Questions tagged [terminology]

Words, phrases, and acronyms specific to the study of linguistics.

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3
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2answers
149 views

Is there a term when two words have swapped definitions in one language or dialect compared to another?

My Peruvian friend informed me that a lemon is called "lima" in Peru while a lime is called "limón". This contrasts with some other Spanish dialects that use the word "limón" for lemon and "lima" for ...
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1answer
76 views

Terminology around non-word, but word-like, structures

In traditional linguistics literatures there is a clear separation between words and non-words. Words are basically what you'd find in a dictionary. But in todays world you find all kinds of word-like ...
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3answers
1k views

Reversal of kinship terms when speaking to a child

When Turkish people speak to children, they often address them with the kinship term that the child is supposed to use for the speaker. For example a mother may call her child "anneciğim" ("my dear ...
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1answer
53 views

What does John McWhorter intend to say by 'internal surmise'?

John McWhorter PhD Linguistics (Stanford). Words on the Move (2016). p. 105 Bottom. We have already seen that there is a theme of weakening signals in how words move through time. The firmly ...
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1answer
67 views

Is there any specific term for "English-originated?

I'm working on an academic writing in English, but as a non-native speaker, I feel lacking of vocabulary. When a word has its origin in the Chinese language, we use the term 'Sino-' such as Sino-...
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1answer
221 views

Difference between sounds and segments

I have always wondered whether there is a clear distinction between (speech) sounds and segments. The two words appear to be used interchangeably in some places while in others they are considered to ...
0
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1answer
53 views

Correct to say that accent defines the mapping between phones and phonemes?

I'm trying to become acquainted with the language (hah) of linguistics (specifically speech perception, from the perspective of auditory signal processing), so that I can write and converse about the ...
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1answer
238 views

Genocide vs. genticide [closed]

I was interested in understanding the origin and meaning of the word "genocide" and went to the Online Etymology Dictionary where it says that "The proper formation would be genticide." Why would the ...
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0answers
66 views

Extension of “synesis”

In traditional grammar, synesis refers to inflection being determined by underlying semantics instead of morphological agreement; the most familiar instance in English is expressions like The ...
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2answers
104 views

All usage of the term fossilization in Linguistics and applied linguistics

Two articles about fossilization from wiki are: Fossilization_(linguistics) and Interlanguage_fossilization But especially first one is stub. what are all meaning of this term in linguistics and ...
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0answers
31 views

Does an approved glossary of translation industry terms exist?

I'm kind of a beginner in the translation industry, and using different tools and talking to different people I find that they all use different terms to name the same things. That is really ...
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3answers
213 views

Sounds that are treated as phonetically equivalent

I suspect that I will not use the right terminology here. Apologies in advance. Is there a word for the phenomenon in which speakers of a language treat two different sounds as equivalent, even ...
2
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1answer
80 views

what is the (pan) linguistic term for “scare-quotes” intonation

I was thinking about the use of scare-quotes in English speech, not the physical gesture so much as the intonation and prosodic features as the word or phrase is used in an oral statement. What label ...
0
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1answer
104 views

What is the term describing a word using in the definition of another word?

From definiens - Wiktionary: (semantics) The word or phrase that defines the definiendum in a definition. In the defining statement “A lake is a large, landlocked, naturally occurring stretch of ...
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1answer
45 views

What is does mean in the stated link when the author uses “ordinary signs”

================= In this particular image what is the author referring to when he uses ordinary signs. Is he referring to previous stated definition of signs consisting of a pair words (with a ...
2
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1answer
99 views

Is there such thing as a 'hyperphrase'?

In linguistics there is a common hierarchy of words: Hypernym (e.g. Colours) | V Hyponym (e.g. Brown, yellow) Does such a hierarchy exist within phrases?
2
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1answer
507 views

difference between c-command and dominance

In this definition Node A c-commands node B if: a) A =/= B b) A does not dominate B and B does not dominate A c) every X that dominates A also dominates B I understand the bigger picture, but my ...
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0answers
31 views

Phenomenon or phrase describing the understanding of words out of context

E.g. The phrase 'I love you' is common. If the word 'love' was replaced by an unrelated word (i.e. 'radiator') then the sentence 'I radiator you' would be meaningless. But if the word radiator was ...
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4answers
3k views

What is “case”?

As a non-linguist, I am confused about the concept of case. What is its definition, as linguists use it? Is it about the different forms that nouns/pronouns can take? Is it about the function of the ...
0
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1answer
515 views

A concept called extreme-opposites

I am novice in linguistics but I have a keen interest in natural (spoken) languages. There is this concept in my mind called "extreme-opposites" or "extreme-antonyms". The concept goes like this: ...
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0answers
51 views

English verbs requiring PP

Are there a set of English verbs that require a prepositional phrase? For example: "The set consists of A and B." = GOOD "The set consists" = BAD Is there a name for this type of verb? They seem to ...
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0answers
153 views

What does CGEL mean by 'instability in the system' in their explanation of case?

Consider the following passage from CGEL (p. 458, boldfaced emphasis mine): We look first at the contrast between nominative and accusative case, where we find a considerable amount of variation ...
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3answers
112 views

What is it called when a new word is replaced by a more familiar one?

I mean the phenomenon that happens when a language borrows a word, but it gets replaced by a similar-sounding word that is already in the language like from Spanish 'aguacate' to 'avocado' or 'echeque ...
3
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1answer
307 views

suffixes, infixes and interfixes: help with terminology

I asked this question on Italian exchange, but I was told that this is more of a question about English terminology. So here it is. I am currently writing a short summary of certain morphological ...
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1answer
130 views

direct object and indirect object [closed]

Which is the direct object and which is the indirect object in the following sentence? The school has given David's proposal serious consideration. I think that "David's proposal" is the indirect ...
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0answers
84 views

How can be these two types of adjective distinguished terminologically?

In adjectives there are two main groups: First Group: adjectives that their 3 grades (base, comparative and superlative) are changed whether regularly (nice > nicer > nicest) or irregularly (good > ...
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0answers
143 views

Transitive phrasal verbs classification

Some grammarians classify transitive phrasal verbs into separable and inseparable. Just for instance: Phrasal verbs that can be divided by objects are commonly referred to as being separable; those ...
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2answers
71 views

Is either of these meanings of the word “sentence” more conventional?

The Wikipedia article on Generative Grammar states: Generative grammar is a linguistic theory that regards grammar as a system of rules that generates exactly those combinations of words that ...
2
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1answer
993 views

what’s the difference between ‘concept’ and ‘prototype’ as semantic terminologies?

Both terms, concept and prototype occur in semantic texts roughly in the sense a mental object denoted by a word. There should be some difference in definition between the two. I read the following ...
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0answers
432 views

Meaning of “Prejacent”?

I have seen the word "prejacent" in many linguistics related papers. However, none of them explains what exactly a prejacent is. Could someone elaborate more on this?
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4answers
2k views

Is there a term for the phenomenon of linking the end of a word to the beginning of the next word?

Is there a word to describe the phenomenon where a final sound of a word is linked to the starting sound of the next word? A couple of examples: "hold on" sounds like "whole Don" "this guy" sounds ...
4
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1answer
2k views

difference between the root, lemma and stem for a derived word

I am a bit confused with the usage of the terms root, lemma and stem. My understanding of the terms are as follows. Root:The central (free) morpheme which has the content to which other bound ...
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3answers
164 views

Is there a name for the phenomenon of some words being more deeply embedded in a language than others?

I'm wondering if there's a name for a phenomenon that I think of in the following way: Some words are far more deeply embedded within a language than others. I'm contrasting the words "do" and "...
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1answer
90 views

Ability to understand another language without studying it

I remember this term mentioned in the context of an argument about Spanish and Portuguese: one party claimed that it is equally hard / easy for either one to understand another language, while another ...
2
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1answer
115 views

When Using “$”, what specifically does it mean?

My Professor will write something like this, [+consonantal, - sonorant, - continuant] → / _____ $ But I can't seem to figure out what it means. Does it mean at the end of a syllable? Can someone ...
2
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5answers
275 views

What's the term for a word which contains an affix?

From my basic lay understanding of non-polysynthetic linguistics (and this answer), a word may be either: #1. A single root (or "stem" or "base") morpheme; or #2. One or more affixes combined with a ...
0
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1answer
668 views

What is the difference between syntax and grammar? [duplicate]

I think syntax is concerning with the theories of syntax like structuralism, behaviorism, traditional, and informational since each school has it's own rules and theories while Grammar is in regard to ...
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1answer
87 views

Description of Czech consonants

I don't speak any Slavonic languages and am merely seeking a fuller understanding of what R.G.A. De Bray has to say in his book ' Guide to the Slavonic Languages ' . For one thing , on page 369 , he ...
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2answers
123 views

What is the grammatical or syntax term for such a sentence structure?

What is the grammatical or syntax term for a sentence structure in which there are more than one subject or more than one object continuously in the sentence? Example 1: In this sentence, the there ...
0
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1answer
39 views

I was called this recently by a friend but I can't remember what it was [closed]

I'm homeless and live in a tent so I'm constantly having to fix things instead of throwing them away or replacing it all together so I come up with ways to solve my problem with what I have on hand. ...
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0answers
40 views

Translation of 'verbes symétriques' from French to English

What do you think is the accurate equivalent les verbes symétriques in English?
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1answer
136 views

Antiphrasis vs. Auto-antonymy

Source: Blank, A. 1999. Why Do New Meanings Occur? A Cognitive Typology of the Motivation for Lexical Semantic Change. In Historical Semantics and Cognition. Edited by P. Blank Koch, 61-90. Berlin/...
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1answer
51 views

What is the term for the formation of word groups with single meaning/function (e.g. “in relation to which”) in lingustics

Clearly - pharases "in relation to which" (subordinating conjunction) function as one word. How such process is named in linguistics. It would also be interesting to know how such formation is ...
2
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1answer
101 views

What is a descendant?

When is a word descended from another word? Is it limited to ancestor-to-child language relationship? If, for example, Spanish borrows from French, is the loanword a descendant of the French word?
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2answers
64 views

Is there a formal term for when a word begins to be used in a broader sense than the original sense?

For example: "aggressive recruitment", "aggressive cleaning" or "more aggressive guidelines".
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0answers
21 views

What does “associational meaning” mean?

I came across this term in a text on the linguistics of legislation: Frederick Bowers "Linguistic Aspects of Legislative Expression", chapter 2. I haven't found any definition or reference to it in ...
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1answer
34 views

Is there a technical term for the kind of adjective A which appears in sentences of the form 'The object O is A.'?

Question. Is there an attested technical term for the construction 'Object O is A.' where O is a noun and A is an adjective? Remarks. The phenomenon that I am hoping to read about, and find a ...
3
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1answer
68 views

Word drop: have a beer or two

What is it called when a word is dropped (or implied): "Have a beer or two" == "Have a beer or two beers" Does this phenomenon have a name? Any pointers on where to learn more about it are ...
0
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1answer
95 views

Which types of errors are there in a human language? [closed]

A typo is a term used to refer to a situation when one (accidentally) mistypes a word or expression leading to a word or expression which is not the "expected" one, which may also be respectively an ...
8
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1answer
3k views

Difference between ideogram and logogram?

I'm having a bit of trouble differentiating these, and I'm wondering if it's because these are generally fuzzy concepts and nobody cares much, if I haven't read into it enough, if my innate ...

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