Questions tagged [terminology]

Words, phrases, and acronyms specific to the study of linguistics.

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101 views

What currency does the term “flip sense verb” have in linguistics?

In a recent comment on the question Ergative Verbs and some discussion about them, jlawler introduced a term I had not previously encountered: The rose smells good is completely different; this ...
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100 views

Term for non-homograph homophone synonyms?

In Japanese, 熱い and 暑い are both read atsui and both mean 'hot'. The former pertains to an object (e.g. hot coffee) and the latter to weather. In French 'cuissot' and 'cuisseau' have the same ...
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219 views

Do puns necessarily involve referring to two (or more) extant words?

What exactly constitutes a pun? Do the words in the pun have to both be extant, or can one be a nonce/nonsense word? — Over the years, I've heard numerous usages of "puns" where one word in the ...
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280 views

Did Chomsky originate the term “rewrite rule”?

The earliest mention of the term "rewrite rule" that I am able to find - in the context of phrase structure grammars - is in Chomsky's "Syntactic Structures" (1957). Did he originate the term?
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What's the name for using a letter to represent its name's sound?

It's often whimsical to substitute a single letter for a group of letters phonetically identical to the letter's name. Such as rewriting "barbecue" as "bar-b-q", or the entirety of William Steig's ...
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91 views

Is there a name for this type of language divergence and isolation?

In South Australia there is a region called the Barossa Valley. At some point [after WW2? not sure] it was settled by a lot of German farmers who bought land and started dairy farms. They applied ...
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66 views

Extension of “synesis”

In traditional grammar, synesis refers to inflection being determined by underlying semantics instead of morphological agreement; the most familiar instance in English is expressions like The ...
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80 views

Second and third language “search”

In my third or fourth language, when I don't know a word or phrase, I substitute a word from my other non-native language rather than the one I obviously know in my native language. Or if I'm looking ...
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122 views

Can “lexical development” and “vocabulary development” be used interchangeably?

I haven't quite been able to find the answer to this question online. I'm writing a paper for my first linguistics class and I realized one of the sources that I've been using refers to vocabulary ...
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50 views

Term for universally-used quote with additional, non-compositional meaning

There exist certain fixed expressions which people use to convey quite specific meanings and (at least to me) always invoke a famous saying which is assumed to be common knowledge, such as I am not a ...
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180 views

L1 memories being recalled in my L2

The situation is as follows: I have been studying my L2 for approximately 4 years. I have spent a total of 10 months immersed in the L2 environment. My current stint has been for 5 months and counting....
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127 views

Is there count/mass distinction in European Portuguese as it is in English?

It is said that European Portuguese has count/mass distinction as many Indo-European languages. However I noticed out that all products/items at stores in Portugal are labeled in singular form. In ...
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86 views

Is there a term for a mental prototype changing?

Years ago, if I heard the word bird I thought about a sparrow since I live in western Pennsylvania and there are sparrows everywhere. But now, if I hear the word bird I picture a blue, two-dimensional ...
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60 views

Accurate English terminology for “complément du nom” and for “complément/complemento” as a general term

I am looking at this kind of French sentences: Le directeur de la banque Un directeur de banque Le livre de l'élève Le livre de français Having done some research about English grammar terminology ...
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38 views

Is there a term that describes a sentence from which you can infer the meaning of a word?

When learning new Chinese words, I write down an example sentence from which I can infer its meaning. This way, when I've forgotten the word, I can simply read the sentence and deduce (or remember) ...
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32 views

vocabulary and notation for syntactic changes

As a layman I have picked up the terminology and notation for changes in phonology. But I know very little about diachronic changes in syntax other than that they happen: things like shift from SOV ...
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29 views

What is the term for a specific type of collocation analysis

I am trying to write a text processing script in R. I am interested in finding a word (from a list of words I have selected) only if it is in the same sentence as another word. Eventually I would ...
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84 views

How can be these two types of adjective distinguished terminologically?

In adjectives there are two main groups: First Group: adjectives that their 3 grades (base, comparative and superlative) are changed whether regularly (nice > nicer > nicest) or irregularly (good > ...
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51 views

Subregularities and irregularities

It seems that some syntacticians sometimes use the word subregularity instead of irregularity. Is there any difference between these two terms or they cover same concept?
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62 views

Any name for this proposition? : Sounds reflects P.O.S. of the word

I am using natural language processing/speech recognition techniques so that I can provide better tools to learn English pronounciation. While research on relevant topics, I found this fact: ...
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81 views

What is the term for when a word can not be translated directly?

I was wondering if there's any term in linguistics when the word cannot be translated in just one/two words. I mean when it's really hard to explain the meaning, because there's no such thing in your ...
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240 views

Does an abugida without inherent vowels qualify as an alphabet or an alphasyllabary?

Alphabets and alphasyllabaries seem functionally equivalent, but I am confused about the terminology. The coining of "abugida" including inherent vowels as part of the definition, but some ...
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61 views

Which grammar framework the terms “predicate/ complement/ adjunct” belong to?

From wiki, there're a number of grammar frameworks. Which framework the terms "predicate/ complement/ adjunct" belong to?
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378 views

What is the consensus regarding the term “gliding vowel”?

I write educational resources about Japanese. In my explanations, I try to avoid using overly technical terms so as to avoid scaring my readers, who tend to be people without a linguistic background. ...
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9k views

Are 'reference', 'sense', 'connotation', 'denotation', 'intension', and 'extension' mutually distinct terms?

Assumptions Reference: a unique and real entity that an expression represents. Sense: a facet of a referent that an expression represents. Connotation: the settled emotional content of an expression ...
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467 views

Common name for speech errors like Phoneme Deletion and Phoneme Substitution

I would like to know the common name for speech errors like phoneme deletion and phoneme substitution, just like there is word called "prosodic error" for stress error and intonation error. I have ...
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363 views

What is the formula for Usage Rate?

I read about a concept called the "usage rate" (proposed by Juliand and Chang-Rodriguez). It's a method for calculating the frequency of a word in a corpus. What exactly is the "usage rate" and what ...
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What do you call (the fact that languages are not always one-to-one in their labellings)?

Based on this question. There is no reason that there should be a ["Good" + "morning"] in Spanish any more than there is a ["Good" + "days"] in English. I ...
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57 views

What is shallow semantic processing?

What exactly is "shallow semantic processing", and how is it related to syntactic analysis? Is it correct to say that syntactic processing of a text is the preliminary step for shallow semantic ...
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50 views

What is the difference between the term “actor” and “agent”?

I've worked quite a lot on agency so far. Today i've read the paper "Two routes to actorhood: lexicalized potencx to act and identification of the actor role" (Franzel et al. 2015) and i'm wondering ...
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197 views

What is a similect?

I'm looking for attested examples of similects in action. The term is relatively new for me. Could someone point me in the right direction? Etymology Coined by Anna Mauranen in a 2012 paper, from ...
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29 views

Terminology/resources for descriptions like “…the other one…”

Suppose, e.g., that there are two brothers, Bob and Bill, that must do two things but it doesn't much matter which brother does which task. I am interested in constructions like the following: One ...
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83 views

Is there a standard way to refer to an example language?

What is the John Doe or John Smith of language names for when a linguist is making an example? We’ve all seen Suppose that in language 𝑥 . . . and Imagine a language . . . and in another ...
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122 views

Sememe and semanteme

I'm not sure I understand what is the relationship between sememes and semantemes. I have the following definitions : A sememe is a semantic content of a lexeme. A semanteme is a unit which together ...
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123 views

Ontology of logogram, pictogram and ideogram

Is it fair to say that a pictograms are a subset of ideograms which are a subset of logograms? What is an example of an ideogram that is not a logogram or pictogram?
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Does an approved glossary of translation industry terms exist?

I'm kind of a beginner in the translation industry, and using different tools and talking to different people I find that they all use different terms to name the same things. That is really ...
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432 views

Meaning of “Prejacent”?

I have seen the word "prejacent" in many linguistics related papers. However, none of them explains what exactly a prejacent is. Could someone elaborate more on this?
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Is there a name for the process of triviliazation of a word's meaning?

What is the name for the process by which a word's meaning is trivialized or diminished in importance from its original meaning? For example, the standard English word throne means a toilet in English ...
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1k views

What is a “nucleus” in syntax?

What exactly does the term nucleus refer to in syntax? (I'm not asking about the term in relation to phonetics or phonology). For example when syntacticians write about left dislocations and so forth ...
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2k views

How to understand the difference between “Strong” & “Weak” Hypotheses in the case of Bolinger/Lieberman's views of Intonation?

1. Non-Whorfian contexts and missing Czech equivalents To begin with, I am not sure if this is the right place to ask a question that may just as well pertain to scientific terminology in general. ...
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'modal' vs 'mode' vs 'modality' vs 'mood'

TL;DR (Actual Question:) I'm wildered; so please explain as though I were 10 years old. What are the similarities and differences? This doesn`t compare all 4 nouns simultaneously. A Student's ...
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135 views

What approaches exist to categorizing kinds of passive agent markers and what are their advantages?

For my thesis I would like to conduct a study on the cross-linguistic distribution of agent markers in passives. In English, this marker is usually realized by the preposition 'by', as in (including a ...
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430 views

words between polar antonyms - what are they called?

Polar antonyms, (graded antonyms?) are those that are opposite of each other, yet may possess a range of words/states between them; Tiny, small, medium, large, huge. Is there a word or term for any ...
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132 views

Thesaurus for linguistic and NLP terms

Does there exist any reference thesaurus for linguistic and NLP terms? I know that Wikipedia articles often contain synonyms, but I would like to have a mere thesaurus that I could go through easily (...
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114 views

What is the linguistic name of [r͡ʙ]?

I am creating a language with the sound [r͡ʙ]. The only name I can come up for this sound would be a simultaneous bilabial and alveolar trill. Is there anything more scientific than that? It cannot ...
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What is the term for a noun that stands for more than one portion of an uncountable referent?

A noun that refers to one countable thing is singular. A noun that stands for one countable portion, part, or unit of some non-countable thing is singulative. See http://www-01.sil.org/...
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Is there a term to denote the semantics of “the action of X”?

In English, the -ing form of verb performs multiple semantic functions; one of those functions is "the action of X". In Japanese, the -no morpheme performs multiple semantic functions, and one of ...
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293 views

What is the notation used in Functional Discourse Grammar?

The paper Functional Discourse Grammar by Kees Hengeveld and J. Lachlan Mackenzie describes objects in FDG using notation like the formulae below. (π v1: [head (v1)Φ]: [σ (v1)Φ]) (π M1: [(A1) ... (A1+...
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Is there such thing as a 'hyperphrase'?

In linguistics there is a common hierarchy of words: Hypernym (e.g. Colours) | V Hyponym (e.g. Brown, yellow) Does such a hierarchy exist within phrases?
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What grammar term corresponds to N' in X-bar theory?

The core idea of X-bar theory is that it has what is called 'bar-level projection' or 'intermediate projection', which is normally represented by X'. And X represents any of the categories N, V, Adj, ...