Questions tagged [syntax-trees]

Graphical representations of hierarchical analyses of grammatical relations. Requests to make syntax trees are off-topic.

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18
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5answers
3k views

Why is dependency parsing so much faster than constituency parsing?

For example, Cer, Daniel M., et al. "Parsing to Stanford Dependencies: Trade-offs between Speed and Accuracy." LREC. 2010. : Why is dependency parsing so much faster than constituency parsing?
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4answers
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What are the chief advantages & disadvantages of describing sentences with dependency vs. phrase structure trees?

What are the chief advantages & disadvantages of describing sentences with dependency vs. phrase structure (aka. constituency) trees? From what I've read, dependency grammar trees lack phrase ...
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0answers
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Do “only if…” and “if… only then…” have the same LF representation?

I'm currently writing a term paper where I am comparing if... then..., only if..., and if... only then... statements. I've noticed that only if p q and if p, only then q have the same truth conditions ...
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4answers
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What is the difference between complements and adjuncts?

What is the difference between complements and adjuncts? I always have a problem drawing a tree diagram for the syntax structure of a sentence with placing complements with word level category and ...
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2answers
619 views

In what situation a constituency-based tree cannot be constructed from a dependency-based tree?

I am confused regarding the distinction dependency- vs. constituency-based tree: to me they look like they encompass the same information but presented differently. E.g. in the Wikipedia example the ...
8
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2answers
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Why are syntax trees binary trees?

In p.26 of An Introduction to Syntactic Analysis by Sportiche et al. (2013), the authors specify that syntax trees aren't allowed to have more than two children: We never find morphological trees in ...
8
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3answers
352 views

How often does an individual encounter a novel linguistic construction?

I've heard it said that most utterances we encounter on a day-to-day basis are novel. That is, the individual has never heard that exact sentence before in their life. My intuition is that the ...
7
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2answers
265 views

Who is credited for the syntax tree in synthetic linguistics

I'd like to know who is the first person that introduced the tree of phrase structure in linguistics.
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1answer
712 views

Earley Parser: Ambiguity

I've got a pretty basic question concerning the Earley parser: In case of syntactic ambiguity ( S -> NP VP(V NP(NP PP)) vs. S -> NP VP(VP((V NP) PP) ), are both parses stored in one chart or in two? ...
7
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2answers
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Basic syntax notation: noun phrase vs determiner phrase

I'm a first-semester student in linguistics and I need clarifications regarding the following trees: (1) and (2) My course notes seem to stick with the first kind of notation but when I read ...
7
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2answers
599 views

Are there right-branching agglutinative languages?

The major agglutinative languages like Turkish and Japanese are also notable for being almost strictly left-branching, much more so than, say, English is right-branching. Is it a coincidence, or is ...
7
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1answer
337 views

Representing knowledge extracted from output of dependency parsing

I am working on a problem to represent knowledge extracted from a paragraph and rank it to produce abstractive summaries. I have implemented dependency parsing using Stanford NLP, which gives dot ...
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2answers
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Infinitive verbs in syntax tree

I am just a little curious about the construction of syntactic trees when they involve infinitives in English. Basically, I want to know what role does the the "to" play? I don't think it is like a ...
6
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1answer
248 views

V to T movement in German

Consider the the embedded clause "du Schach gespielt hast" in this sentence Ich glaube dass du Schach gespielt hast. I think that you chess played have ‘I think that you have ...
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4answers
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Syntax trees for unaccusatives, unergatives and ergatives verbs (MP) within the split VP framework

The course I'm taking is based on Radford's Analysing English Sentences (2009). I'm having a lot of trouble analysing sentences within the split VP framework. There are very few examples in the book (...
5
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1answer
825 views

How do you draw a syntax tree for a sentence with a dummy subject?

I encounter difficulties when drawing a syntax tree for a sentence of expletive contruction. Should I mark the dummy subject "there" as a noun? Thx
5
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4answers
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How widespread are Reed-Kellogg sentence diagrams?

A couple decades ago when I was in middle school in Colorado, I was briefly taught to diagram sentences using the Reed-Kellogg system. I have heard that the practice of teaching sentence diagramming ...
5
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2answers
475 views

What is the difference in a constituent and a phrase?

From Wikipedia: In syntactic analysis, a constituent is a word or a group of words that functions as a single unit within a hierarchical structure. A phrase is a sequence of one or more ...
5
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2answers
718 views

X Bar Phrase Structure Question

I'm running into a bit of trouble constructing a tree for the following Lakota sentence: Wičháša ki hokšíla ki hená mathó wã wãyákapi ki slolyé man the boy the those bear a see ...
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1answer
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Immediate constituent analysis

Practicing immediate constituent analysis using a "toy" context-free phrase structure grammar of English is a great way to introduce undergraduate students to syntactic analysis. In the context of a ...
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2answers
760 views

How do contractions work in syntactic movement?

Specifically when the surface structure uncontracted would be ungrammatical. Eg: "Don't turtles live forever?" (Do turtles not live forever/*Do not turtles live forever). EDIT - Sorry if it's broad ...
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4answers
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Syntax Trees examples

I just try syntax trees and realize that I have a few problems. I have a problem especially with two examples because I am very unsure how to handle the cases. In case 1, I do not know how to deal ...
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2answers
683 views

How to search Penn TreeBank for arbitrary patterns?

What is a general way to parse the trees in the Penn TreeBank for arbitrary patterns, e.g. perhaps I want all trees which have a plural subject and whose sister VP has a modal verb daughter. ...
4
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2answers
94 views

NP or DP for “that book”

When referring to phrases such as "that book", would it be considered a DP or a NP? I think it should be considered as a DP but I am not sure how to prove it using our given data. Some data ...
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2answers
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What software is used to make these X-bar trees?

I'm looking for software for illustrating tree diagrams am wondering whether anyone knows which was used to create the one in the post linked below. I have tried messaging the author, but had no ...
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2answers
568 views

dependency or constituency treebank?

Most Treebank conversion which I found in the web are from constituency treebank to dependency treebank, I wonder why there is little works in the opposite direction? Does it mean that nowadays ...
4
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2answers
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Constituency-based parse trees and the word 'both' in noun phrases

I ran into a problem when doing a parse tree recently. It appears to be the word 'both' in the following sentence that is causing the trouble: It is evident for both you and the listener Obviously '...
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1answer
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How do noun-noun compounds fit into a noun phrase in syntax?

I have a question regarding attributive nouns, or noun-noun compounds, and how they are integrated into syntactic rules for NP formation. Typically, the rule given in textbooks for forming a NP is the ...
4
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1answer
217 views

What prevents verbs from taking more than a two or three complements/arguments?

So I'm writing a term paper for my introductory syntax class on Larson's and Jackendoff's theories of the structure of double object verbs. Jackendoff argues for a more linear, tertiary branching ...
4
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1answer
136 views

Is “of the kitten” in “the paw of the kitten” a complement to the NP or an adjunct to the DP?

I'm drawing a tree for "the paw of the kitten" (from chapter 7 of Andrew Carnie's Syntax: A Generative Introduction). This chapter is "extending X-bar theory", so please keep that ...
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1answer
222 views

What is the difference between vPs and v*Ps?

Why do I sometimes come across a label like v* instead of v in the literature? As I understood, it is the same thing.
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2answers
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What exactly is the SBAR label from the Penn TreeBank?

From this list of tags: SBAR - Clause introduced by a (possibly empty) subordinating conjunction. This site explains what a subordinating conjunction is. But how can you have an empty ...
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1answer
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Syntax: How can this tree be built?

I am working through "Contemporary Linguistics" on my own. It's been going pretty well, but I have a question about building syntax trees. I understand the tree here for "The dog might bite that man"...
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3answers
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Analyzing negation with a syntactic tree [closed]

When I draw the syntactic tree of a sentence with "not", what kind of component would the "not" be? e.g. Jane did not go to school
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5answers
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How to Handle Conjunctions in Generative Syntax Tree without Abandoning Nontangling Condition

A few days ago, we had a conference on multidomination and I firstly saw an andP there. The solution was to simply abandon the conditions of well-formed phrase markers below: Single Mother Condition (...
3
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5answers
153 views

Treebanks that contain both constituency and dependency parse trees

I am looking for treebanks that contain both constituency and dependency parse trees. Both should have been manually annotated (i.e. the dependency parse trees shouldn't have been obtained from the ...
3
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1answer
78 views

How order of the syntax tree is formally/strictly proven?

An example from https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Concrete_syntax_tree : tree of "John hit the ball." . The tree branches are joined in this order: {John {hit {the ball}}}. Ie, "the" ...
3
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1answer
161 views

Is there a grammar of syntax that takes into account inherent syntactic ambiguity in natural languages?

Natural languages necessarily have certain inherent ambiguity. If there were a natural language without inherent ambiguity, then one could have easily adopted such a natural language and used it as a ...
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2answers
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I am having troubles drawing a syntax tree for the sentence “networking helps you grow your business”. Can anyone help me? [closed]

I do not know if "helps" is a verb, an auxiliary verb, a tense, a complementizer phrase, or something else. Could someone attach a picture of the correct tree?
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2answers
81 views

Compositional Semantics of relative clauses

How do relative pronouns (which, who, invisible which= WH) fit into a sentences compositionality? Given that relative clauses modify Noun Phrases, I'd expect them to be of type <et,<et>> ...
3
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1answer
543 views

How to analyze an NP with two determiners?

I have a phrase and I have to draw a tree structure of it. "These many awful photographs" is the phrase. The only thing that I don't get is the "many". "These" is DP, "awful" is the adjective, and "...
3
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1answer
249 views

NPs as adverbials; how to parse them?

NPs can function as adverbials as in the following sentences: I ran a mile. I am 5 feet tall. One way to confirm this is by substituting the NPs with adverbs, e.g. "I ran fast" and "I am very tall". ...
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2answers
627 views

Deep structure tree VP help

I'm struggling to diagram the following sentence: The activist continued to protest. I understand the basic structure and what movement is taking place but I'm confused as to how to diagram the V ...
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2answers
278 views

Syntax presupposed by Heim and Kratzer

Heim and Kratzer's "Semantics in Generative Grammar", bases its semantics on some version of transformational syntax. However, it is remarkably inexplicit about formalising the syntax it presupposes ...
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0answers
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How to write a syntax tree for 'should have been'? [closed]

the sentence is "Will they decide if you should have been promoted?". The T' and AuxP are already taken up by 'have' and 'been, where does should go?
3
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1answer
762 views

Phrase structure tree of a Wh question

The sentence would be "Whose dirty underwear is this?". I assume that the base (is that called deep structure sentence?) would be "This is whose dirty underwear" but I'm not sure what ...
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0answers
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How should “at some time” be tagged in Universal Dependencies framework?

I want to tag a sentence Jones was unemployed at some time before he graduated. with UD tags. I'm not sure how to tag at some time. Stanford parser suggests the reading: case (time-6, at-4) det (...
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0answers
237 views

Particles and Words Affixing Heads and Phrases

In Malay, there are quite a few words and particles that can affix or modify both heads and phrases. The interrogative suffix -kah is one of them. -Kah affixing heads Tidak-kah sakit kecederaan ...
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0answers
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The Syntax of 'Only'

The adverb 'only' is known to be able to come in a variety of positions. The following examples demonstrate that it may be generated in positions that aren't so simple to syntactically analyse. The ...
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0answers
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Resource that gives examples of many different sentences described in tree diagrams

I've devoured the book "Beginning Syntax" by Linda Thomas, but there are areas it doesn't go into in enough depth (presumably to keep it simple). For example, modal auxiliary "ought to" - it doesn't ...