Questions tagged [syntax]

The study of the internal structure of expressions, especially between words and phrases, and the principles and processes that determine it. This includes words order, but also the grammatical relations that hold between words, as well as structural ambiguity, binding, reference, and similar issues. Common approaches are numerous phrase structure grammars (GPSG, HPSG, LFG, G&B, X-bar, Minimalism, ...) and, on the other hand, dependency grammars.

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102 views

What exactly is a “garden path” sentence?

Is there a term for this type of ambiguous sentence? I think it's called a "Garden Path sentence"? Coastal Bank breached its loan commitment to the owner and the contractor threatened to ...
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Verb-ing after this phrase or clause “this is my first time”

Is the verb with '-ing' in the phrase or clause "this is my first time eating this" a gerund or a present participle verb? I think now I see that "this" probably is or means "...
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Morpheme breakdown of the word 'classification'

For the word classification, would it break down to 'class-ify-ation' or 'class-ify-ic-ation'. I am confused between the two because for the second one, classific isn't a word.
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Which (of the Germanic) languages support resultative constructions?

my question regards resultative constructions. Which of the Germanic languages supports resultative constructions? It would be awesome if you could suggest any literature regarding any language. ...
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43 views

Adjunct vs complement with intransitive verb

Tony came from outside the traditional media Am I right in thinking because came is intransitive that "outside the traditional media" is an adjunct rather than a subject complement?
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107 views

What is the difference between surface structure and logical form?

I'm still confused about the difference between these two concepts. Could you explain it with some examples? Thank you in advance!:)
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63 views

How is the 什么…都 (shénme … dou) construction in Standard Chinese usually analyzed?

Disclaimer: I am assuming that the example sentences listed here have been vetted by a native speaker, but since I'm not totally sure of this, I'll use a leading @ sign to show my uncertainty. If I am ...
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1answer
49 views

What is Hierarchy of Projections?

I know that Hierarchy of Projections for VP is T > (Neg) > (M) > (Perf) > (Prog) > v > V, but what does this mean? Does it mean in a tree "T is always higher than Neg, and Neg ...
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How do I know if ECM happens in a foreign language?

I have learned about ECM and how it works within the English language, but I don't understand it thoroughly. How would we be able to decide whether a language has ECM?
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Is it possible to produce a list of syntactic rules for a language?

I recently started a new job as an applied linguist engineer and one of the first tasks I was ask to do was to provide a list of syntactic rules that can produce French sentences (for an ...
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139 views

Is “Since + clause” a noun clause or adverbial clause in this phrase?

I wanted to know if "since + clause" was an adverbial clause or noun clause in the phrase or after the phrase "it's been a while since I've seen you.". I was thinking “it's been … ...
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1answer
70 views

What do the numbers 206.835, 1.015, 84.6, 0.39, 11.8, 15.59 mean in the Flesch reading ease and Flesch-Kincaid grade level formulas?

I am looking to understand what do these numbers mean in the formulas, and how do they affect results, and why they were specifically chosen. Here are the formulas: Flesh reading Ease = 206.835 - 1....
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Help with syntax analysis

Good day to everyone! Could somebody explain me why in the following sentence "that he was disappointed" is S (subject)? (It)-S (must be confessed)-V (that he was disappointed)-S.
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76 views

VSO languages and generative grammar

I'm wondering how generative grammar handles VSO languages It seems to me that the subject splits up the verb phrase, and so you're going to have to have some sort of movement going on and a different ...
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realation with Clause, parts of speech and Syntax

first, I would like to say sorry for my English. I have been learning English for a year and I’m not still good at it. I think you will have trouble for understanding my words. I’ve been learning ...
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Is there evidence of a disposition for certain races to learn certain languages? [closed]

For example would those of Chinese descent have a disposition to learn Chinese? Chinese is a quite different language being logographic then say English which is alphabetic. Another example would be ...
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Does the stem of a word carry the sense information of its inflections?

From what I understand the lexeme or lemma of a word carries the sense information of the word, and hence for an inflected form like tablets, it can have a different lemma, each one for each sense of ...
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130 views

How does syntax of our language affect our thoughts?

Our language affects the way we perceive the world. I know it is not only because the words that don’t exist in one of the languages may exist in the other ones, but also because of the grammar. We ...
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Across languages, what, if any, syntactic or semantic differences distinguish compound verbs from serial verb constructions?

Across languages, what semantic or syntactic differences distinguish serial verb constructions from compound verbs? Let's disregard phonological differences for the purposes of this question. Let's ...
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76 views

“The more the merrier”

What is the linguistic status of utterances like "The more, the merrier"? In English it would not be considered a sentence because there is no verb. Yet, it fully stands on its own ...
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114 views

What would count as a counterexample to the Final-Over-Final Constraint?

I'm interested in what the constraints are on head-directionality and, in particular, which combinations of features are disfavored, unstable, or thought to be impossible. I came across the final-over-...
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Why do even completely illiterate persons, who speak their national language poorly, speak their local dialect with perfection?

Disclaimers: I have no linguistic knowledge whatsoever, I'm just fascinated by these subjects. Also, I will use the word "dialect" due to my lack of a better word, although I see that the ...
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46 views

How can you distinguish between “topic,” “focalized,” or just vanilla subjects?

How do you differentiate phrases which are topics, focalized, or just plain subjects? What tests can you use? I am looking at the data below-- the capitalized Hawaiian phrases have been claimed to be ...
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How to draw the tree diagram for this sentence? [closed]

Here is the sentence "That toy, I think they gave to the dog". Should "gave to the dog" be considered as VP and "to the dog" as PP?
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88 views

Substantivized Adjectives and the NP vs. DP Debate

At least since the 80s linguists have debated whether simple phrases like the cake are NPs with determiners in the specifier position or DPs with NP complements. Substantivized adjectives seem to me ...
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Are there single-word and generally accepted terms for the referents of the arguments in comparative clauses?

AFAIK, in any statement comparing two entities, there are typically at least three terms: NPa stands for the thing compared VG stands for nature of comparison NPb stands for the thing that the ...
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128 views

Is there any case in English where a noun phrase is not the subject of a sentence, or a complement of a verb, or the object of a preposition?

It's a simple question but limited to how noun phrases function in English sentences. Time phrases like last week, are an example of noun phrases functioning adverbially but they are still verb ...
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1answer
91 views

How can one best formalize dependency structures in terms of rules?

I am looking for guidance in forming mathematically-inspired rules for dependency syntax. I know about the rewrite rules for dependency structures produced by Hays (1964), but I am wondering whether ...
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70 views

What is shallow semantic processing?

What exactly is "shallow semantic processing", and how is it related to syntactic analysis? Is it correct to say that syntactic processing of a text is the preliminary step for shallow semantic ...
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1answer
91 views

How do movement-based theories account for extraposition?

I'm looking at this example of Extraposition from Wikipedia: Then under Theoretical Accounts (of discontinuity in general) it is written that "[m]odern theories of transformational grammar ... assume ...
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1answer
397 views

Are individual words really constituents?

The constituent unit is defined in Wikipedia as a word or a group of words that functions as a single unit within a hierarchical structure. When phrase structure trees are produced, each node in the ...
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55 views

Is syntactic understanding of a text actually the most elementary form of semantical understanding of the text?

I am not a Linguist, but I am curious about the question below: Is there a linguistic theory that points out that syntactic understanding of a text constitutes the lowest level of semantical ...
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1answer
50 views

removing modifiers but still keep the meaning of sentence

I have been running through some examples of DG and from those, I have realized that we can safely remove modifiers from a sentence and still preserve the meaning of the sentence. For Example, ...
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92 views

Languages with interesting uses of catenative verbs, e.g. “Watch Joe perform”?

Short version: For verbs which subordinate verbs such as "Watch Joe perform," can we think of languages which put them together different than the folllowing? Watch Joe to perform [single nonfinite ...
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45 views

Can first order logic represent a past occurring adverbial dependent clause with a present main clause to form the perfect tense?

Can first order logic represent a past occurring adverbial dependent clause with a present main clause to form the perfect tense? Is this the way to represent an adverbial dependent clause with first ...
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1answer
32 views

Can the conceptual metaphor be approached syntactically?

I am really interested in studying how syntax is connected to cognition. I would like to see if the conceptual nature of metaphor can also be approached syntactically. But I don't know where to start. ...
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1answer
53 views

Are there any studies on marked adjective order in the NP in head initial languages like Spanish or Albanian?

For example, Spanish unmarked NP order is Noun-Adjective ("libro rojo", "casa grande"). However, there are many situations where the order is reversed ("un rojo atardecer", "es un buen libro", "tienes ...
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1answer
366 views

Difference between intonation and tonality?

I have used them interchangeably, but I think that might be wrong. So, is this understanding of the distinction correct? Tonality is pitch affecting semantics (like the Chinese langauge), and ...
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0answers
80 views

What are the differences between Radford's various introductory texts to Generative Syntax?

In looking for a good introductory textbook on Generative Syntax, I came across this StackExchange comment, which mentions, among others, Radford's "Transformational Grammar, A First Course". I ...
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2answers
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Allowed surface locations of [+wh] phrases apparently depend on semantics—if so, how and why?

Consider Harvey's machine can resemble a human completely or not at all. 1a) ... The extent to which it resembles a human is determined by its software. 1b) ... To which extent it resembles a human ...
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“It” referring to [+wh] phrases and the syntax of “as to”

Consider 1a) It's up to you whether you actually leave. 2a) It's up to you which path you take. 3a) *? It's up to you for whom the bell tolls. 4a) * It's up to you the path you ...
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What is the semantic term for the things that the single arguments of reflexive and reciprocal verbs stand for?

In my native English, the first argument in "Mary feeds her pigs" stands for an agent, and the second stands for a patient. But what about the arguments in reflexive and reciprocal clauses in single-...
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A-positions where no structural Case is available?

I am a little puzzled. Is there any such thing as an A-position where no structural Case is available? The arguments are either a nominative or an accusative (structural Cases) aren't they? [...] ...
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What do features ±F and ±N mean?

Could anybody please help me understand what the [±F] and [±N] features mean? What do they stand for, I have no idea .... (The article elucidates in terms of GB theory) Given these observations, ...
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Two questions about Icelandic (syntax)

The following sentence is from Icelandic language: Mér vir›ast tNP [hestarnir vera seinir] meDAT seemPL the-horsesNOM be slow ‘It seems to me that the horses are slow.' ...
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1answer
93 views

Diagnostics for probes in phase theory (advanced syntax)

This issue has confused me for years, and I still at this level unable to find an accurate account or even an empirical logic with which I can grasp it. The conceptual logic of this matter, however, ...
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2answers
638 views

A question about C-command

Does "John" c-command "himself" in this sentence? "Mary talked to John about himself."
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50 views

A question about Binding Theory

In Binding Theory, Principle B says a pronoun must be free in its binding domain. But I wonder if there are any other constraints? For example, "He says her is great". In this way, "her" is free in ...
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1answer
94 views

Is there a term for how English replaces the preposition “of” by putting the word that comes after “of” before the word that comes before “of”?

EG, Apple Juice --> (The) Juice of Apple(s) Gold Castle --> (The) Castle of Gold Liver Disease --> Disease of (the) Liver Et Al.
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What is the position of the subject in a Greek sentence, whose word order is VSO?

The following is a Greek sentence Σε ποιόν φίλο νομίζεις ότι μιλάει ο άντρας; To which friend think.2SG that speak.3SG the man Its counterpart in ...

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