Questions tagged [syntax-trees]

Graphical representations of hierarchical analyses of grammatical relations. Requests to make syntax trees are off-topic.

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43 views

Syntactic Analysis of Spoken data,

I am conducting research on spoken data, to collect the data and analyze it syntactically like to see the null constitutes etc. The question is, what could be the suitable model or framework for it
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429 views

Which nodes are meant by 'the specifier of a null active V' and 'this VP'?

Source: p 305. Syntax, A Generative Introduction (3 ed, 2012) by Andrew Carnie. To put some teeth to this claim then, we might propose that external arguments in actives are in fact generated in [1.] ...
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3answers
10k views

Analyzing negation with a syntactic tree [closed]

When I draw the syntactic tree of a sentence with "not", what kind of component would the "not" be? e.g. Jane did not go to school
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101 views

How is there 'no node that c-commands B that A also c-commands'?

Source: p 130, Syntax, A Generative Introduction (3 ed, 2012) by Andrew Carnie In this tree, A governs B. It c-commands B, and [1.] there is no node that c-commands B that A also c-...
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50 views

Why are some Word Classes not Immediately Dominated by a Phrasal Category?

Source: pp 106-107, Syntax, A Generative Introduction (3 ed, 2012) by Andrew Carnie [6.] iv) English Phrase Structure Rules a) CP ⟶ (C) TP b) TP ⟶ {NP/CP} (T) VP c) VP ⟶ (AdvP+) V (NP) ({NP/...
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1answer
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Why must an AdvP have at least one AdvP as a Daughter Node?

Source: p 78, Syntax, A Generative Introduction (3 ed, 2012) by Andrew Carnie. Though I am only on Chapter 4 at the time of this post, I cannot wait until Chapter 6 to understand the following. Here ...
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95 views

Ambiguity tree: The doctor visited the patient drunk [closed]

I would like to ask if the trees regarding the two different readings of the sentence "The doctor visited the patient drunk" were drawn correctly. a) [VP [^NP The doctor] [V' [V visited] [NP [D the] [...
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2answers
696 views

Could anyone tell me if these syntax trees are correct? [closed]

I'm a beginner with linguistics and I'm wondering if some of the syntax trees I've made are correct. Also, how would one make trees for posessive noun phrases such as: Larry’s exciting trip to ...
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1answer
171 views

Ambiguity, PCFG grammar

I know that the sentence "time flies like an arrow" could have lots of meaning and there is an ambiguity but I draw a tree and I got confused that which meaning is more suitable for this tree. S→ NP ...
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1answer
130 views

Why not structurally distinguish a predicative complement from an object in a tree diagram?

In Dependency and/or Constituency Grammar, I think you get the same tree diagram for Sentence 1 comprising Subject - Verb - Object (I hit him.) and Sentence 2 comprising Subject - Verb - Predicative ...
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1answer
365 views

Complex Sentence

I am having difficulty figuring out how to draw a syntax tree for the sentence: "Bill reported that a student asked whether the eclipse would occur." Im confused on which word is the complementiser ...
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3answers
666 views

Drawing a phrasal constituent tree for a specific sentence

I'm trying to do some language analysis on the opening paragraph of The Kite Runner by Khaled Hosseini, specifically looking at phrasal constituents. The first sentence is as follows: "I became what ...
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2answers
1k views

Does this sentence analyzed correctly through Tree Diagram? [closed]

Hello,I used X-bar theory to analyze this sentence ( The big brown dog with fleas watched the birds beside the hunter) The subject of the sentence is NP of pre-modifier,head and post-modifier. I ...
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5answers
6k views

How to Handle Conjunctions in Generative Syntax Tree without Abandoning Nontangling Condition

A few days ago, we had a conference on multidomination and I firstly saw an andP there. The solution was to simply abandon the conditions of well-formed phrase markers below: Single Mother Condition (...
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1answer
161 views

Is there a grammar of syntax that takes into account inherent syntactic ambiguity in natural languages?

Natural languages necessarily have certain inherent ambiguity. If there were a natural language without inherent ambiguity, then one could have easily adopted such a natural language and used it as a ...
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1answer
258 views

Why is syntax called “grammar outside the word ” [closed]

In my book said that syntax is grammar outside the word but i don't understand why can you explain me
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1answer
557 views

I'm having trouble with my syntax tree and wanted some help for a project! [closed]

I have to include null complementizers if they exist as well as any mission NP covert subjects. This is my sentence: The woods, always a menace even in the past, had triumphed in the end. i've been ...
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1answer
360 views

Is the wh-expression “How” an adjunct of VP?

I'm really struggling with drawing a tree representing wh-movement in "How was the plot discovered by the authorities?" In the main VP, we have "by the authorities" as an adjunct, as well as "how," ...
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2answers
578 views

How to determine an immediate constituent of a sentence [closed]

I am studying Spanish and Portuguese at university, and I am having some trouble with part of a Spanish linguistics assignment. I would be very grateful if somebody could shed some light on how to ...
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0answers
237 views

Particles and Words Affixing Heads and Phrases

In Malay, there are quite a few words and particles that can affix or modify both heads and phrases. The interrogative suffix -kah is one of them. -Kah affixing heads Tidak-kah sakit kecederaan ...
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5answers
153 views

Treebanks that contain both constituency and dependency parse trees

I am looking for treebanks that contain both constituency and dependency parse trees. Both should have been manually annotated (i.e. the dependency parse trees shouldn't have been obtained from the ...
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0answers
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The Syntax of 'Only'

The adverb 'only' is known to be able to come in a variety of positions. The following examples demonstrate that it may be generated in positions that aren't so simple to syntactically analyse. The ...
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Correction of introductory IC analysis

I've attempted an IC analysis of the following sentences and was wondering if anyone with a bit more experience would be able to help with corrections or suggestions. Having discussed it thoroughly, ...
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1answer
248 views

syntax trees from sentences [closed]

I really do not understand how to create syntax trees. I am having a very hard time and I cannot figure out how to make trees for these three sentences. i) The cat with the long tail and the dog ...
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1answer
77 views

Finding a word tree translater for sentences that does all the work for me

I am not an expert in linguistics. I want to know if there is a site or a program that will allow me to put in complex sentences of novels that I read , then answer with a word tree labeling the ...
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262 views

Average number of independent clauses in a compound sentence

I'm working on a NLP project, where we analyze large text samples (think a novel), and produce some metrics that help us answer interesting questions about the text. One of these metrics is average ...
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2answers
278 views

Syntax presupposed by Heim and Kratzer

Heim and Kratzer's "Semantics in Generative Grammar", bases its semantics on some version of transformational syntax. However, it is remarkably inexplicit about formalising the syntax it presupposes ...
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122 views

Syntactic Tree help [closed]

Draw the syntactic tree for the deputy’s recent discovery of incriminating evidence; for full credit, you must put all specifiers, all complements, and all adjuncts in triangles & Draw the s-...
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1answer
127 views

handling ambiguity in parses

Given a sentence from http://home.uchicago.edu/~bartels/papers/Bartels-Johnson-2015-Cognition.pdf: We describe what can be gained from connecting cognition and consumer choice by discussing two ...
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1answer
88 views

Why do you wonder who was dismissed? (Complementizer position)

(sorry about my english, I'm not a native speaker) I'm studying syntactic trees and I'm having huge difficulties understanding the tree of the following sentence: "why do you wonder who was dismissed?"...
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1answer
217 views

What prevents verbs from taking more than a two or three complements/arguments?

So I'm writing a term paper for my introductory syntax class on Larson's and Jackendoff's theories of the structure of double object verbs. Jackendoff argues for a more linear, tertiary branching ...
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2answers
627 views

Dependency tree with “seem”

Could someone please tell me what's the dep. tree of "John seemed to fall asleep"? The problem is I don't know if "John" depends on "seem" or "fall".
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Researching extraposition in a syntactic treebank

I'm writing a paper on extraposition in English (and other right-branching discontinuities). I have found a lot of interesting theory on this but the instructions say that if possible concrete corpus ...
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1answer
342 views

Syntax trees and comparatives? Maybe adjuncts?

Okay I'm trying to make a tree and I keep getting stuck and I'm not quite sure where. The structure I'm stuck on is something like "think of the boy as my son" or "think of the president as America's ...
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347 views

How do PCFG parsers actually work?

I'm new to NLP. I have a few doubts about PCFG parser (NLTK). My understanding is that PCFG parser will return most probable parse tree. So if I'm parsing one sentence with PCFG parser, I'll be ...
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2answers
8k views

Infinitive verbs in syntax tree

I am just a little curious about the construction of syntactic trees when they involve infinitives in English. Basically, I want to know what role does the the "to" play? I don't think it is like a ...
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2answers
5k views

How do I deal with an infinitive verb in a syntax tree?

The sentence in question is "Chomsky innocently asked Baker to comment on the changes to the theory during the lecture." I'm unsure of how to handle the "to" in "to comment." I asked my TA and she ...
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1answer
618 views

Sentences using the X bar theory [closed]

I am studying linguistics and currently have Syntax and am trying to understand the X bar theory. Could someone please draw a tree of the sentence down below for me so I could get a better ...
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0answers
158 views

Wh embedded question ambiguous trees [closed]

I am having problems drawing the trees for the following sentence. I'm interested in both the pre and post movement trees for this ambiguous sentence: Lisa wondered when Bart said she saw Nelson. If ...
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4answers
42k views

What is the difference between complements and adjuncts?

What is the difference between complements and adjuncts? I always have a problem drawing a tree diagram for the syntax structure of a sentence with placing complements with word level category and ...
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1answer
48k views

Drawing tree diagrams of ambiguous sentences generated by a CFG

Suppose I have the following CFG rules: S -> NP VP NP -> (D) NOM VP -> V (NP) (NP) NOM -> N NOM -> NOM PP VP -> VP PP PP -> P NP X -> X+ CONJ X How should I draw the tree ...
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Resource that gives examples of many different sentences described in tree diagrams

I've devoured the book "Beginning Syntax" by Linda Thomas, but there are areas it doesn't go into in enough depth (presumably to keep it simple). For example, modal auxiliary "ought to" - it doesn't ...
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0answers
795 views

tree diagrams of a question [closed]

I am having trouble drawing a syntax tree for 3 sentences and I would appreciate it if someone could help me. The sentences are: When did the man find the job?
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1answer
146 views

Is a sentence, composed of mainclause and subclause, represented by one or two syntax-trees?

I read, that one sentence can have different syntax-trees what is considered a phrase is dependent on the grammar used there are a lot of grammars, basically divided into two groups: phrase-...
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885 views

X-bar analysis of Copular verbs?

Can someone help me with the analysis of copular or linking verbs in X-bar theory. What would be the position of subject in sentences like "Mary is beautiful". Is "Mary" the theme of adjectival ...
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1answer
712 views

Earley Parser: Ambiguity

I've got a pretty basic question concerning the Earley parser: In case of syntactic ambiguity ( S -> NP VP(V NP(NP PP)) vs. S -> NP VP(VP((V NP) PP) ), are both parses stored in one chart or in two? ...
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1answer
260 views

Are imperative verbs starting a command subordinating conjunctions?

I have come across a syntax tree with a subordinate clause phrase (as opposed to just a sentence) whose left daughter is a verb in the imperative, e.g. Wash your laundry tonight. I have read this ...
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2answers
3k views

What exactly is the SBAR label from the Penn TreeBank?

From this list of tags: SBAR - Clause introduced by a (possibly empty) subordinating conjunction. This site explains what a subordinating conjunction is. But how can you have an empty ...
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2answers
683 views

How to search Penn TreeBank for arbitrary patterns?

What is a general way to parse the trees in the Penn TreeBank for arbitrary patterns, e.g. perhaps I want all trees which have a plural subject and whose sister VP has a modal verb daughter. ...
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2answers
638 views

Do all languages share the same set of parts of sentence? [closed]

I know, that there is a relation between part of sentence and part of speech, namely elements from parts of speech can be combined following certain rules in order to be used as a part of sentence ...