Questions tagged [terminology]

Words, phrases, and acronyms specific to the study of linguistics.

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6
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1answer
312 views

What to call an adjective that is a participle of a verb that is no longer used?

While answering the question How often do native speakers use the word “to scathe”? Is it OK if I use it instead of “to injure”?, I described "scathing" and "unscathed" as "...
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0answers
52 views

What's the name of the effect where linguistic diversity is far more pronounced in a language's homeland?

I've always just used the term "homeland effect" for this, but websearches suggest that that is not actually its name and probably something I made up at some point. What I'm talking about ...
4
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2answers
2k views

Is there a term for “language community”?

Is there a word for a "language community," especially a minority language embedded with in a larger one? For example, speakers of Catalán, Irish Gaelic, or perhaps immigrant groups that form ...
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0answers
65 views

Linguistic umbrella term for things and relations between things

Is there an established term in linguistics which is a hypernym of both 'things' (e.g. entities; categories of entities; actions; ...), and the relationships between them? Intuitively, I would assume ...
7
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1answer
814 views

What is the correct term for a “lazy L”?

This question is about a mild form of a specific speech pathology that seems to be gaining prevalence in Australia and if there is a term for it. It is not an "accent" issue, because it can ...
3
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1answer
80 views

Is there a term for a sequence of letters which can be divided into words in multiple ways?

I've been looking for a term that describes a phrase, unbroken into individual words, which could have multiple meanings depending on where it's divided. It's hard for me to even give good examples ...
6
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4answers
3k views

Is there a term for translating a word to a language that has a different alphabet (such as Hindi to English)?

The specific example that I am thinking of is the word "दाल का सूप" in Hindi. It translates to "lentil soup", and is pronounced "dal", however there are multiple ways of ...
2
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0answers
46 views

What do you call (the fact that languages are not always one-to-one in their labellings)?

Based on this question. There is no reason that there should be a ["Good" + "morning"] in Spanish any more than there is a ["Good" + "days"] in English. I ...
0
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0answers
21 views

Are there single-word and generally accepted terms for the referents of the arguments in comparative clauses?

AFAIK, in any statement comparing two entities, there are typically at least three terms: NPa stands for the thing compared VG stands for nature of comparison NPb stands for the thing that the ...
1
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1answer
70 views

Is there a concept to describe “a way of saying something that is incorrect, but occurs frequently due to the speaker speaking a second language”?

In the past ten years I've started working with people who's native language is not English. I've noticed that these folks say thing to get a concept across, but it's not something you'd hear a native ...
3
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2answers
89 views

Are two words cognate if they ultimately come from the same root but have different roots in more recent languages?

For example, Spanish corteza and French écorce (bark) both ultimately come from PIE *(s)ker- but they have different Latin roots (cortex and scortea). Does that stop them from being cognate?
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2answers
291 views

What is the term for referring to a brand in place of the product

Is there a name or term used to describe the phenomenon when a brand name becomes so ubiquitous that it is used in place of the product or related verbs? Some common examples include: Google instead ...
5
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3answers
161 views

As a relatively proficient heritage speaker, should I consider myself a “native” speaker, or something else?

Should heritage speakers with a decent level of proficiency (say a middle school level of reading/writing ability) consider themselves "native", or something else? "Native" would be appropriate in ...
3
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1answer
62 views

What's the name of the process in which a word acquires new meanings?

I am almost sure there is a proper name for that but I forgot. It would be the opposite of semantic bleaching...
4
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1answer
353 views

Are individual words really constituents?

The constituent unit is defined in Wikipedia as a word or a group of words that functions as a single unit within a hierarchical structure. When phrase structure trees are produced, each node in the ...
2
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2answers
124 views

What is this phenomenon in dialog called?

I attempt here to be succinct and I hope that the question is clear. I am looking for the names of the phenomena (in conversational English) that I am attempting to describe. Consider a dialog between ...
3
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0answers
60 views

Accurate English terminology for “complément du nom” and for “complément/complemento” as a general term

I am looking at this kind of French sentences: Le directeur de la banque Un directeur de banque Le livre de l'élève Le livre de français Having done some research about English grammar terminology ...
5
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0answers
100 views

Term for non-homograph homophone synonyms?

In Japanese, 熱い and 暑い are both read atsui and both mean 'hot'. The former pertains to an object (e.g. hot coffee) and the latter to weather. In French 'cuissot' and 'cuisseau' have the same ...
2
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0answers
57 views

What is shallow semantic processing?

What exactly is "shallow semantic processing", and how is it related to syntactic analysis? Is it correct to say that syntactic processing of a text is the preliminary step for shallow semantic ...
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0answers
30 views

Is “and you” an example of endophora

If I were to tell someone to "stand up" and then, after a beat, say "and you" to another person, is that "and you" endophoric? There's nothing in the first phrase being referred to, it's more the ...
1
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1answer
55 views

What is the general term for linguistic categories?

I have been trying to understand the division of "properties of items within a grammar or language" as wikipedia calls it into the following sets (among a few others): Grammatical category Lexical ...
4
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1answer
214 views

are what we translate as “adjectives”, “nouns”, etc, the same kind of words in no indo-european languages?

This question comes from questions in japanese SE. Keiyōshi 形容詞 are translated as adjectives. Meishi 名詞 are translated as nouns. But are they really the same kind of words that we mean with nouns, ...
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2answers
40 views

Terminology for this kind of affixes

I was solving an IOL sample exercise (which can be found here) about the Aymara language. I did it, it was kinda hard but I did it. One of the words in it was challwampiwa. The first part (challwa) ...
52
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7answers
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Is there a linguistics term meaning “it's grammatically correct, but nobody says that”?

This happens a lot when learning a foreign language: You learn some grammar structure, and insert some nouns, verbs, adjectives, etc., in the appropriate places, only to find out that no-one would ...
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1answer
48 views

Difference between intonation and tonality?

I have used them interchangeably, but I think that might be wrong. So, is this understanding of the distinction correct? Tonality is pitch affecting semantics (like the Chinese langauge), and ...
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1answer
70 views

Are these English judges using 'linguistics' correctly? [closed]

I don't feel these English judges are using "linguistics" correctly, because they're just working with the English language, not doing linguistics! Some of them have a degree in classics, but I don't ...
10
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5answers
28k views

What is the difference between a word root and a word stem?

What is the difference between a word's root and a word's stem?
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3answers
2k views

Is there a name for when a 'c' becomes an [s] sound in words like rusticity, when originally it was a 'c' in rustiC?

I know it's a sound change, but is there a specific name for it? It's for an assignment I'm writing on the phonological transparency of the suffix -ity.
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1answer
136 views

Antiphrasis vs. Auto-antonymy

Source: Blank, A. 1999. Why Do New Meanings Occur? A Cognitive Typology of the Motivation for Lexical Semantic Change. In Historical Semantics and Cognition. Edited by P. Blank Koch, 61-90. Berlin/...
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2answers
96 views

Why does Spanish have different names for the letters of the alphabet from English?

The Spanish alphabet has the 26 letters + the consonant ñ, which is pronounced like the "ny" in "canyón". But out of the remaining 26 letters, why do the consonants have different names from the names ...
3
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1answer
128 views

What is the exact term for the way Tarzan speak in such sentences as “Me Tarzan, you Jane”?

In countries where English is not a native language, you hear people speak with no conjunctions, no verb conjugations, no adjectives nor adverbs. Examples: You come my house. I cook chicken. We eat ...
1
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1answer
42 views

What is the technical term for the copyist error of replacing a letter with another, similar-looking letter?

One form of textual criticism (which is under the branch of corpus linguistics) is arguing that a text was mistakenly copied by a copyist to reflect an erroneous reading. An example of this is that ...
3
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3answers
831 views

Is DNA a language?

DNA is commonly referred to as a language. For example, I can see that DNA is made up of nucleotides (ATGC) that form meaningful units (genes, chromosomes, etc). DNA gets transmitted to future ...
2
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1answer
46 views

What is aesthetic equivalence in translation?

I found this phrase in a theory about directional equivalence and I'm not sure what it means and if it is part of linguistic aspect of translation.
2
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2answers
144 views

Center of a set of words

Is there any available algorithm that can take a set of words and attempt to find a word that best represents the "center of mass" of all those words? This would be easy if we can define a distance ...
7
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3answers
282 views

Comparing writing systems by ease of encoding/decoding information

Considering the variety of systems of writing, the ease with which someone can receive written information in one system of writing is not precisely identical to that of any other, and I am curious to ...
0
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0answers
25 views

Is there a formal term for “long/formal” queries?

So I had a question regarding the types of queries. For example, when we ask a question or do a Google search we could do it in two ways: "house prices in Boston" "What are the house prices in Boston?...
0
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0answers
28 views

Semantically passive verbs

Certain (syntactico-morphologically) active verbs signify a passion rather than an action. For example, to fall, signifies something that can hardly be called an action. It belongs to its concept ...
22
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4answers
3k views

What is “case”?

As a non-linguist, I am confused about the concept of case. What is its definition, as linguists use it? Is it about the different forms that nouns/pronouns can take? Is it about the function of the ...
2
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2answers
82 views

Similar term as phonetics, but for written text

I try to find any term that can specify a descriptive field of study that is interested in language notation. It should contain parts of written text (general text form - not only handwritten): ...
3
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0answers
38 views

Is there a term that describes a sentence from which you can infer the meaning of a word?

When learning new Chinese words, I write down an example sentence from which I can infer its meaning. This way, when I've forgotten the word, I can simply read the sentence and deduce (or remember) ...
3
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0answers
32 views

vocabulary and notation for syntactic changes

As a layman I have picked up the terminology and notation for changes in phonology. But I know very little about diachronic changes in syntax other than that they happen: things like shift from SOV ...
2
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2answers
205 views

What is the relation between a specifier and a determiner?

Does specifier mean "the" and "possesser" and determiner mean "the" and "possessive 's"?
3
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1answer
566 views

What are the subjective and objective genitives?

I have recently come across the terms subjective genitive and objective genitive, but I don't fully understand them. From what I have read, an example might be 'the love of God', as in 'the love of ...
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0answers
40 views

What's the term for backshifting when it's not part of reported speech?

In reported speech, backshifting changes "He said, 'Your car is red.'" to "He said your car was red". What's that called when it's not part of reported speech? E.g. "I thought your car was red" ...
6
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2answers
688 views

Is the word “abjad” borrowed from Arabic or was it coined in English then borrowed by Arabic?

"Abjad" is a technical term for a kind of writing system which is used when contrasting them with other writing system types such as alphabets, abugidas, and syllabaries. There is also an Arabic word ...
0
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1answer
48 views

What is phonological mechanism?

Does it mean phonological rule? Or can we say phonological mechanism refers to the phonological rules in our mind?
2
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1answer
86 views

What are the differences between “controlled natural language” and “toy grammar”?

I am working on NLP and also Linguistics field. I created my own toy grammar, but while browsing the literature, I came across the concept of controlled natural language. Are these two the same or ...
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0answers
36 views

Name That Phenomenon: I worry that once I STOP doing an action “just to be safe,” the thing I'm being safe from will occur

I've always had feelings like these before. I've seen sad movies when I was younger, but the thing that got me the most was the kid (who lost their parents) said, "The last thing I ever said to them ...
1
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1answer
66 views

Slang, colloquial use, informal speech, etc [closed]

Background The question is motivated by this post in the Russian forum, where the answers repeatedly refer to verb пересечёмся as "young people's slang" or "teenage slang". (пересечёмся = "we'll cross ...

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