English language, but I don't understand it thoroughly. How would we be able to decide whether a language has ECM?
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27 views

After movement, do theta roles stay the same after wh-movement and verb raising?

The example sentence is "Which purse has Lena bought?" which stems from the statement "Lena has bought which purse". Do the theta roles that bought assigns stay the same after the ...
0
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1answer
91 views

What is the position of 'that' in the relative clause of this sentence?

Researchers report they have engineered an enzyme that can convert 90% of that same plastic back to its pristine starting materials. Does that originate in spec TP and move to spec CP like in this ...
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0answers
52 views

What advantages might the Reed-Kellogg diagramming method provide over other diagramming methods?

What advantages might the Reed-Kellogg diagramming method provide over other diagramming methods, and is the R-K diagramming method English specific?
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43 views

Sentence with two PPs, without recursive embedding of either in the other

I'm having some difficulty with finding an example of an English sentence which includes two consecutive prepositional phrases without embedding. Would "We ran off into the sunset" qualify?
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170 views

Syntax tree for object control construction

I'm trying to figure out how to draw a syntax tree for this sentence: Sue reminded Mary to water the plants. I think this is object control, and should be analyzed this way: Sue [IP -ed [VP remind [...
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72 views

What is this method of drawing syntax trees?

I'm taking a course in generative grammar and I've reached a point where I don't know what's happening because I missed one class. Anyway, last time my tutor drew tree diagrams that I found a bit ...
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0answers
69 views

Parsing a sentence with the noun as the Predicator

Can the sentence "That professor is a syntactician," in which the DP "a syntactician" is the predicator, be parsed like a normal sentence, using x-bar theory, the Predicate Shell and the DP Hypothesis?...
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0answers
3k views

Multiple Adjectives in an X-Bar Tree

I'm having some trouble integrating phrases with multiple adjectives into x-bar trees. Based on what I can understand from the textbook, I would get something like this (apologies for the verb ...
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183 views

Hypotheses for floating quantifier's positions in generative grammar

Regarding the floating quantifiers' theory on external argument's movement. These data raises two different problems: a) The dogs ALL should have been petted. b) *The dogs should have been ALL ...
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Syntax trees drawing

I am having trouble drawing a syntax tree for a sentence and I would appreciate it if someone could help me. The sentences is : Every student in third grade should report to the principal's office in ...