Questions tagged [transcription]

Ways of systematically representing the sounds of speech in written form.

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Is plain orthographic transciption of speech recordings adequate for corpus creation?

NOTE: I am not a linguist, but my interest is in the Natural Language Processing (NLP) field. I am doing a research which is focused only on gathering new or distinct words on a recently described ...
Rod Maniego's user avatar
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What would an IPA narrow transcription be for Finnish /d/?

From Finnish Sound Structure (Suomi, Toivonen, Ylitalo): The Finnish /d/ is apical alveolar, and the duration of its occlusion is very short, about half of that of /t̪/, ceteris paribus, see e.g. ...
Someone211's user avatar
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Replace bad spelling with correct spelling

I have a large old text, written in language A but according to the spelling rules of language B. Words are understandable, but I need to make spelling correct according to the rules of A. How this ...
artemious's user avatar
1 vote
2 answers
114 views

How to analyze nasal vowels next to nasal consonants

Let's say a language uses two vowels /A/ and /B/ which differ only by one relevant phonological feature [+/- X] such that /A/ is [- X] and /B/ is [+ X]. Now let's say there's a consonant phoneme /C/ ...
Graham H.'s user avatar
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How can we represent a stressed monosyllabic word?

According to Wiktionary, in Chinese, the word 是 means "truly; indeed" when it is stressed. However, according to Wikipedia, it appears that the concept of word stress is not applicable to a ...
siffleur's user avatar
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Middle Egyptian name for Seshat: Sšꜣt or Zẖꜣt?

Trying to learn Middle Egyptian myself, I just found out there are two transcriptions for the word 𓏞 (to scribe): √sšꜣ and √zẖꜣ: In some corpora on Thesaurus Linguae Aegyptiae website the ...
puzzlet's user avatar
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Can broad and narrow transcription be distinguished by whether a transcription makes use of diacritics?

When doing transcription of English (British or American) in IPA, is broad transcription exactly the kind of transcription which doesn't make use diacritics, and narrow transcription the kind which ...
Tim's user avatar
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Phonemic transcriptions for English compound words

I have a question about the phonemic transcription for compound words in English. Is there a general rule? Specifically, Should there be space/hyphen/no space between each element in a compound? How ...
amai's user avatar
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Origin of vowel-h digraphs that English speakers use to represent phonemes

The majority of English speakers are not proficient in the International Phonetic alphabet or any other phonetic transcription system outside their own orthography. However, we often feel the need to ...
Graham H.'s user avatar
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Proto-Indo-European transcription: <u̯, i̯> vs. <w, j> & <k̑> vs. <ḱ>, etc

I’m working through a language book that uses an idiosyncratic (& confusing) transcription, so as I go I’m making my own copy with more standard symbols. I’ve just got to a section referencing PIE ...
Moilleadóir's user avatar
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When do we opt for transliteration and when do we opt for transcription?

When we encounter a word in a foreign language for example Ελληνική Δημοκρατία (meaning: Hellenic Republic) and we wish to render this in for example English, we can either opt for transliteration or ...
asker2011's user avatar
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Can someone explain the ambiguity of the vowel [ø] and null segment [∅]?

Typically the IPA avoids using the same glyph in different scales to represent similar ideas however it seems to me that the representation of the Close-mid Front Rounded Vowel [ø] and the null marker ...
An Amateurish Linguist's user avatar
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Why are the coronal approximants so different from the others?

I’m aware that there has been some criticism of the IPA’s classification of approximants, as well as debate over the merit of the term itself. However, my understanding is that approximants are the ...
Graham H.'s user avatar
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What is the difference between two symbols: /i/ and /ɪ/?

Please tell me the difference between two Short Symbols sounds, /i/ vs. /ɪ/. If there is no difference so why do both of them exist in Cambridge dictionary? In its page pronunciation symbol there is ...
Сhloe 's user avatar
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Where does one go to get a language identified?

I have a massive book from the pawn shop (i make conlangs and loved the script), and it seems to have an alphabetic 36-character script that doesn't match up to anything on omniglot or the like. I'd ...
Henery Johnson's user avatar
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How does one identify the language a text is written in. Or if it is a code

How does one decode a language? I bought a book the other day, and its like 3,000 pages worth of stuff. I'd like to read my book, but I'm not sure what language it's in or it's grammar, so what does ...
Henery Johnson's user avatar
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What's the state-of-the-art, word-level forced alignment tool that is ok to use commercially?

Forced alignment = synchronize audio and text. I'm looking for word-level forced alignment. I see many forced alignment tools: https://github.com/topics/forced-alignment https://github.com/pettarin/...
Franck Dernoncourt's user avatar
3 votes
3 answers
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Is there a a name for the process of translating from a language to another following the evolution of words in each of the languages?

The process I'm trying to describe is what someone does instinctively when they are still learning a language that has the same origin as their mother tongue, and they don't know a particular word, so ...
LoneCodeRanger's user avatar
1 vote
1 answer
335 views

How can I extract the speech from one speaker in an audio file?

Assisting with a project and they need me to extract the speech from one speaker in an interview and make it its own audio file. The audio I have are 1-1.5 hr interview recordings, and it is generally ...
Sarah's user avatar
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can anyone help me identify this consonant?

in my native language of Georgian there's a phoneme transcribed as /v/ which has a wide range of allophones depending on the speaker. I for example have the following allophones: [ɸ] or [f] when next ...
LinguisticsFanatic's user avatar
2 votes
2 answers
433 views

Does the IPA have a symbol to mark a letter that can be dropped in pronunciation?

I would like to mark a letter in a syllable with some kind of symbol that denotes that the letter can be dropped. Is there a symbol for that in the phonetic alphabet?
Zoltan King's user avatar
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is this sound [ɾ] or [ɹ]?

Here my native language is claimed to have alveolar tap or trill as its rhotic sound but recently I've wondering if it's actually a plain alveolar approximant [ɹ] instead since I noticed that my [ɾ] ...
LinguisticsFanatic's user avatar
2 votes
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150 views

Is it more correct to use the minor and major foot groups in the IPA than commas and periods?

I transcribed some phrases from TV. This is casual American connected speech: As you can notice I'm using the | and || symbols instead of the commas and periods. Also, I do not show the question mark,...
Zoltan King's user avatar
1 vote
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206 views

Full stops to indicate a syllable boundary?

Without syllable boundary: ˈwʌt̚ ˈhæp ənd || With syllable boundary: ˈwʌt̚ ˈhæp.ənd || However I have words that are two syllables and both syllables are stressed: ˈsʌmˌθɪŋz‿ˈaʊt̚ ˈðɛəɹ || As you ...
Zoltan King's user avatar
19 votes
3 answers
5k views

Why was "zh" picked to represent /ʒ/, and where does it come from?

As a native French speakers I used to be puzzled by Zh being used for /ʒ/. At first because I didn't understand the need for it, since in French j is /ʒ/, and dj is /dʒ/. Then I understood why English ...
Teleporting Goat's user avatar
1 vote
1 answer
354 views

What is the difference between <ᵊ> and <ə̆> in IPA?

what is the difference between the usage of these two symbols? aren't they basically the same thing?
LinguisticsFanatic's user avatar
0 votes
2 answers
258 views

Transcription of Devanagari script

Indian languages have many similar sounds and Devanagari & IAST scripts uniquely distinguish these For Example (not comprehensive) — IAST (Devanagari) t (त) and ṭ (ट) th (थ) and ṭh (ठ) d (द) and ...
ShivCK's user avatar
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How does one transcribe a plosive that involves lip closure AND the velum sealing off the nasal cavity before releasing the air mostly thru the nose?

In the conlang I'm creating, I want the clusters /b/ + a nasal. When I say such a cluster, I find myself realizing the /b/ with simultaneous lip closure and the production of a stop consonant that ...
James Grossmann's user avatar
4 votes
1 answer
980 views

What symbol, if any, signifies an audible nasal emission in the IPA?

I'm making a conlang and would like to include the consonant clusters /hm/ /hn/ /hɳ/ and /hŋ/ with /h/ realized as an audible nasal emission. I don't have to worry about how these clusters would be ...
James Grossmann's user avatar
0 votes
1 answer
102 views

What is the phonetic transcription of the vowel sounds in these recordings?

I'm really interested what those vowels are phonetically, sorry if there's anything wrong with the audio, I recorded it with my phone. recording 1: https://voca.ro/1eAvg2BdKK0q recording 2: https://...
LinguisticsFanatic's user avatar
13 votes
1 answer
832 views

What's the difference between a syllabic consonant and a schwa followed by a consonant?

I'm a native speaker of a language which has syllabic consonants, here are the examples კლდე/k'lde, [kʼl̩dɛ] "cliff" ქრთამი/krtami, [kʰɾ̩tʰami] "bribe" ბრძენი/brdzeni, [bɾ̩d͡zɛni] &...
LinguisticsFanatic's user avatar
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1 answer
196 views

Is there any articulatory difference between these two IPA symbols?

Is there an articulatory difference between the voiced palatal nasal [ɲ] sound and the nasalized voiced palatal approximant [j̃] sound? If there is a diference, what is it? I ask that because in ...
Ergative Man's user avatar
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Middle English: y or ȝ

Lately I've been looking up the Middle English of many Modern English words via Wiktionary. It was my understanding that by this point in the history of English ȝ was in heavy use. Yet these ...
Rubellite Fae's user avatar
4 votes
1 answer
164 views

In Search of an Etymological Name Database

Do such things even exist? Attempts at searches turn up rather limited and uninformative sites dedicated to parental demographics, and that's not what I'm looking for. Specifically, I'm looking for a ...
vicky_molokh's user avatar
15 votes
3 answers
2k views

Why Korean transcriptions of Japanese words uses the letters ㄱ,ㄷ,ㅈ for initial /k/, /t/, /tɕ/ while using ㅋ,ㅌ,ㅊ for other languages?

Looking at Korean transcription rules for Japanese, I noticed that for some consonants, the hangul transcription would change if it was in the initial position: https://kornorms.korean.go.kr//regltn/...
kanazoshi's user avatar
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5 votes
1 answer
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How comprehensive is SLIPA?

I know that SLIPA is a first go around at making an IPA table for signed languages, but how comprehensive is it? The creator freely admits that his main exposure to sign languages is ASL, which ...
Breaking Bioinformatics's user avatar
0 votes
2 answers
300 views

Narrow Transcription: How is "very narrow allophonic" transcription identical to "impressionistic" transcription enabling something extra?

English: "check the lens well" Phonetic (broad) transcription: /tʃɛkðəlɛnzwɛl/ Impressionistic narrow transcription: [tʃe̞ʔ͡kð̞əlɛ̆nzwæ̠ɫ] (One) very narrow allophonic transcription: [...
puwlah's user avatar
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2 votes
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Intuitive phonemic transcription systems for various languages

When a text or video about pronunciation is aimed at the average reader, it often doesn't use the IPA to represent sounds. Instead, it might talk about the "AW" sound as in law, the "AH&...
Daniel Wolf's user avatar
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2 answers
757 views

What cues would you look for in this spectrogram to figure out the word? [closed]

(It is produced in American English and the word is one syllable. The time scale is arbitrary so feel free to ignore it.) I was wondering what cues everyone would look for when reading this, and ...
Jay's user avatar
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2 answers
491 views

How to read sound change transcriptions? [closed]

https://chridd.nfshost.com/diachronica/ I don't understand what most of these transcriptions mean. I only know what #, #, and _x mean.
Sarāntairi's user avatar
-2 votes
1 answer
85 views

Is there any other known use of the Graphemes 'ϑ' & 'δ' outside of Avestan?

I think Avestan is really fascinating, but this confuses me. Old Persian uses 'θ' which I think is a better way to write /θ/.
Sarāntairi's user avatar
2 votes
1 answer
339 views

Is my textbook wrong about phonetic transcription?

brand new here with (I hope) a simple question. Yesterday I had my first linguistics class and the professor mentioned a difference between phonemic and phonetic transcription. He said for e.g. that a ...
David Moravec's user avatar
2 votes
2 answers
235 views

[a̟]: advanced front vowel?

I saw [a̟] in PHOIBLE and thought "okay, it's an advanced front vowel-- hold on, it's already in the front." Is it an error in PHOIBLE or an error in my linguistic knowledge? What effect ...
merrybot's user avatar
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1 vote
2 answers
303 views

What does the ◌͇ diacritic mean in the IPA?

I once saw [ʐ͇] and couldn't figure out what the diacritic meant. Any help is appreciated.
merrybot's user avatar
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1 vote
1 answer
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About the "ᵊ" superscript in IPA

I apologize for a diletant question but does "ə" in "piᵊŋ" indicate a secondary articulation? I couldn't find it in the list of "Co-articulation diacritics" on Wikipedia'...
user avatar
-2 votes
1 answer
217 views

Transliteration/Transcription of מְלאוּפּם [closed]

Notice that there is no vowel point under the פּ. This should probably be considered to be because of the fact that Hebrew is usually written without vowels, but I've never seen it written with a ...
user17584's user avatar
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4 votes
1 answer
730 views

Origin of the ا that ends the past tense of Arabic verbs for هُم?

Arabic has a lot of intricate (finicky) qualities, but one of the things that's very nice about it is that spelling is usually phonemic (with the consonants and long vowels, anyway). But the وا at the ...
Breaking Bioinformatics's user avatar
-3 votes
1 answer
77 views

Transcribing pronunciations [closed]

If someone writes that, e.g. בּ is pronounced "b" and צירי is pronounced "ie," can we say that they write that בֵּ is pronounced "bie"? I'm writing about Hebrew here but this could apply to any ...
Nathan Tracey's user avatar
-1 votes
1 answer
74 views

IPA segment for a sentence in American English [closed]

Could someone please help me out with the IPA segments for the phrase "Critical Equipment needs proper maintenance"? There have been varying answers and I'd like to know if I'm on the right track. ...
Linguistics226's user avatar
4 votes
2 answers
873 views

What is "=" in transcriptions of Hittite

I have not yet seen this double-hyphen explained, which is written eg. in An Etymological Dictionary Of The Hittite Inherited Lexicon (Kloekhorsts 2007) -a (3rd.sg.pres.midd.-ending): see -a(ri) =a '...
vectory's user avatar
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