Questions tagged [syntax]

The study of the internal structure of expressions, especially between words and phrases, and the principles and processes that determine it. This includes words order, but also the grammatical relations that hold between words, as well as structural ambiguity, binding, reference, and similar issues. Common approaches are numerous phrase structure grammars (GPSG, HPSG, LFG, G&B, X-bar, Minimalism, ...) and, on the other hand, dependency grammars.

Filter by
Sorted by
Tagged with
0
votes
3answers
98 views

Is type theory compatible with n-ary branching?

The question by curiousdannii and the extensive answer by lemontree here address the basic workings, advantages, and disadvantages of type theory. I have a related question in this area. As I ...
1
vote
2answers
148 views

Derivation of Passive according to Principles and Parameters (Jaeggli)

I've been trying to wrap my head around this for hours, but I am simply stuck. Could somebody please kindly explain this passage? I am struggling in particular with the part in bold. The text is from ...
2
votes
0answers
87 views

Is this a matter of syntax or diction?

While in Louisiana, I was asked the following question by a Louisiana native who wanted to know my name: "What you call yourself?" I know this is from the French "Comment tu t'appeles?", literally, "...
2
votes
1answer
83 views

Sentence ambiguitiy

The sentence “Why did everyone’s father think that Tom said that you were fired?” is supposedly ambiguous in three different ways. However, I can’t seem to get any ambiguous reading from it. I have ...
1
vote
2answers
652 views

What is non-headed phrase?

I know most of the phrases in English are headed phrases, like noun is the head of NP. But what is non-headed phrase?
0
votes
0answers
34 views

Is "in favour of John" a resultative here?

In the sentence, "The judge settled the dispute in favour of John", is "in favour of John" a resultative? I am being asked to explain what this string shows about the verb "settle". Thanks!
0
votes
1answer
72 views

What is case for pronouns in different positions? [closed]

Can we say "the case of subject in a sentence is nominative, the direct object of a verb is accusative, the second object of a ditransitive verb is accusative, the objective of a preposition is ...
2
votes
2answers
168 views

Why must 'that' be omitted whenever constituents are questioned?

Linguistics: An Introduction to Language and Communication (2017 7 ed). p. 196 Middle. Why does [that]complementizer hinder questioning of constituents (in 80b), when [that]complementizer can be ...
1
vote
1answer
82 views

Why only 1 complement is possible?

Source: p 178, 179. Syntax, A Generative Introduction (3 ed, 2012) by Andrew Carnie [p 178:] 81) Adjunct rule: X' ⟶ X' (ZP) 82) Complement rule: X' ⟶ X (WP) [p 179:] What this means for ...
3
votes
2answers
77 views

a question about reflexives and nonreflexives

Why "the house(i) had a fence around itself(i)" is ungrammatical but "Susan(i) wrapped the blanket around herself(i)" is grammatical?
0
votes
1answer
47 views

What's the difference between coindexing and coreferential? [closed]

Here is a sentence. I(i) enjoy yourself(i). Can we say "I" and "yourself" are coindexed but not coreferential?
2
votes
0answers
98 views

Binding Puzzle in English Generative Syntax!

Consider the following sentences: (1) Anna believes [ IP herself to be a hero] ] (2) Anna wants [ IP him to leave] ] (3) *Anna wants [ IP herself to leave ] ] (1) is an example of Exceptional Case ...
1
vote
1answer
67 views

Why do adverbials of place come before adverbials of time? [closed]

He comes to class at 9 AM. In the above sentence to class, the adverbial of place comes before at 9 AM, the adverbial of time. Why is the below sentence wrong? **He comes at 9 AM to class."
1
vote
2answers
92 views

Constraints on quantification in syntactic structures

Quantifiers have the ability to be stranded wherever the landing sites of its adjoined DPs are, as shown in (1). (1) a. All the stackexchange posts might be deleted. b. The stackexchange posts might ...
3
votes
0answers
40 views

vocabulary and notation for syntactic changes

As a layman I have picked up the terminology and notation for changes in phonology. But I know very little about diachronic changes in syntax other than that they happen: things like shift from SOV ...
0
votes
0answers
54 views

How can we say modals are of category T, but auxiliaries are really verbs? [duplicate]

Are there any arguments or theories to account for it?
2
votes
2answers
748 views

What is the relation between a specifier and a determiner?

Does specifier mean "the" and "possesser" and determiner mean "the" and "possessive 's"?
2
votes
1answer
216 views

Critics and arguments against the generative syntax theories?

The Generative approach on syntax is very elegant, useful and very complete as far as I can see. I think that, as all theories have, there must have some critics on it. But I don't know where to find ...
0
votes
1answer
44 views

What is the syntactic status of subordinate clauses such as "what can be..."?

I am not clear about the syntactic analysis of the what-clauses in bold in the following b-sentences: (1a) These words are weak determiners. (1b) These words are what can be called weak determiners. ...
0
votes
1answer
94 views

grammar of the 'in the following'

Consider we have the sentence My bird likes sunflower seeds. She eats a lot of seeds everyday. Using pronoun resolution we can replace she with the actual subject 'My birds'; converting 'She eats a ...
0
votes
2answers
2k views

What is the difference between generative grammar and transformation grammar?

If we put it in a simple way, can we say generative grammar is about tree diagram, and transformation grammar is how sentences can be interpreted in another way?
2
votes
2answers
220 views

What is the distribution of pronominal "one"?

(Based on the comments this question has received, more is needed to avoid confusion. The original question remains as stated below the line below. What is added here now is a more complete rendition ...
0
votes
0answers
50 views

Why is "woman" in "the woman teacher" an adjunct while "literature" in "the literature teacher" a complement?

Is it because we cannot say "teacher of woman" but we can say "teacher of literature"?
0
votes
1answer
67 views

How to provide evidence that my hypothesis is correct (the same structure but the constituents are different), syntactic structures, constituency

How can I provide evidence supporting the hypothesis, that is, prove by means of constituency tests that my hypothesis is correct? The sentences: (1) Jeff lost the watch with the big numbers (2) Jeff ...
2
votes
2answers
105 views

Raised object vs. Subordinate subject (I didn't want 'Kim' mistreating my cat)

(1) I didn't want Kim mistreating my cat. (2) I didn't want Kim to mistreat my cat. Semantically, Kim is not the object of want but the subject of the respective subordinate clauses mistreating my ...
2
votes
1answer
66 views

The Meaning <=> Text Theory (MTT)

I have recently read about "The Meaning <=> Text Theory" approach to syntax and would like to know more about it. Specifically, What are the main differences between this theory and the phrase ...
2
votes
0answers
82 views

Does anyone know the history of the infinitive?

I teach grammar, and I think it is no mystery to anyone that infinitives are strange. I think it might help me to know the history of this verb-cum-noun-adjectiv
1
vote
0answers
43 views

position of t[i] — * What[j] did Ann wonder who[i] would eat t[i] t[j]?

(infelicitous) Whatj did Ann wonder whoi would eat ti tj ? (source: Key Terms in Syntax and Syntactic Theory) The above sentence appears in a section discussing island constraint. I know this ...
6
votes
3answers
1k views

What is the difference in a constituent and a phrase?

From Wikipedia: In syntactic analysis, a constituent is a word or a group of words that functions as a single unit within a hierarchical structure. A phrase is a sequence of one or more ...
0
votes
1answer
60 views

What is the difference between evidential, epistemic, and evaluative fragments?

Following a discussion about introductory expressions like “It is not the case that…” [1], I was found out that these expressions fall into the category of evidential/epistemic/evaluative fragments ...
0
votes
3answers
76 views

What is the name of introductory expressions like "It is not the case that..."

I'm trying to find out what is the grammatical category that corresponds to such expressions that use to introduce clauses, such as: It is not the case that... It is very possible that... It is ...
2
votes
1answer
189 views

Modern theories of Russian syntax

Western linguistics seems to be dominated by the Chomskian transformational generative grammar and its offshoots. My attempts to familiarize myself with these theories however always leave me under ...
3
votes
1answer
110 views

Is the emergence of a new quotative a syntactic innovation?

I am not sure on what level the emergence of a new quotative is classified. Is it syntax? My question concerns a variety of English. There are several quotatives commonly used in English, such as „...
1
vote
1answer
96 views

Xp-pro-v word order in middle english

I am a bit confused with the xp-pro-v word order in middle English and was hoping, that someone could help me. Can someone explain, what exactly the term "xp-pro-v" means? I do understand, that it is ...
0
votes
0answers
59 views

Questions about complementizers (at least, I think they're complementizers...)

I would like to know – there is a grammatical term for the function of the dash in this sentence, is that right? English doesn’t have a word like that or whether that can replace the dash in that ...
0
votes
0answers
100 views

Two meanings of "Someone believes everyone to be invited"

Carnie claims in his syntax book that the sentence Someone believes everyone to be invited has two meanings. I can see only one (when the existential quantifier has scope over universal one: when ...
1
vote
1answer
51 views

If our requirement says that the only thing that isn’t a phrase in an NP is the N itself, why a problem?

Andrew Carnie. Syntax A Generative Introduction (3 ed, 2012). p 209. Pls see red underline. I don't see what is problem?
2
votes
2answers
155 views

All non-head material must be phrasal. — Why's this principle nice idea from a mathematical point of view?

Andrew Carnie. Syntax A Generative Introduction (3 ed, 2012). p 208. Pls see red underline. I never took math after high school! I don't know calculus. What author mean by "nice idea from a ...
3
votes
1answer
139 views

If the that-trace effect is not learnable and thus must be biologically built in, how can speakers of French or Irish violate it?

Andrew Carnie. Syntax, A Generative Introduction (3 ed, 2012). p 25. Consider the fourth sentence in the paradigm in (28). This sentence is the same as (28c) but with a that: d) *Who do you ...
2
votes
2answers
316 views

When an existential verb is used existentially as the predicate to a subject, is it true in all languages that it cannot take another predicate?

When an existential is used existentially verb as the predicate to a subject, is it true in all languages that it cannot take another predicate? In other words, when the existential to-be verb means '...
1
vote
1answer
111 views

What are the thematic structures of a clause?

While going through Rodny huddleston's An outline of English Grammar; I came across a concept named :Thematic structures of a clause. Its been more than a year when I first read it but have failed to ...
1
vote
1answer
93 views

Trying to add labels/descriptions and boxes to syntax tree in LaTeX [closed]

I'm trying to add descriptions to certain nodes in a Syntax tree. I'm using qtree, but I can't seem to find a way to do this. I'm also trying to box some, but not all of the nodes in the tree. Here's ...
1
vote
1answer
85 views

"Attempts to remove foreign adversaries through highly dubious legal or ethical means"

Is there a linguistic term for what is going on here? I read this phrase in a newspaper and it struck me as ungrammatical but at the same time I can see the logic. It seems from the comments that my ...
3
votes
2answers
161 views

Case in English phrase "friend of mine"

In English phrases like Jesse is a friend of mine/*of me the case of the word "mine" is not the oblique ("me") which usually occurs with prepositions ("That's a part of me that you don't see too ...
1
vote
2answers
92 views

Does the relative clause (which suggests...) here function as an adjunct of the whole clause in front of it?

The high notes returned to his compositions towards the end of his life, which suggests he was hearing the works that were taking shape in his imagination. I'm not sure how to write up the syntax ...
0
votes
1answer
106 views

How do we parse the sentence, "I have never seen a fish get cooked like that"?

I'm a bit stumped because I see so many things going on here. The first gloss is pretty straight forward: I have never seen a fish get cooked like that. S|V|OC(clause) But I'm really more interested ...
0
votes
1answer
194 views

Does Japanese have V-T movement?

I am doing a research assignment on Japanese Syntax and I cannot seem to find any information regarding whether or not the Japanese language has V-T movement. Can anyone help with this?
2
votes
2answers
803 views

How important is syntax to translation?

I'm interested in becoming a translator in the future. I heard someone said syntax is essential if you want to be a good translator. If that is the case, what theory is best suited for applying to ...
0
votes
0answers
65 views

Is "be set to" a subject-to-subject raising predicate?

Consider the sentence "Conservative Party (is) Set to Win (a) Majority". Is it right that "set" in this case is a subject-to-subject raising? I don't think "set" has an agent theta role. However, all ...
9
votes
1answer
266 views

Are all "Ergative Languages" split-ergative?

I've noticed that in a lot of examples of "ergative languages," there is some piece of the language that does not fit the pattern we call "ergativity." For example, Basque does not mark ergative case ...

1 2 3
4
5
19