Questions tagged [theoretical-linguistics]

Refers either to abstract and often mathematical theories focused more on explanation and generalization than on application, or the discussion of these theories' properties.

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1answer
63 views

If mora are potentially sufficient to describe language, then what do syllables add, in theory?

Following the answer to the recent Question, Why is/was Gokana claimed to lack syllables?, I don't really understand the difference. I have heard of Mora's in the context of poetry before and didn't ...
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Does no permission for something belong to connotative meaning? [closed]

For example, the word 'noiseless' means 'making little or no noise', like 'noiseless computer', 'noiseless step', so if I say '-less' has a meaning of 'no permission for the noise', does it mean the ...
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169 views

What is the difference between neurolinguistics and similar fields of study?

What is the difference between neurolinguistics and cognitive linguistics or psycholinguistics? I am already having trouble understanding the difference between cognitive linguistics and ...
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79 views

People learn words, but invent sentences

I am trying to find who was the first mentioned that "People learn words, but invent sentences". I read this sentense somewhere. Does anyone has any knowledge about theorist or theory behind ...
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116 views

What's a grammatical feature?

This is not a naif question asked by a layman just out of curiosity. I am presently editing a book by a colleague which is devoted to the notion of grammatical feature (with a special focus on ...
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55 views

Why is "addressing" discontinuity/nonprojectivity important?

I was reading about dependency grammars on Wikipedia, and then, following up on the term "(non-)projectivity", was lead to the page about discontinuity. Now, the concept is quite easy to ...
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65 views

In what way production of language is optimal or most economical?

I have been listening to Linguistics & Philosophy lecture by Noam Chomsky and he mentions around 1h:08m that it is posited that language productions are actually the most economical way to convey ...
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109 views

Is Welsh an isolating, an inflectional or an agglutinative language?

I saw that it can be classified both as an analytic and a synthetic langauage, so which one is it?
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112 views

Principles and Parameters vs. Government and Binding

I'm a little confused about the difference between P&P and GB. This Wikipedia article suggests that they are the same as grammar frameworks, from what I understood: Principles and parameters as a ...
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16 views

In semiotics, what type of sign is a metaphor or an allegory?

Would they classify into icon, index or symbol?
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1answer
74 views

Are there any academic papers on the "Adjective like (article) Noun" construction/ phrase?

I am currently working on a paper about the "Adj like (article) Noun" construction. Some would consider that which comes after the "like"-part to be a prepositional phrase if "...
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22 views

Is the propositional attitude verb an eventive verb?

In terms of aspect, verbs can only be categorized into stative verb and eventive verb, right? Then how about propositional attitude verb like "think" "say"? Are they also eventive ...
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54 views

The possible sound change when /t/ sound is preceded by fricatives or affricatives

Here, I am talking about the assimilated /t/ sound that is one of the most common features of Standard Southern British English (such as /t/ at the beginning of a syllable, time, task, Twitter, twice, ...
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152 views

What's the difference between event time and reference time?

Here is an example, "Molly had left at 10 pm". The temporal references will be event time < reference time < speech time, right? But why? Also, for "The sun has set", why ...
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38 views

Is have+ negation equal to imperfective?

I know aspect can be categorized into perfective and imperfective, but I'm just curious whether the example "John hasn't gone to Paris" is still perfective or converted into imperfectve?
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72 views

Are there any theoretical properties of punctuation marks that allow to identify them without understanding the text?

Imaging that you have discovered a stone with written text in an ancient (or alien!) language that doesn't resemble any known language. Is there a way to show that some of the symbols are likely ...
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56 views

How to explain "Propositions are sets of worlds"?

According to Kratzer, propositions are sets of worlds, but I find it really abstract. Are there any examples to explain it?
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61 views

A question about possible worlds and truth value

The sentence "He must be Mr. White." can be interpreted as "In all the possible worlds, the proposition that he is Mr.White is true", right? But I'm just wondering all the possible ...
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85 views

What is the relation between modal base and ordering source?

I edited the question again. Here is an explanation for epistemic modal, John must have the flu. a. Epistemic Modal Base (MBepis) = { John has a fever, John has a cough, John did not get a flu shot, .....
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A question about argument structure of see, watch, look

According to Kearns(2011), verbs like peer, gawk, spot, scan, sight, study, glare, eye, glance, observe, peep, stare, examine, glimpse, etc. can be categorized into "see" class, "watch&...
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40 views

Questions about identifying the thematic roles

I'm still not confident about whether I've totally understood thematic roles. Can you help me see whether these thematic roles are correct? Thank you in advance! a.[Hilda] slung [the case] [overboard]....
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400 views

/ðæs saɪd/ versus /ɡʊb bɔɪ/ - Assimilation of place versus manner

Good day I am facing a problem to distinguish between assimilation of place and assimilation of manner So in Peter R's book he said that (AOM) is much less noticeable, and he provided examples which ...
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How can we distinguish activity and semelfactive in terms of lexical aspect?

Since both of them are atelic, dynamic, not durative, then how to distinguish them?
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101 views

What's the tense ambiguity of this sentence?

I'm reading Kearns(2011) and in Ch9, the author says the sentence "All Torah’s friends were rich then" is ambiguous in the possible scopes of tense and a quantifier NP. I know one meaning is ...
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61 views

Two questions about referential opacity

I'm self-studying Kearns(2011), and here are two tricky questions I'm really curious about. I asked my classmates but they failed to answer it too. We really don't know how the first sentence can have ...
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94 views

Are these generalized quantifiers correct?

According to Kearns (2011), I know that "the ten apples are bruised" can be interpreted as "‘The ten apples are bruised’ is true if and only if |A ∩ B| = 10." But how about this ...
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112 views

What is the difference between surface structure and logical form?

I'm still confused about the difference between these two concepts. Could you explain it with some examples? Thank you in advance!:)
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1answer
52 views

What is Hierarchy of Projections?

I know that Hierarchy of Projections for VP is T > (Neg) > (M) > (Perf) > (Prog) > v > V, but what does this mean? Does it mean in a tree "T is always higher than Neg, and Neg ...
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74 views

Help with syntax analysis

Good day to everyone! Could somebody explain me why in the following sentence "that he was disappointed" is S (subject)? (It)-S (must be confessed)-V (that he was disappointed)-S.
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What's the difference between logical modality and epistemic modality?

Logical modality includes logical necessity and logical possibility, while epistemic modality includes epistemic necessity and epistemic possibility. But when I read the explanation of these concepts ...
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100 views

What is the difference between theta-role, theta-grid and argument?

I know that theta-role has the distinctions like agent, theme, goal, etc., but all of them refer to entity, right? And argument can refer to both entity and sentence? Could you please explain them as ...
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1answer
104 views

Why is the intension of a sentence the set of all possible worlds in which it is true?

In Chapter 1 Section 1.3.3 in Kearns (2011), as for the extension and intension for sentence, Midge is grinning, the extension is "truth value (true or false) in the actual world", and the ...
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221 views

Some questions about the basic concepts in semantics

According to the Semantics (Kate Kreans, 2011), there are two kinds of denotation for predicates. For example, the word 'dog', has extension (the set of all dogs in the actual world), and intension (...
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38 views

What do we call the object in the relation of denotation?

If the relation between an object and the expression is denotation, is the object also called referent?
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341 views

What is a markedness constraint in Optimality Theory?

Here is my answer but I'm not sure whether it is correct or put in a formal way. Could you help me see this? Markedness constraints allow the markedness of a feature based on universal principles of ...
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Some questions about counterbleeding

Here are two words, "writing" and "riding". I know that there are two rules for them, as in the pictures. But in the first picture, can I say the /ai/ raising rule counterbleeds ...
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A question about connotation meaning and denotation meaning

Here is a word, "flightless" which means "(of a bird or an insect) naturally unable to fly". So should we say it refers to the word's denotation meaning or connotation meaning? ...
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57 views

What are the phonological rules or constraints for these pairs of words?

Mongol-Mongolia Arab-Arabia Babylon-Babylonian Boston-Bostonian comedy-comedian colony-colonial I know that the vowel in the second syllable is lengthened, but what are the rules or constraints for ...
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2k views

What are the target and source domain of this metaphor

The metaphor is: "the shower of arrows was over". Could "War" the source domain? And the target domain could be "water"? It doesn't make sense to me. I have read the ...
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1answer
225 views

What is the general term for linguistic categories?

I have been trying to understand the division of "properties of items within a grammar or language" as wikipedia calls it into the following sets (among a few others): Grammatical category Lexical ...
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71 views

Are there approaches to/theories of grammar that do not deal with the acceptability problem?

As I understand, grammars boil down to the acceptability problem: Is an utterance acceptable to the users of some language X? How to differentiate acceptable from non-acceptable utterances? Those who ...
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54 views

Are there formal linguistic understandings of misspelled words?

For example, I will assume that people make mistakes in spelling because, often, the misspelled words look similar enough to the intended words, so the communication can be made smoothly, but I wonder ...
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230 views

What are cyclic and non-cyclic application in Phonology?

I'm still confused about the two abstract definitions. Can you give some examples to explain?
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652 views

A question about C-command

Does "John" c-command "himself" in this sentence? "Mary talked to John about himself."
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51 views

A question about Binding Theory

In Binding Theory, Principle B says a pronoun must be free in its binding domain. But I wonder if there are any other constraints? For example, "He says her is great". In this way, "her" is free in ...
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40 views

What is the relation between sonority and stress?

Are there any relations between stress and sonority? Does stress denote high sonority?
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49 views

Population models in language formation

In the same way that there are population models in epidemiology, for example the spread of diseases, is there anything equivalent in linguistics to model the dynamics of language formation? These ...
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1answer
56 views

How can we explain "head feature" of a phrase? [closed]

For example, how can we explain the head feature of an adjective phrase?
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75 views

What is the difference between tense vowel and vowel with diacritic ":"?

I'm learning the vowel part of phonology. It says the cardinal vowel "i" is tense. But what is the difference between this cardinal "i" and "i:"? They are both tense, right?
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526 views

What is non-headed phrase?

I know most of the phrases in English are headed phrases, like noun is the head of NP. But what is non-headed phrase?