Questions tagged [terminology]

Words, phrases, and acronyms specific to the study of linguistics.

152 questions with no upvoted or accepted answers
Filter by
Sorted by
Tagged with
6 votes
1 answer
420 views

Phase and aspect

Question How to distinguish between phase and aspect? From one-language point of view To take an example from Mandarin Chinese, I don't see a difference between a phrase with (cf. the quote from (...
  • 188
6 votes
0 answers
93 views

Is there a word for "mouth transitions" which describes the movement of a mouth which is saying one word, but preparing for the next?

I think I can produce every individual phoneme in standard-ish spoken Mandarin. However, if I want to speak fluently I have to watch videos of people speaking and closely watch their mouths, because ...
6 votes
0 answers
135 views

Term for non-homograph homophone synonyms?

In Japanese, 熱い and 暑い are both read atsui and both mean 'hot'. The former pertains to an object (e.g. hot coffee) and the latter to weather. In French 'cuissot' and 'cuisseau' have the same ...
6 votes
0 answers
121 views

What currency does the term "flip sense verb" have in linguistics?

In a recent comment on the question Ergative Verbs and some discussion about them, jlawler introduced a term I had not previously encountered: The rose smells good is completely different; this ...
  • 14.2k
5 votes
0 answers
103 views

What kind of syntax diagrams are these, found in a book on legal writing?

These don't look like syntax trees in undergrad linguistics syntax textbooks. Do linguists use these diagrams? What are they called? Page 343.     Diagrams for grammatical analysis are visual aids to ...
's user avatar
5 votes
0 answers
227 views

Do puns necessarily involve referring to two (or more) extant words?

What exactly constitutes a pun? Do the words in the pun have to both be extant, or can one be a nonce/nonsense word? — Over the years, I've heard numerous usages of "puns" where one word in the ...
5 votes
0 answers
324 views

Did Chomsky originate the term "rewrite rule"?

The earliest mention of the term "rewrite rule" that I am able to find - in the context of phrase structure grammars - is in Chomsky's "Syntactic Structures" (1957). Did he originate the term?
5 votes
0 answers
95 views

Is there a term for a mental prototype changing?

Years ago, if I heard the word bird I thought about a sparrow since I live in western Pennsylvania and there are sparrows everywhere. But now, if I hear the word bird I picture a blue, two-dimensional ...
4 votes
0 answers
89 views

What's the name for using a letter to represent its name's sound?

It's often whimsical to substitute a single letter for a group of letters phonetically identical to the letter's name. Such as rewriting "barbecue" as "bar-b-q", or the entirety of William Steig's ...
  • 41
4 votes
0 answers
102 views

Is there a name for this type of language divergence and isolation?

In South Australia there is a region called the Barossa Valley. At some point [after WW2? not sure] it was settled by a lot of German farmers who bought land and started dairy farms. They applied ...
4 votes
0 answers
74 views

Extension of "synesis"

In traditional grammar, synesis refers to inflection being determined by underlying semantics instead of morphological agreement; the most familiar instance in English is expressions like The ...
4 votes
0 answers
85 views

Second and third language "search"

In my third or fourth language, when I don't know a word or phrase, I substitute a word from my other non-native language rather than the one I obviously know in my native language. Or if I'm looking ...
  • 49
4 votes
0 answers
56 views

Term for universally-used quote with additional, non-compositional meaning

There exist certain fixed expressions which people use to convey quite specific meanings and (at least to me) always invoke a famous saying which is assumed to be common knowledge, such as I am not a ...
4 votes
0 answers
187 views

L1 memories being recalled in my L2

The situation is as follows: I have been studying my L2 for approximately 4 years. I have spent a total of 10 months immersed in the L2 environment. My current stint has been for 5 months and counting....
4 votes
0 answers
134 views

Is there count/mass distinction in European Portuguese as it is in English?

It is said that European Portuguese has count/mass distinction as many Indo-European languages. However I noticed out that all products/items at stores in Portugal are labeled in singular form. In ...
  • 51
3 votes
0 answers
64 views

What is the term for a phrase that connects two objects with some relation?

In mathematics, we usually see symbols that join two objects: numbers, sets, etc. The more familiar one is the equality symbol "=" which in a formal standpoint means "is logically ...
3 votes
0 answers
69 views

Is there a linguistic term for 'defensive' phrases, such as "with all due respect" and "no offense"?

Apologies if this is not a linguistics question. I often notice how phrases such as "with all due respect, [...]" and "no offense, but [...]" are used defensively or to 'soften' a ...
  • 131
3 votes
0 answers
40 views

Object of certain constructions

I am sure you have all come across constructions such as these: She slept a long sleep He lived a productive life. These verbs are traditionally intransitive verbs, and yet here are transitive. ...
  • 289
3 votes
0 answers
68 views

Definiteness and indefiniteness

Is there a term that encompasses both terms at once? Suppose I am writing a paper titled [Single-word-here] in Language X, where the required word will refer to both definiteness and indefiniteness. ...
  • 281
3 votes
0 answers
93 views

Does the stem of a word carry the sense information of its inflections?

From what I understand the lexeme or lemma of a word carries the sense information of the word, and hence for an inflected form like tablets, it can have a different lemma, each one for each sense of ...
3 votes
0 answers
265 views

Accurate English terminology for "complément du nom" and for "complément/complemento" as a general term

I am looking at this kind of French sentences: Le directeur de la banque Un directeur de banque Le livre de l'élève Le livre de français Having done some research about English grammar terminology ...
3 votes
0 answers
50 views

Is there a term that describes a sentence from which you can infer the meaning of a word?

When learning new Chinese words, I write down an example sentence from which I can infer its meaning. This way, when I've forgotten the word, I can simply read the sentence and deduce (or remember) ...
3 votes
0 answers
45 views

vocabulary and notation for syntactic changes

As a layman I have picked up the terminology and notation for changes in phonology. But I know very little about diachronic changes in syntax other than that they happen: things like shift from SOV ...
3 votes
0 answers
512 views

What is the difference between the term "actor" and "agent"?

I've worked quite a lot on agency so far. Today i've read the paper "Two routes to actorhood: lexicalized potencx to act and identification of the actor role" (Franzel et al. 2015) and i'm wondering ...
  • 51
3 votes
0 answers
91 views

Is there a standard way to refer to an example language?

What is the John Doe or John Smith of language names for when a linguist is making an example? We’ve all seen Suppose that in language 𝑥 . . . and Imagine a language . . . and in another ...
  • 667
3 votes
0 answers
35 views

What is the term for a specific type of collocation analysis

I am trying to write a text processing script in R. I am interested in finding a word (from a list of words I have selected) only if it is in the same sentence as another word. Eventually I would ...
3 votes
0 answers
109 views

How can be these two types of adjective distinguished terminologically?

In adjectives there are two main groups: First Group: adjectives that their 3 grades (base, comparative and superlative) are changed whether regularly (nice > nicer > nicest) or irregularly (good > ...
3 votes
0 answers
65 views

Subregularities and irregularities

It seems that some syntacticians sometimes use the word subregularity instead of irregularity. Is there any difference between these two terms or they cover same concept?
  • 487
3 votes
0 answers
64 views

Any name for this proposition? : Sounds reflects P.O.S. of the word

I am using natural language processing/speech recognition techniques so that I can provide better tools to learn English pronounciation. While research on relevant topics, I found this fact: ...
  • 131
3 votes
0 answers
131 views

Can "lexical development" and "vocabulary development" be used interchangeably?

I haven't quite been able to find the answer to this question online. I'm writing a paper for my first linguistics class and I realized one of the sources that I've been using refers to vocabulary ...
3 votes
0 answers
90 views

What is the term for when a word can not be translated directly?

I was wondering if there's any term in linguistics when the word cannot be translated in just one/two words. I mean when it's really hard to explain the meaning, because there's no such thing in your ...
3 votes
0 answers
318 views

Does an abugida without inherent vowels qualify as an alphabet or an alphasyllabary?

Alphabets and alphasyllabaries seem functionally equivalent, but I am confused about the terminology. The coining of "abugida" including inherent vowels as part of the definition, but some ...
  • 273
3 votes
0 answers
2k views

'modal' vs 'mode' vs 'modality' vs 'mood'

TL;DR (Actual Question:) I'm wildered; so please explain as though I were 10 years old. What are the similarities and differences? This doesn`t compare all 4 nouns simultaneously. A Student's ...
's user avatar
3 votes
0 answers
69 views

Which grammar framework the terms "predicate/ complement/ adjunct" belong to?

From wiki, there're a number of grammar frameworks. Which framework the terms "predicate/ complement/ adjunct" belong to?
3 votes
0 answers
415 views

What is the consensus regarding the term "gliding vowel"?

I write educational resources about Japanese. In my explanations, I try to avoid using overly technical terms so as to avoid scaring my readers, who tend to be people without a linguistic background. ...
  • 149
3 votes
0 answers
477 views

Common name for speech errors like Phoneme Deletion and Phoneme Substitution

I would like to know the common name for speech errors like phoneme deletion and phoneme substitution, just like there is word called "prosodic error" for stress error and intonation error. I have ...
  • 131
3 votes
0 answers
384 views

What is the formula for Usage Rate?

I read about a concept called the "usage rate" (proposed by Juliand and Chang-Rodriguez). It's a method for calculating the frequency of a word in a corpus. What exactly is the "usage rate" and what ...
3 votes
1 answer
78 views

Is there a name for an instance when someone misleads themself on the meaning of a word?

Suppose someone has encountered the word "transfixed" on several occasions, never looked up the word in a dictionary, and concluded from the encounters that the word means "engrossed&...
2 votes
0 answers
70 views

What is the term for words pronounced like their meaning?

Example: "A giraffe has a loooong (pronounced in an exaggerated, drawn-out manner) neck." "I have a short (pronounced very quickly) neck." What is the technical term for ...
2 votes
0 answers
60 views

what is the difference between reference time and event time

what is the difference between reference time and event time , also i am native Arabic speaker , i tried to translate by google translate two examples the reference time before and after event time ...
2 votes
0 answers
37 views

Is there a term for common constructions like "X in general, and Y in particular?"

I have seen a syntactic meme that isn't common where I grew up. It is "X in general, and Y in particular" where Y has a meronym/part-to-whole relation with X. Here are some examples I found ...
2 votes
0 answers
218 views

Diphthongoids and diphthongs

In Russian linguistics, there's a term дифтонгоид (diphthongoid). For example, in textbook Современный русский литературный язык (Modern Standard Russian) by S.V. Knjazev and S.K. Pozharitskaya, it is ...
  • 500
2 votes
0 answers
57 views

What do you call (the fact that languages are not always one-to-one in their labellings)?

Based on this question. There is no reason that there should be a ["Good" + "morning"] in Spanish any more than there is a ["Good" + "days"] in English. I ...
2 votes
0 answers
80 views

What is shallow semantic processing?

What exactly is "shallow semantic processing", and how is it related to syntactic analysis? Is it correct to say that syntactic processing of a text is the preliminary step for shallow semantic ...
  • 191
2 votes
0 answers
642 views

What is a similect?

I'm looking for attested examples of similects in action. The term is relatively new for me. Could someone point me in the right direction? Etymology Coined by Anna Mauranen in a 2012 paper, from ...
2 votes
0 answers
36 views

Terminology/resources for descriptions like "...the other one..."

Suppose, e.g., that there are two brothers, Bob and Bill, that must do two things but it doesn't much matter which brother does which task. I am interested in constructions like the following: One ...
  • 462
2 votes
0 answers
268 views

Sememe and semanteme

I'm not sure I understand what is the relationship between sememes and semantemes. I have the following definitions : A sememe is a semantic content of a lexeme. A semanteme is a unit which together ...
  • 899
2 votes
0 answers
157 views

Ontology of logogram, pictogram and ideogram

Is it fair to say that a pictograms are a subset of ideograms which are a subset of logograms? What is an example of an ideogram that is not a logogram or pictogram?
  • 123
2 votes
0 answers
92 views

Is there a name for the process of triviliazation of a word's meaning?

What is the name for the process by which a word's meaning is trivialized or diminished in importance from its original meaning? For example, the standard English word throne means a toilet in English ...
  • 193
2 votes
0 answers
2k views

What is a "nucleus" in syntax?

What exactly does the term nucleus refer to in syntax? (I'm not asking about the term in relation to phonetics or phonology). For example when syntacticians write about left dislocations and so forth ...