Stack Exchange Network

Stack Exchange network consists of 174 Q&A communities including Stack Overflow, the largest, most trusted online community for developers to learn, share their knowledge, and build their careers.

Visit Stack Exchange

Questions tagged [terminology]

Words, phrases, and acronyms specific to the study of linguistics.

3
votes
1answer
34 views

What is about-sentiment called?

I don't even know what my problem is called, so I can't research literature on it. I'm hoping someone can point me in the right direction. I have a little experience with sentiment analysis, but what ...
1
vote
1answer
61 views

How to call Turkish to Ascii character conversion?

When writing software in some cases we are not allowed to use Turkish characters so we use U, G, S, I, i, O, C characters instead of Ü, Ğ, Ş, İ, ı, Ö and Ç since some computer systems might not ...
0
votes
0answers
50 views

Name for the view that ambiguities in natural language are imperfections of it?

For instance, in natural language, "or" is slightly different from logical OR, "some" is slightly different from logical EXISTS, etc. What is the name of the belief that these discrepancies are ...
0
votes
1answer
54 views

Classification of -s added to English words

I'm trying top work out what the correct terms are to use in the below scenarios. I've heard of clitics and affixes, but I'm not clear on the difference. cat - cats (noun, plural -s) cat - cat'...
1
vote
1answer
48 views

What is the difference between “domain” and “register”? [on hold]

It seems like "domain" is a broad categorization of context (e.g. workplace, academia) and register is the specific set of rules which are expected by those speaking in a certain domain. Is this right?...
1
vote
1answer
86 views

What could be the antonym to the word “hyperonym”?

Is the "hyponym" an antonym to the word "hyperonym"? In the sense of the terms themselves, this is true, but does the difference in terms apply to antonyms? The subset that defines the hyponym and ...
3
votes
2answers
111 views

How do you call a languages tendency to adopt foreign words rather than translate them to their language?

One difference between Mandarin Chinese and Japanese is that the former likes to translate foreign terms, while Japanese prefers to transcribe them to Japanese. E.g. Basketball: Mandarin Chinese: 篮球 (...
2
votes
1answer
48 views

'Interstitial' tones in Thai

You don't have to listen to authentic Thai for very long to realize that comparatively few words are pronounced with the dictionary tone. All the learning material out there seems to be focused on ...
1
vote
0answers
58 views

Word with separate translations in another language

Is there a name for the linguistic phenomenon of a word in language or dialect X with two or multiple meanings that have individual translations in language or dialect Y? For example, escada in ...
0
votes
0answers
84 views

Do English passive verbs assign case? (Government and Binding Theory)

I'm trying to think things through regarding case and passive verbs, within the framework of Government and Binding Theory. As starting point, I'll use this statement/principle (based on what I've ...
0
votes
2answers
48 views

Metalanguage to describe expressing an idea in many different ways

I am looking for a term to describe expressing an idea in many different forms yet the meaning remains the same in each rendition. An example of this: The Australians, Australians, the Australian ...
8
votes
1answer
72 views

Does (or should) the terms “spoken language” and “speech” include signed language?

And if not, is there a term, accepted by both the Deaf and linguistic communities, that includes both spoken and signed language, in contrast to written language? Reputable linguistic sources, ...
1
vote
1answer
54 views

What do you call the revival of an obsolete word for a new meaning

Let's say carrot for a shade of orange. Suppose carrot is not used for the color and I wanted one to describe the vegetable's color. So, I revive the displaced more for the color. What do you call ...
1
vote
2answers
53 views

What is the technical term for alternative spellings?

If two subcultures use the same realization (pronunciation) of the same word form (particular inflection of a word) but spell it differently, what is the technical term for the alternative spellings? ...
0
votes
1answer
28 views

Are alternative pronunciations (with or without alternative spellings) different word forms from each other?

On another question a linguist told me that linguists define word forms by their phoneme sequence rather than their grapheme sequence. This makes me wonder: Are the spoken words going and goin' the ...
1
vote
0answers
47 views

Ontology of logogram, pictogram and ideogram

Is it fair to say that a pictograms are a subset of ideograms which are a subset of logograms? What is an example of an ideogram that is not a logogram or pictogram?
1
vote
1answer
64 views

Is each definition of a word a separate lexeme?

I read the Wikipedia entry for 'Lexeme' but I wasn't able to make out a clear answer to this question. I'm interested in knowing the answer for both related and unrelated senses of a word. I'm under ...
2
votes
2answers
73 views

Is there a term for when a word is repeated with a different starting consonant?

I've heard this used in speech, not written language, and specifically in South Asian languages like Bengali/Hindi/Urdu (or in English by South Asian people who know English as a second language). ...
0
votes
1answer
43 views

Transposition of words in questions

In English, the following is grammatically correct: Am I going to the cinema today? In contrast, the assertion that this is true is grammatically correct only with the first two words reversed. ...
-2
votes
2answers
48 views

Why was 'grammar' chosen to signify the model of linguistic competence, when 'grammar' was already strikingly polysemous?

Page 5 of (R.L. Trask, Robert McColl Millar's) Why Do Languages Change? (2010 Rev. ed), expounds that 'grammar' originally didn't mean its linguistical meaning (quoted at the bottom): no surprise, as ...
3
votes
1answer
44 views

Is there distinct jargon for syllabaries depending on their inventory?

The dictionary definition of a syllabary is "a set of written characters representing syllables and (in some languages or stages of writing) serving the purpose of an alphabet." I would personally ...
1
vote
1answer
63 views

Is there a term for 'relative' tenses?

By 'relative tenses', I mean a form of tense that is independent of the main tense that indicates when an event occurred relative to the past or future. Examples in English would be: Simple tense: ...
0
votes
2answers
70 views

What is the correct term for reading hieroglyphs ideographically in a different language (if there is a term for it)?

I am struggling to find a term for an ideographic reading of the hieroglyphic language. I am using an Arabic ideographic reading of hieroglyphics as an example but the term should be applicable to ...
2
votes
1answer
42 views

What is the term for a word made from a sentence?

I thought the term was 'periphrase', but looking that up it that apparently isn't the case. I don't know how I got my terms mixed up. By 'words made from a sentence', I mean such words as 'forget-me-...
1
vote
1answer
46 views

How can I identify Grammatical Categories in a sentence?

Please excuse the fact that I'm not an academically trained Linguist. I am working on a computer program with example sentences and their equivalents in different languages. The idea I am trying to ...
3
votes
2answers
71 views

What is this sentence structure called?

I'm writing a paper about Donald Trump's speaking style and he frequently says sentences like the following: "They wanna be in the United States of America. That’s where they wanna be." "We’re gonna ...
0
votes
1answer
56 views

Term for when acronyms are the same in more than one language?

Is there a linguistics term for when an acronym is the same in more than one language? For example, "RIP" (Requiescat in pace.) in Latin is the same acronym as "RIP" ("Rest in peace.") in English.
3
votes
1answer
247 views

What is the term used for the opposite of a construct form?

In many languages (especially Hebrew in which I work), words can appear in a special form called the construct form in which you can expect that word to be attached to another word. I would like to ...
4
votes
1answer
197 views

What is the linguistic explanation of the phenomenon in “affirmative action”?

The phrase "affirmative action" does not tell you what it is about. Even though the literal meaning of this phrase can be very broad (in theory it could be referring to affirmative action of achieving ...
1
vote
0answers
34 views

Pedagogical term “adverbial” is covered with which terms in generative grammar?

In Pedagogical grammars (like Oxford Learner's Pocket Grammar) possible simple sentence structures are divided into the categories presented below: SV subject, verb SVO subject, verb, object ...
3
votes
2answers
109 views

Is there a term when two words have swapped definitions in one language or dialect compared to another?

My Peruvian friend informed me that a lemon is called "lima" in Peru while a lime is called "limón". This contrasts with some other Spanish dialects that use the word "limón" for lemon and "lima" for ...
1
vote
1answer
53 views

Terminology around non-word, but word-like, structures

In traditional linguistics literatures there is a clear separation between words and non-words. Words are basically what you'd find in a dictionary. But in todays world you find all kinds of word-like ...
12
votes
0answers
137 views

Reversal of kinship terms when speaking to a child

When Turkish people speak to children, they often address them with the kinship term that the child is supposed to use for the speaker. For example a mother may call her child "anneciğim" ("my dear ...
0
votes
1answer
43 views

What does John McWhorter intend to say by 'internal surmise'?

John McWhorter PhD Linguistics (Stanford). Words on the Move (2016). p. 105 Bottom. We have already seen that there is a theme of weakening signals in how words move through time. The firmly ...
0
votes
1answer
46 views

Is there any specific term for "English-originated?

I'm working on an academic writing in English, but as a non-native speaker, I feel lacking of vocabulary. When a word has its origin in the Chinese language, we use the term 'Sino-' such as Sino-...
1
vote
1answer
55 views

Difference between sounds and segments

I have always wondered whether there is a clear distinction between (speech) sounds and segments. The two words appear to be used interchangeably in some places while in others they are considered to ...
0
votes
1answer
50 views

Correct to say that accent defines the mapping between phones and phonemes?

I'm trying to become acquainted with the language (hah) of linguistics (specifically speech perception, from the perspective of auditory signal processing), so that I can write and converse about the ...
4
votes
0answers
44 views

Extension of “synesis”

In traditional grammar, synesis refers to inflection being determined by underlying semantics instead of morphological agreement; the most familiar instance in English is expressions like The ...
1
vote
2answers
66 views

All usage of the term fossilization in Linguistics and applied linguistics

Two articles about fossilization from wiki are: Fossilization_(linguistics) and Interlanguage_fossilization But especially first one is stub. what are all meaning of this term in linguistics and ...
2
votes
0answers
30 views

Does an approved glossary of translation industry terms exist?

I'm kind of a beginner in the translation industry, and using different tools and talking to different people I find that they all use different terms to name the same things. That is really ...
6
votes
3answers
160 views

Sounds that are treated as phonetically equivalent

I suspect that I will not use the right terminology here. Apologies in advance. Is there a word for the phenomenon in which speakers of a language treat two different sounds as equivalent, even ...
2
votes
1answer
62 views

what is the (pan) linguistic term for “scare-quotes” intonation

I was thinking about the use of scare-quotes in English speech, not the physical gesture so much as the intonation and prosodic features as the word or phrase is used in an oral statement. What label ...
0
votes
1answer
37 views

What is the term describing a word using in the definition of another word?

From definiens - Wiktionary: (semantics) The word or phrase that defines the definiendum in a definition. In the defining statement “A lake is a large, landlocked, naturally occurring stretch of ...
0
votes
1answer
38 views

What is does mean in the stated link when the author uses “ordinary signs”

================= In this particular image what is the author referring to when he uses ordinary signs. Is he referring to previous stated definition of signs consisting of a pair words (with a ...
1
vote
0answers
47 views

Is there such thing as a 'hyperphrase'?

In linguistics there is a common hierarchy of words: Hypernym (e.g. Colours) | V Hyponym (e.g. Brown, yellow) Does such a hierarchy exist within phrases?
2
votes
1answer
50 views

difference between c-command and dominance

In this definition Node A c-commands node B if: a) A =/= B b) A does not dominate B and B does not dominate A c) every X that dominates A also dominates B I understand the bigger picture, but my ...
1
vote
0answers
29 views

Phenomenon or phrase describing the understanding of words out of context

E.g. The phrase 'I love you' is common. If the word 'love' was replaced by an unrelated word (i.e. 'radiator') then the sentence 'I radiator you' would be meaningless. But if the word radiator was ...
17
votes
3answers
1k views

What is “case”?

As a non-linguist, I am confused about the concept of case. What is its definition, as linguists use it? Is it about the different forms that nouns/pronouns can take? Is it about the function of the ...
0
votes
1answer
101 views

A concept called extreme-opposites

I am novice in linguistics but I have a keen interest in natural (spoken) languages. There is this concept in my mind called "extreme-opposites" or "extreme-antonyms". The concept goes like this: ...
1
vote
0answers
46 views

English verbs requiring PP

Are there a set of English verbs that require a prepositional phrase? For example: "The set consists of A and B." = GOOD "The set consists" = BAD Is there a name for this type of verb? They seem to ...