Questions tagged [transcription]

Ways of systematically representing the sounds of speech in written form.

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How can I extract the speech from one speaker in an audio file?

Assisting with a project and they need me to extract the speech from one speaker in an interview and make it its own audio file. The audio I have are 1-1.5 hr interview recordings, and it is generally ...
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can anyone help me identify this consonant?

in my native language of Georgian there's a phoneme transcribed as /v/ which has a wide range of allophones depending on the speaker. I for example have the following allophones: [ɸ] or [f] when next ...
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2 votes
2 answers
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Does the IPA have a symbol to mark a letter that can be dropped in pronunciation?

I would like to mark a letter in a syllable with some kind of symbol that denotes that the letter can be dropped. Is there a symbol for that in the phonetic alphabet?
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is this sound [ɾ] or [ɹ]?

Here my native language is claimed to have alveolar tap or trill as its rhotic sound but recently I've wondering if it's actually a plain alveolar approximant [ɹ] instead since I noticed that my [ɾ] ...
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Is it more correct to use the minor and major foot groups in the IPA than commas and periods?

I transcribed some phrases from TV. This is casual American connected speech: As you can notice I'm using the | and || symbols instead of the commas and periods. Also, I do not show the question mark,...
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Full stops to indicate a syllable boundary?

Without syllable boundary: ˈwʌt̚ ˈhæp ənd || With syllable boundary: ˈwʌt̚ ˈhæp.ənd || However I have words that are two syllables and both syllables are stressed: ˈsʌmˌθɪŋz‿ˈaʊt̚ ˈðɛəɹ || As you ...
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18 votes
4 answers
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Why was "zh" picked to represent /ʒ/, and where does it come from?

As a native French speakers I used to be puzzled by Zh being used for /ʒ/. At first because I didn't understand the need for it, since in French j is /ʒ/, and dj is /dʒ/. Then I understood why English ...
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What is the difference between <ᵊ> and <ə̆> in IPA?

what is the difference between the usage of these two symbols? aren't they basically the same thing?
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Transcription of Devanagari script

Indian languages have many similar sounds and Devanagari & IAST scripts uniquely distinguish these For Example (not comprehensive) — IAST (Devanagari) t (त) and ṭ (ट) th (थ) and ṭh (ठ) d (द) and ...
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How does one transcribe a plosive that involves lip closure AND the velum sealing off the nasal cavity before releasing the air mostly thru the nose?

In the conlang I'm creating, I want the clusters /b/ + a nasal. When I say such a cluster, I find myself realizing the /b/ with simultaneous lip closure and the production of a stop consonant that ...
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What symbol, if any, signifies an audible nasal emission in the IPA?

I'm making a conlang and would like to include the consonant clusters /hm/ /hn/ /hɳ/ and /hŋ/ with /h/ realized as an audible nasal emission. I don't have to worry about how these clusters would be ...
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What is the phonetic transcription of the vowel sounds in these recordings?

I'm really interested what those vowels are phonetically, sorry if there's anything wrong with the audio, I recorded it with my phone. recording 1: https://voca.ro/1eAvg2BdKK0q recording 2: https://...
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13 votes
1 answer
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What's the difference between a syllabic consonant and a schwa followed by a consonant?

I'm a native speaker of a language which has syllabic consonants, here are the examples კლდე/k'lde, [kʼl̩dɛ] "cliff" ქრთამი/krtami, [kʰɾ̩tʰami] "bribe" ბრძენი/brdzeni, [bɾ̩d͡zɛni] &...
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Is there any articulatory difference between these two IPA symbols?

Is there an articulatory difference between the voiced palatal nasal [ɲ] sound and the nasalized voiced palatal approximant [j̃] sound? If there is a diference, what is it? I ask that because in ...
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Middle English: y or ȝ

Lately I've been looking up the Middle English of many Modern English words via Wiktionary. It was my understanding that by this point in the history of English ȝ was in heavy use. Yet these ...
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In Search of an Etymological Name Database

Do such things even exist? Attempts at searches turn up rather limited and uninformative sites dedicated to parental demographics, and that's not what I'm looking for. Specifically, I'm looking for a ...
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3 answers
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Why Korean transcriptions of Japanese words uses the letters ㄱ,ㄷ,ㅈ for initial /k/, /t/, /tɕ/ while using ㅋ,ㅌ,ㅊ for other languages?

Looking at Korean transcription rules for Japanese, I noticed that for some consonants, the hangul transcription would change if it was in the initial position: https://kornorms.korean.go.kr//regltn/...
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How comprehensive is SLIPA?

I know that SLIPA is a first go around at making an IPA table for signed languages, but how comprehensive is it? The creator freely admits that his main exposure to sign languages is ASL, which ...
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2 answers
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Narrow Transcription: How is "very narrow allophonic" transcription identical to "impressionistic" transcription enabling something extra?

English: "check the lens well" Phonetic (broad) transcription: /tʃɛkðəlɛnzwɛl/ Impressionistic narrow transcription: [tʃe̞ʔ͡kð̞əlɛ̆nzwæ̠ɫ] (One) very narrow allophonic transcription: [...
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Intuitive phonemic transcription systems for various languages

When a text or video about pronunciation is aimed at the average reader, it often doesn't use the IPA to represent sounds. Instead, it might talk about the "AW" sound as in law, the "AH&...
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What cues would you look for in this spectrogram to figure out the word? [closed]

(It is produced in American English and the word is one syllable. The time scale is arbitrary so feel free to ignore it.) I was wondering what cues everyone would look for when reading this, and ...
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How to read sound change transcriptions? [closed]

https://chridd.nfshost.com/diachronica/ I don't understand what most of these transcriptions mean. I only know what #, #, and _x mean.
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Is there any other known use of the Graphemes 'ϑ' & 'δ' outside of Avestan?

I think Avestan is really fascinating, but this confuses me. Old Persian uses 'θ' which I think is a better way to write /θ/.
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1 answer
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Is my textbook wrong about phonetic transcription?

brand new here with (I hope) a simple question. Yesterday I had my first linguistics class and the professor mentioned a difference between phonemic and phonetic transcription. He said for e.g. that a ...
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2 votes
2 answers
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[a̟]: advanced front vowel?

I saw [a̟] in PHOIBLE and thought "okay, it's an advanced front vowel-- hold on, it's already in the front." Is it an error in PHOIBLE or an error in my linguistic knowledge? What effect ...
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What does the ◌͇ diacritic mean in the IPA?

I once saw [ʐ͇] and couldn't figure out what the diacritic meant. Any help is appreciated.
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About the "ᵊ" superscript in IPA

I apologize for a diletant question but does "ə" in "piᵊŋ" indicate a secondary articulation? I couldn't find it in the list of "Co-articulation diacritics" on Wikipedia'...
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Transliteration/Transcription of מְלאוּפּם [closed]

Notice that there is no vowel point under the פּ. This should probably be considered to be because of the fact that Hebrew is usually written without vowels, but I've never seen it written with a ...
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Origin of the ا that ends the past tense of Arabic verbs for هُم?

Arabic has a lot of intricate (finicky) qualities, but one of the things that's very nice about it is that spelling is usually phonemic (with the consonants and long vowels, anyway). But the وا at the ...
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1 answer
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Transcribing pronunciations [closed]

If someone writes that, e.g. בּ is pronounced "b" and צירי is pronounced "ie," can we say that they write that בֵּ is pronounced "bie"? I'm writing about Hebrew here but this could apply to any ...
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-1 votes
1 answer
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IPA segment for a sentence in American English [closed]

Could someone please help me out with the IPA segments for the phrase "Critical Equipment needs proper maintenance"? There have been varying answers and I'd like to know if I'm on the right track. ...
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4 votes
2 answers
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What is "=" in transcriptions of Hittite

I have not yet seen this double-hyphen explained, which is written eg. in An Etymological Dictionary Of The Hittite Inherited Lexicon (Kloekhorsts 2007) -a (3rd.sg.pres.midd.-ending): see -a(ri) =a '...
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8 votes
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What does 6 represent in Medieval Welsh?

In both A Glossary of Mediaeval Welsh Law (1913, Timothy Lewis) and Early Welsh Gnomic Poems (1935 ed. Kenneth Jackson) you can find the numeral 6 used (apparently) to represent a vowel. Can anyone ...
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3 votes
4 answers
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What do these subscripts/superscripts mean in IPA?

Here is an example of a sentence from the Glossika course in Taiwanese Hokkien: The "Phonics" line is the IPA line. (The "Typing" line is the Tâi-lô romanization; I don't know where the "...
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6 votes
1 answer
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Problems with the adoption of the Latin script in English?

How did the Middle English adapted itself to the Latin script? As I read it, Latin script didn't really suit the sounds in this language. Was the adaptation authoritative, ruled by a central ...
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What is the phonetic transcription of the Lithuanian name Austėja? [closed]

I do not know how to transcribe this name.
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How to transcribe Egyptian Hieroglyphs

I would like to come up with a guide to transcribe hieroglyphs in books into Unicode. How do I do that? First is Gardiner's list. But I would assume you simply read the hieroglyphs left to right, but ...
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2 votes
2 answers
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A Lesson in Transcribing Egyptian Hieroglyphics

I am trying to transcribe some images of illustrations of hieroglyphics into Unicode. I am having a hard time and right off the bat there seem to be slight variations in the structure of the ...
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1 vote
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How do you translate academic runic encodings to runes (ᚠᚢᚦᚨᚱᚲ)?

I have not been able to find a single resource online that has (unicode encoded) Runic inscriptions like a full text of ᚠᚢᚦᚨᚱᚲ, or even a dictionary. This site lists some resources, most of which are ...
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3 votes
1 answer
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Google Translate Thai with IPA transcription?

IPA is international standard for transcribing phonetic of any language (AFAIK, I am not a linguist), and https://translate.google.com/ is excellent tool for translating between languages. But when I ...
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1 vote
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relationship between writing systems, scripts, and font. Terminology clarification required

I want a clarification on terminology. A language is written in a particular script . but there are various styles for writing a script. For e.g. arabic is written in arabic script, and it can be ...
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1 answer
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IPA transcriptions for Norwegian

Are there online sources for Norwegian transcription? NAOB gives an orthographic one, UiB Ordbokene do not have transcription at all.
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Why do we transcribe the vowel sound in 'how' as /aʊ/?

The diphthong /aʊ/ doesn't really make sense to me as a transcription. I'm a Southern British English speaker, and when I say and hear 'how' it sounds to me like /hæɒw/. /a/ doesn't seem to exist as ...
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How common is it for languages using non-Latin alphabets to borrow English words while keeping both (transliterated) spelling and pronunciation?

To illustrate what I mean, hypothetically, Russian could borrow the word "peak" from English and transliterate it as "пеак", while still pronouncing it according to the English pronunciation [piːk]. ...
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Example of a language with tones, stress, and umlauts all in one (or something more complex)

Wondering what the languages have the most bells and whistles added to latin characters. For example, pinyin has ǘ which has the umlaut and the acute accent (just 2 additions). But I'm wondering if ...
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2 votes
5 answers
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Transcripts for Languages with Few Resources (Such as Native American Languages)

Wondering if there exist any direct Native American or other Indigenous people's transcript of a story or a complete something in their language. By indigenous I mean those living in the Amazon, New ...
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4 votes
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Is it possible to read the narrow IPA transcription of one's native/fluent language as effortlessly and quickly as its conventional orthography?

it seems there's no neurolinguistic limit on how many letters can a language's alphabet have (it varies a lot between languages), the IPA is a huge phonetic alphabet, As of the most recent change in ...
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eSpeak - Use transformation to IPA in Windows

eSpeak is capable of transforming text to IPA, as also mentioned in this question. I want to use the same feature in its Windows version. Is it possible? I have tried a lot, but failed. Thanks for ...
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Why does Hebrew transcribe Akkadian š inconsistently?

Biblical Hebrew consistently uses the letter ס (s) to transcribe names with the Akkadian consonant š. For example, Esarhaddon for Aššur-aḥa-iddina, Esther from Ištar, Sargon from Šarru-ukīn (all ...
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Is there any International standard for representing phonemes?

While for phones we use IPA but it seems that there is no equivalent for phonemes
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