Questions tagged [transcription]

Ways of systematically representing the sounds of speech in written form.

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How to transcribe Egyptian Hieroglyphs

I would like to come up with a guide to transcribe hieroglyphs in books into Unicode. How do I do that? First is Gardiner's list. But I would assume you simply read the hieroglyphs left to right, but ...
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A Lesson in Transcribing Egyptian Hieroglyphics

I am trying to transcribe some images of illustrations of hieroglyphics into Unicode. I am having a hard time and right off the bat there seem to be slight variations in the structure of the ...
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How do you translate academic runic encodings to runes (ᚠᚢᚦᚨᚱᚲ)?

I have not been able to find a single resource online that has (unicode encoded) Runic inscriptions like a full text of ᚠᚢᚦᚨᚱᚲ, or even a dictionary. This site lists some resources, most of which are ...
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Google Translate Thai with IPA transcription?

IPA is international standard for transcribing phonetic of any language (AFAIK, I am not a linguist), and https://translate.google.com/ is excellent tool for translating between languages. But when I ...
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relationship between writing systems, scripts, and font. Terminology clarification required

I want a clarification on terminology. A language is written in a particular script . but there are various styles for writing a script. For e.g. arabic is written in arabic script, and it can be ...
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IPA transcriptions for Norwegian

Are there online sources for Norwegian transcription? NAOB gives an orthographic one, UiB Ordbokene do not have transcription at all.
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Speech-to-IPA-allophones? [duplicate]

Hi I'm exploring a way to help people improve their accents. It seems that IPA allphonic transcriptions could help here -- if it's possible to get a decent language-independent transcription of a gold ...
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Why do we transcribe the vowel sound in 'how' as /aʊ/?

The diphthong /aʊ/ doesn't really make sense to me as a transcription. I'm a Southern British English speaker, and when I say and hear 'how' it sounds to me like /hæɒw/. /a/ doesn't seem to exist as ...
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How common is it for languages using non-Latin alphabets to borrow English words while keeping both (transliterated) spelling and pronunciation?

To illustrate what I mean, hypothetically, Russian could borrow the word "peak" from English and transliterate it as "пеак", while still pronouncing it according to the English pronunciation [piːk]. ...
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Example of a language with tones, stress, and umlauts all in one (or something more complex)

Wondering what the languages have the most bells and whistles added to latin characters. For example, pinyin has ǘ which has the umlaut and the acute accent (just 2 additions). But I'm wondering if ...
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Transcripts for Languages with Few Resources (Such as Native American Languages)

Wondering if there exist any direct Native American or other Indigenous people's transcript of a story or a complete something in their language. By indigenous I mean those living in the Amazon, New ...
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Is it possible to read the narrow IPA transcription of one's native/fluent language as effortlessly and quickly as its conventional orthography?

it seems there's no neurolinguistic limit on how many letters can a language's alphabet have (it varies a lot between languages), the IPA is a huge phonetic alphabet, As of the most recent change in ...
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eSpeak - Use transformation to IPA in Windows

eSpeak is capable of transforming text to IPA, as also mentioned in this question. I want to use the same feature in its Windows version. Is it possible? I have tried a lot, but failed. Thanks for ...
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Why does Hebrew transcribe Akkadian š inconsistently?

Biblical Hebrew consistently uses the letter ס (s) to transcribe names with the Akkadian consonant š. For example, Esarhaddon for Aššur-aḥa-iddina, Esther from Ištar, Sargon from Šarru-ukīn (all ...
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Is there any International standard for representing phonemes?

While for phones we use IPA but it seems that there is no equivalent for phonemes
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Why does Kirshenbaum use ‹r› for [ɹ] and ‹r<trl>› for regular [r]?

The stated goals of the Kirshenbaum transcription are that: It should be usable for both phonemic and narrow phonetic transcription. It should be possible to represent all symbols and ...
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How is it possible to use a single Latin alphabet for Persian which will represent ALL three standards?

How can there be a SINGLE standard Latin script (mainly for International purposes) which properly represent standard Iranian Persian, Afghan Persian and Tajik Persian. Especially the different ...
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Is there a way to teach the IPA to someone in a written way?

There wont' be any verbal help, just text. I understand it's difficult since the IPA is the Alphabet for the representation of all sounds and if you try to explain rules etc in a language, you are ...
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Transliteration-transcription method for ancient Greek & Arabic

I am currently working on a paper that deals with a Psalm from the Septuagint known as the Violet fragment - LXX, Psalm 77.The particular verses i am interested in, are written in Greek uncials, ...
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Transform Chinese, Korean, Hebrew and Arabic to IPA

I'm trying to transform texts written in Chinese, Korean, Hebrew, Arabic and other languages with non-latin alphabet to the IPA. For now, I can only think of dictionaries. Are there any other ways? ...
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Why is Indonesian Google Translator voice so much better than English?

Listen to those Indonesian words. The sound is very clear and native speakers agree with me it's way better than the voice of English Google Translator. I doubt Indonesian speaker uses more advanced ...
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Why is ⟨Г⟩ in Belarusian commonly Anglicised as ⟨h⟩, not ⟨g⟩?

The Cyrillic letter Ge (Г) is often Anglicised as ⟨g⟩. However, this depends on its pronunciation within each source language. Ge in Ukrainian is closest to the English /h/, and is therefore ...
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What are the current hurdles to automatic audio to IPA transcription?

I have heard several people tell me that automatic segmentation and transcription to (narrow) IPA of fieldwork-quality audio is impossible at the moment, and even from laboratory-quality audio ...
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Is there a tool for conversion of IPA into X-Sampa?

I need to transcribe text into X-Sampa, but I am an IPA transcriber, so for simplicity purposes I will transcribe in IPA and will then try to convert into X-Sampa. Is there any tool that would ...
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Some questions on how I pronounce “l” [closed]

I hope you can help as I'm teaching English overseas and I want to teach the standard pronunciation to students. I have a South African accent but I am starting to get paranoid and wonder if I ...
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Where to start with deciphering this language? [closed]

I do apologize if this question has been asked before or has a better place on a different part of the StackExchange network, but I've run out of places to ask this. While playing through one of my ...
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Are there any existing guidelines for romanizing Aynu Itak?

I've asked the same question over on Japanese Language Stack Exchange, but I think that the focus on the Japanese language alone will net few results overall. What I'm looking for is a standardized ...
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Egyptian Arabic to IPA conversion?

I am trying to transcript some text from Egyptian Arabic to IPA, but I can't seem to find an Egyptian Arabic dictionary with IPA transcription, an automatic transcriptor, or even comprehensive ...
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Transcribing German written text to computer readable phonetic alphabet

I already found some programs that can transcribe text automatically but they don't comply with my requirements. I need: A software that transcribes written text to IPA, SAMPA or some other phonetic ...
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OCR program for IPA?

Is there a program that can convert a scan/image of IPA into any digital encoding? UTF-8 Unicode preferred, and low-cost preferred (open source would be especially nice).
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Program or website for transcribing Old and Middle Persian

Is there any program or website that is able to transcribe Old and Middle Persian text (or transliteration of them) to an orthographic or phonetic transcription?
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To what extent can Japanese Kana be adapted to the Spanish language and be intelligible?

I have noticed that Spanish phonology is quite similar to that of Japanese and that their syllable structures are both relatively simple. Say--for instance, that one were to write a Spanish passage ...
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transliterate from IPA to Roman alphabet [closed]

I'm trying to figure out what is this in Roman Alphabet ʔə ʤoʷk (ʔə ˈmɛ ɹə ˌkʰɪn): seʲ, wʌʦ jɹ̩ ʤɐːb? (ˈʔɪ̃ŋ gɫɪʃ mə̃n): ʔɐ̃͡ɪ mə kʰlaːk. (ʔə ˈmɛ ɹə ˌkʰɪn): ...
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creaky voice unicode character tilde below with vowels

Does anyone know whether there are combined unicode characters for vowels with tilde below? I could only find them for ḛ (U+1E1B), ḭ (U+1E2D), and ṵ (U+1E75) but not for any other vowels. I'm not ...
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Should I use square brackets or slashes when transcribing an oral text in IPA?

I am transcribing an oral text into IPA in order to compare it with the "correct" pronunciation of words (e.g. according to the dictionary). I am using slashes for both versions, but it feels ...
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Are there any sources that provide accurate IPA transcriptions for Danish?

So I've been trying to write down each word as I learn it (I'm currently learning Danish) with IPA, so that I can revise wherever I am, and make sure that I am pronouncing everything right. Here's the ...
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Differences between phonemic and phonetic transcriptions

As far as I know, there are three main differences between phonemic and phonetic transcriptions: Phonetic transcriptions deal with phones or sounds, which can occur across different languages and ...
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Do Azeri people actually use Ə instead of A in names?

I have two spellings of an Azeri name: Alakbar and Ələkbər. In official contexts (ID or passport), do both forms of the name appear or just the latter? Why do Azeris still transcribe their names if ...
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Why do transcriptions from Arabic contain numbers instead of letters?

When I was looking for some Arabic lyrics I was wondering why there are numbers inbetween letters in some words (eg. "Aw3a Tes2ny" or "7obak"). Is there a reason behind this?
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General Grammatical forms of verbs

In generalizing what I have learned from Japanese "conjugations" I learned quite a bit. I have come to the realization that the same verb forms ARE present in English although English uses cue words ...
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Correctness of Wiktionary IPA Translation

The logo for Wikimedia's Wiktionary project features a narrow transcription IPA of the term: Adding English syllabification produces [ˈwɪk.ʃənˌrɪ] (WICK-shun-rih), which I find strange. I personally ...
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Are there letters or diacritics in the IPA suitable for narrow/phonetic descriptions of the Malay final -h?

In Malay there is a syllable-final -h with some unique properties distinct from the "normal" syllable-initial h. But in all the accounts of the language I can only see a single symbol used, the ...
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What are the IPA equivalents for the special characters used to transscribe indian words?

When I try to read an article related to India (in particular indo-aryan languages) certain special characters emerge which I do not know how to pronounciate. For instance: Aṣṭādhyāyī of Pāṇini ...
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What's the difference between [ɚ], [ɹ̩], and [əɹ]?

I've seen the "-er" sound in English (like in butter) transcribed in all three of the above ways, but I've heard there are subtle differences between them. What are these differences, if there are ...
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Where on the Internet can I find sound files so that I can hear the alveo-palatal consonants?

Where on the Internet can I find sound files so that I can hear the alveo-palatal consonants? I've been relying on this chart ... http://westonruter.github.io/ipa-chart/keyboard/ ... to help me ...
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Origin of Alphabetic/Phonemic Scripts

Dixon (the Australianist) has claimed that the Phoenician/Canaanite script is the ultimate source of all known alphabetic (purely essentially-phonemic) scripts on Earth; all other scripts are not ...
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Are there any good open source English text to IPA/other phonetics alphabet transcription programs?

I'm writing a computer program which requires some of this functionality at one point, so I wanted to get into a (better-written) code and have a look, to get some inspiration. Are there any good ones ...
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IPA Transcription help [closed]

I'm a linguistics student and working on narrow transcriptions. Most transcription come fairly easily to me, but I'm caught up on the vowel in the word "hard" How should the vowel be transcribed with ...
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How do I romanize words from the Akha Language?

I'm sorry for putting up such a specific question here but any help will be really appreciated. Akha is the language spoken by the Akha people of southern China (Yunnan Province), eastern Burma (...
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Is there any symbol to represent an unknown vowel?

Is there any symbol to represent a vowel? Is there any symbol to represent a constant? For example "bog", "bat" and "bag" can be represented by b[v][c] or b✦✧. Udate: In a paper I want to describe ...