Questions tagged [x-bar-theory]

A syntactic theory that postulates intermediate constituents below the phrase level (XP) but above the word level (X), known as "X-bar" (written "X̅" or "X′").

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Syntax X Bar Tree - Complements & Adjuncts

I am having some trouble to identify Complements and Adjuncts. I have the following sentence: "A picture of the accident of Gabriel is saved on the album with a pink cover with the white dots&...
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x-bar theory - the conjunction "and" connecting different elements

Normally, We use the conjunction "and" to connect two words, phrases, or clauses with the same grammatical functions and grammatical forms. But I wonder how to draw a tree if the conjunction ...
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Is there a language whose syntactic structure accepts a specifier of a PP?

We know a preposition (in X-bar theory) is the head of a prepositional phrase and it has a complement that is the sister of this very preposition. However I've never seen a language with a constituent ...
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V-Bar Syntax in Latin

I am reading Devine and Stephens Latin Word Order, but without the requisite grounding in formal linguistics. They use the term V-bar syntax, and I am not sure what they mean by this and would like ...
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How do you draw a x-bar tree with negative inversion? [closed]

For example: 'Never was I so offended' There is already a T to C inversion with 'was', where do we put the word 'Never'? And how should we label it? AdvP or Neg?
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Is Generative / X-bar Theory prescriptivist? (can the descriptivist linguist create X-bar syntax trees?)

I'm drawing some x-bar syntax trees. These seem highly prescriptivist in that it says that you can only do x,y & z. For example the sentence "Because I'm lazy means I'm more efficient" ...
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How to treat adverbial phrases in X-bar theory

My question is about how to represent so-called adverbial phrases like "last night" or "all day". My confusion arises because there seems to be a consensus that these phrases are ...
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In X bar theory, is the first auxiliary the head of an interrogative clause and the remainder the complement?

In X bar theory, the first auxiliary is the head of a declarative clause: (1) She will have finished it by tomorrow. Here, subject she is a specifier, and verb phrase have finished it by tomorrow is ...
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To what extent was Chomsky influenced by Tesnière?

Kind of a question about the meta-history of linguistics as a discipline. Chomsky released 'Syntactic Structures' in the US in 1957; Tesnière released Éléments de syntaxe structurale posthumously ...
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How to determine structure of answer for a wh- question

Consider a wh-question (in english language) such as "Who closed the door?". Personally, I can determine that an answer will look like "NP closed the door.", where NP would be a ...
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What is the syntactic function (if there is any) of the prefix in some German verbs?

Consider the following sentence: "Ich rufe dich an". It is a very simple Standard German sentence with the verb "anrufen", the unusual thing about it is this prefix that comes ...
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Floating quantifiers in X-bar theory: "the men all have gone"

In chapter 9 of Syntax: A generative Introduction (2nd ed), Carnie shows that we can solve some problems by generating subjects in Spec of VP and letting them move to Spec of TP. In the first ...
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What is the position of 'that' in the relative clause of this sentence?

Researchers report they have engineered an enzyme that can convert 90% of that same plastic back to its pristine starting materials. Does that originate in spec TP and move to spec CP like in this ...
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is PP ‘out’ an adjunct or a complement of V ‘get’ in ‘get out’

As the title shows, in a VP ‘get out’, is PP ‘out’ an adjunct of VP ‘get’, or a complement of V ‘get’?
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Why only 1 complement is possible?

Source: p 178, 179. Syntax, A Generative Introduction (3 ed, 2012) by Andrew Carnie [p 178:] 81) Adjunct rule: X' ⟶ X' (ZP) 82) Complement rule: X' ⟶ X (WP) [p 179:] What this means for ...
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What is the relation between a specifier and a determiner?

Does specifier mean "the" and "possesser" and determiner mean "the" and "possessive 's"?
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You are the first person [to notice the mistake]. (complement vs adjunct/modifier)

You are the {first person to notice the mistake}. There's no doubt {} is N'. The question is whether first person is a small N' on its own. If to notice the mistake is an adjunct of first person, ...
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Critics and arguments against the generative syntax theories?

The Generative approach on syntax is very elegant, useful and very complete as far as I can see. I think that, as all theories have, there must have some critics on it. But I don't know where to find ...
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How to draw the NP "so little" in "He said so little" in a tree diagram?

He said so little. includes the NP so little, which doesn't include any noun. In the X-bar theory style tree diagram, how do you go about describing the NP? Do you have N' below the NP? Do you have ...
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What grammar term corresponds to N' in X-bar theory?

The core idea of X-bar theory is that it has what is called 'bar-level projection' or 'intermediate projection', which is normally represented by X'. And X represents any of the categories N, V, Adj, ...
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Tree diagrams in CGEL

I have a question about this tree diagram in The Cambridge Grammar of The English Language (by Huddleston and Pullum): Please see the tree diagram in the red box of the nominal preposterous salary ...
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Does the relative clause (which suggests...) here function as an adjunct of the whole clause in front of it?

The high notes returned to his compositions towards the end of his life, which suggests he was hearing the works that were taking shape in his imagination. I'm not sure how to write up the syntax ...
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In X Bar Theory where can "ne" and "pas" be found?

I have read past papers on French negation and it says that it is accepted that the NegP in French is null, and "pas" is specifier to NegP. So what would "ne" be then? I haven't been able to find ...
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Subcategorisation Frame with DPs

I want to construct a subcatagorisation frame for some words, for example that take a DP complement. Take the preposition "between" as example. I arrive at this point: Form: "...
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Struggling With Split Projections In My X Bar Tree Diagram

I am trying to complete this linguistics question but I am a bit stuck. I'm not sure if I'm using the AgrNomO projections correctly. I have attached the tree diagram, and here is the question: Draw ...
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Confusion over Adverbial Adjuncts (X' Bar Theory)

For my Syntax class this semester, we've been asked to look at a language more in depth and try to develop X-Bar compatible rules for it. In doing so, I've come across a reoccurring problem that may ...
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Phrase structure tree of a Wh question

The sentence would be "Whose dirty underwear is this?". I assume that the base (is that called deep structure sentence?) would be "This is whose dirty underwear" but I'm not sure what ...
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DP acting as AdvP?

Is it possible for a DP like "three times" to act as an AdvP ("He read the book three times.")? How would such a constituency tree look like? How does the DP modify the verb? Conversely, would the ...
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Drawing trees for DP's and Sentences

I'm reading Adger's book Core Syntax and am having trouble with one of the sentences in the last exercise in the Functional Categories chapter. The task is to draw and annotate the tree (bar level and ...
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Parsing a sentence with the noun as the Predicator

Can the sentence "That professor is a syntactician," in which the DP "a syntactician" is the predicator, be parsed like a normal sentence, using x-bar theory, the Predicate Shell and the DP Hypothesis?...
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Does "to" correspond to verb inflection in X-bar theory?

In this Government & Binding Theory book I'm reading, it is assumed that "to" in to-infinitives corresponds to verb inflection, meaning that in x-bar tree "to" appears under INFL, exactly where ...
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Are English modal verbs tensed or non-tensed?

My assumption: English modal verbs are non-tensed (i.e. we don't say shoulds or shoulded). Yet, in X' bar theory, modal verbs appear under the inflection node I', precisely where we find the ...
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X-bar Theory WH and DP movements [closed]

this year I opted to study English syntax as a non native speaker and we arrived to the movements on the X-bar theory. We are studying DP and WH movements on sentences, and while I'm able to ...
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Can the first auxiliary verb be the specifier of a VP in the X-Bar theory?

As far as I know, the first auxiliary is normally treated as the head of a verb phrase (VP) in the X-Bar theory. He was writing a letter. In this sentence, for example, the first auxiliary, was, ...
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X-bar tree of the sentence "Why would she not have actually been giving him back the present yesterday?"

I'm having trouble with a particular x bar tree. We're mostly using Liliane Haegeman & Jacqueline Guéron's "English Grammar – A Generative Perspective" as our bible, with some adjustments, e.g. DP'...
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How do contractions work in syntactic movement?

Specifically when the surface structure uncontracted would be ungrammatical. Eg: "Don't turtles live forever?" (Do turtles not live forever/*Do not turtles live forever). EDIT - Sorry if it's broad ...
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'there' vs 'it' expletive insertion

These are my conditions for detecting an expletive position: if spec IP has been assigned non 'null' Case and is not theta marked. However, after this I struggle to choose between 'it' and 'there'. ...
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How do we explain the fact that agreement comes from the object with 'there'?

For example: There is a man. There are men. How do we explain that agreement of the verb comes from the object in this case alone? What movement happens in the verb complex of the xbar tree of the ...
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Case assignment with prepositions

Consider these examples: 'I am happy with my parents' my parents gets assigned Case by 'with'. *'I am proud with my parents' My question is as follows: What is the reasoning for 2 being ...
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How do you coreference a possesive pronouns with an x-bar tree?

Following Chomsky's linguistic theory (The Minimalist Program), r-expressions must be free, where free means that nothing should c-command it such that the indices have a non null intersection (if I ...
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What is the x-bar tree of 'I am proud of my students'? (having trouble with proud)

I am having trouble attaching the 'proud' to the 'am'. 'Am' is a verb and 'proud' is an adjective for the noun 'I', so should come as an adjunct for 'I', but here it would have to somehow come from ...
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X-bar: Put 'Where' in a Determiner Phrase or in an Adverb Phrase?

I'm currently working on an introductory guide to X-bar Theory for a group of students, and was wondering whether to classify a specific part as a Determiner Phrase or an Adverb Phrase. I have ...
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Why is it that the wh-word as a subject in the spec position cannot raise over an auxiliary verb like 'did'?

When the question word is the subject of the clause, there is no aux verb, eg 'Who saw you?'. I understand this, but why is 'who did see you?' also correct, with respect to Chomsky's linguistic theory ...
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How do noun-noun compounds fit into a noun phrase in syntax?

I have a question regarding attributive nouns, or noun-noun compounds, and how they are integrated into syntactic rules for NP formation. Typically, the rule given in textbooks for forming a NP is the ...
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What kind of word is 'same' in 'same-day delivery'?

I assumed it's a complement like this: But it seems like the only adjectives that can replace 'same' are numbers. two-day delivery *good-day delivery So what's going on here? What do you call the ...
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Is the X bar theory applicable to any natural language other than English?

Is Chomsky's X bar theory applicable to any natural language other than English? Or is it applicable to English only or to only a subset of natural languages including English? EDIT I think that ...
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How are to-infinitive clauses treated in x-bar syntax trees?

For example: The man refused to send any letters to that place. This is what I have so far from the Syntax Tree Generator. What should replace the X there?
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X-bar theory without movement

Are there any theories out there that use X-bar theory but deny movement (like Dependency Syntax can)?
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How to determine when an additional X-bar or XP can be used

In diagramming sentences, I never seem to understand when it's permissible to add an additional X-bar (X') or XP segment to a tree. Is there a rule for knowing when an additional branch of the same X ...
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X Bar Phrase Structure Question

I'm running into a bit of trouble constructing a tree for the following Lakota sentence: Wičháša ki hokšíla ki hená mathó wã wãyákapi ki slolyé man the boy the those bear a see ...
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