Questions tagged [x-bar-theory]

A syntactic theory that postulates intermediate constituents below the phrase level (XP) but above the word level (X), known as "X-bar" (written "X̅" or "X′").

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2
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0answers
42 views

What are the most accepted theories about negation under GB?

The most common approaches that I've seen are where there is a NegP after IP/TP, and where the negation is just an adjunct to VP.
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Confusion over Adverbial Adjuncts (X' Bar Theory)

For my Syntax class this semester, we've been asked to look at a language more in depth and try to develop X-Bar compatible rules for it. In doing so, I've come across a reoccurring problem that may ...
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1answer
127 views

Phrase structure tree of a Wh question

The sentence would be "Whose dirty underwear is this?". I assume that the base (is that called deep structure sentence?) would be "This is whose dirty underwear" but I'm not sure what ...
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1answer
93 views

DP acting as AdvP?

Is it possible for a DP like "three times" to act as an AdvP ("He read the book three times.")? How would such a constituency tree look like? How does the DP modify the verb? Conversely, would the ...
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119 views

Drawing trees for DP's and Sentences

I'm reading Adger's book Core Syntax and am having trouble with one of the sentences in the last exercise in the Functional Categories chapter. The task is to draw and annotate the tree (bar level and ...
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30 views

How do we set comparative adverbs, from expressions like “more than x” on the syntax tree?

I'm trying to figure something out from Portuguese, but if you can answer me that based on English, it will help a lot. Thanks.
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Parsing a sentence with the noun as the Predicator

Can the sentence "That professor is a syntactician," in which the DP "a syntactician" is the predicator, be parsed like a normal sentence, using x-bar theory, the Predicate Shell and the DP Hypothesis?...
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Does “to” correspond to verb inflection in X-bar theory?

In this Government & Binding Theory book I'm reading, it is assumed that "to" in to-infinitives corresponds to verb inflection, meaning that in x-bar tree "to" appears under INFL, exactly where ...
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6answers
404 views

Are English modal verbs tensed or non-tensed?

My assumption: English modal verbs are non-tensed (i.e. we don't say shoulds or shoulded). Yet, in X' bar theory, modal verbs appear under the inflection node I', precisely where we find the ...
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1answer
400 views

X-bar Theory WH and DP movements [closed]

this year I opted to study English syntax as a non native speaker and we arrived to the movements on the X-bar theory. We are studying DP and WH movements on sentences, and while I'm able to ...
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1answer
468 views

Can the first auxiliary verb be the specifier of a VP in the X-Bar theory?

As far as I know, the first auxiliary is normally treated as the head of a verb phrase (VP) in the X-Bar theory. He was writing a letter. In this sentence, for example, the first auxiliary, was, ...
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X-bar tree of the sentence “Why would she not have actually been giving him back the present yesterday?”

I'm having trouble with a particular x bar tree. We're mostly using Liliane Haegeman & Jacqueline Guéron's "English Grammar – A Generative Perspective" as our bible, with some adjustments, e.g. DP'...
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475 views

How do contractions work in syntactic movement?

Specifically when the surface structure uncontracted would be ungrammatical. Eg: "Don't turtles live forever?" (Do turtles not live forever/*Do not turtles live forever). EDIT - Sorry if it's broad ...
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181 views

'there' vs 'it' expletive insertion

These are my conditions for detecting an expletive position: if spec IP has been assigned non 'null' Case and is not theta marked. However, after this I struggle to choose between 'it' and 'there'. ...
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3answers
134 views

How do we explain the fact that agreement comes from the object with 'there'?

For example: There is a man. There are men. How do we explain that agreement of the verb comes from the object in this case alone? What movement happens in the verb complex of the xbar tree of the ...
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1answer
196 views

Case assignment with prepositions

Consider these examples: 'I am happy with my parents' my parents gets assigned Case by 'with'. *'I am proud with my parents' My question is as follows: What is the reasoning for 2 being ...
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1answer
312 views

How do you coreference a possesive pronouns with an x-bar tree?

Following Chomsky's linguistic theory (The Minimalist Program), r-expressions must be free, where free means that nothing should c-command it such that the indices have a non null intersection (if I ...
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2answers
514 views

What is the x-bar tree of 'I am proud of my students'? (having trouble with proud)

I am having trouble attaching the 'proud' to the 'am'. 'Am' is a verb and 'proud' is an adjective for the noun 'I', so should come as an adjunct for 'I', but here it would have to somehow come from ...
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X-bar: Put 'Where' in a Determiner Phrase or in an Adverb Phrase?

I'm currently working on an introductory guide to X-bar Theory for a group of students, and was wondering whether to classify a specific part as a Determiner Phrase or an Adverb Phrase. I have ...
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1answer
136 views

Why is it that the wh-word as a subject in the spec position cannot raise over an auxiliary verb like 'did'?

When the question word is the subject of the clause, there is no aux verb, eg 'Who saw you?'. I understand this, but why is 'who did see you?' also correct, with respect to Chomsky's linguistic theory ...
4
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1answer
659 views

How do noun-noun compounds fit into a noun phrase in syntax?

I have a question regarding attributive nouns, or noun-noun compounds, and how they are integrated into syntactic rules for NP formation. Typically, the rule given in textbooks for forming a NP is the ...
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1answer
70 views

What kind of word is 'same' in 'same-day delivery'?

I assumed it's a complement like this: But it seems like the only adjectives that can replace 'same' are numbers. two-day delivery *good-day delivery So what's going on here? What do you call the ...
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1answer
484 views

Is the X bar theory applicable to any natural language other than English?

Is Chomsky's X bar theory applicable to any natural language other than English? Or is it applicable to English only or to only a subset of natural languages including English? EDIT I think that ...
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1answer
778 views

How are to-infinitive clauses treated in x-bar syntax trees?

For example: The man refused to send any letters to that place. This is what I have so far from the Syntax Tree Generator. What should replace the X there?
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2answers
123 views

X-bar theory without movement

Are there any theories out there that use X-bar theory but deny movement (like Dependency Syntax can)?
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356 views

How to determine when an additional X-bar or XP can be used

In diagramming sentences, I never seem to understand when it's permissible to add an additional X-bar (X') or XP segment to a tree. Is there a rule for knowing when an additional branch of the same X ...
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2answers
578 views

X Bar Phrase Structure Question

I'm running into a bit of trouble constructing a tree for the following Lakota sentence: Wičháša ki hokšíla ki hená mathó wã wãyákapi ki slolyé man the boy the those bear a see ...
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1answer
75 views

Why cannot the Intermediate Structure be again XP, instead of X'?

Source: p 167. Syntax, A Generative Introduction (3 ed, 2012) by Andrew Carnie. We need these “intermediate” N' (pronounced “en-bar”) categories to explain the items that are conjoined in these ...
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How is it true that only 1 complement is possible?

Source: p 178, 179. Syntax, A Generative Introduction (3 ed, 2012) by Andrew Carnie [p 178:] 81) Adjunct rule: X' ⟶ X' (ZP) 82) Complement rule: X' ⟶ X (WP) [p 179:] What this means for ...
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1answer
89 views

How is there 'no node that c-commands B that A also c-commands'?

Source: p 130, Syntax, A Generative Introduction (3 ed, 2012) by Andrew Carnie In this tree, A governs B. It c-commands B, and [1.] there is no node that c-commands B that A also c-...
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1answer
272 views

Restrictions on Wh-movement

I know that for wh-movement out of a non-root CP successive cyclic movement is needed, so moving to spec-CP of the lower CP and then from there to the root-CP, but what's the specific restriction on ...
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Noun adjuncts (attributive nouns) in the x-bar scheme [closed]

What category are the two nouns for the following phrases: A) The play by Bill Roberts B) A chicken soup bowl according to distributional criteria "Roberts" and "soup" are adjectives, but should ...
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1answer
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'treatment of the issues' and 'sensitivity to the problems': Why cannot these be Noun Phrases?

Source: p 178 Understanding Syntax (4 ed, 2014) by Prof. Maggie Tallerman PhD in Linguistics (U. Hull). The author is using (84) and (85) to introduce Bar Notation. In (84), admired has a ...
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3answers
1k views

Split-INFL Hypothesis and X-Bar Theory

According to the Split-INFL hypothesis, the subject of a sentence moves from the specifier of the predicate to SpecTP to satisfy the EPP and lastly to SpecAgrSP to obtain NOM case. Is there any reason ...
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1answer
124 views

How are DPs generally structured when just encapsulating a noun?

I often see a noun such as "Jimmy" in my textbook represented as [DP_Jimmy]. But there is no more detail provided as to its internal structure. This means either the D is null such as: or that "Jimmy"...
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120 views

How can we account for head-final PPs and VPs in Classical Chinese?

According to Koopman (1983), there is an explanation for why Chinese, despite being a head-final language, has SVO and prepositional features. She suggested that Chinese assigns Case to the right but ...
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1answer
540 views

Sentences using the X bar theory [closed]

I am studying linguistics and currently have Syntax and am trying to understand the X bar theory. Could someone please draw a tree of the sentence down below for me so I could get a better ...
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688 views

X-bar analysis of Copular verbs?

Can someone help me with the analysis of copular or linking verbs in X-bar theory. What would be the position of subject in sentences like "Mary is beautiful". Is "Mary" the theme of adjectival ...
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2answers
2k views

What exactly is the SBAR label from the Penn TreeBank?

From this list of tags: SBAR - Clause introduced by a (possibly empty) subordinating conjunction. This site explains what a subordinating conjunction is. But how can you have an empty ...
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1answer
842 views

Genitives without explicit genitive case marking

In English, the NP in the genitive is the specifier of D' under which the genitive 's head subsumes. E.g.: [DP [NP [N' [N Ali]]][D'[D 's][NP [N' [N mother]]]]] In Malay, nouns in the genitive case ...
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1answer
512 views

How to apply x-bar structure to split verb phrases?

Consider the sentence "Who will John meet in the classroom?". What would the (s-structured) x-bar tree of this sentence look like? Does "will" still simply go in the T node, or is it a CP-specifier, ...
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1answer
364 views

Predication in X-Bar theory

Where do predicatives (predicative adjectives and nominals) over the subject or over the object fit into an X-bar-tree? For instance: Pedro pintó a María sentada. Peter painted Mary seated. (=...
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1answer
2k views

Relative clauses in X-Bar

How do I break down the Complement further in accordance with X bar theory.
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1answer
453 views

Basic questions on X Bar

When formulating a answer to this question - please note I only have a basic high school level of English. I watched a video on X-Bar theory. I am just trying to get a basic understanding. What does ...
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1answer
432 views

Why doesn't X-bar theory overgenerate?

X-bar PS rules are as follows: XP' -> <spec.> X' X' -> <adjunct> X' <adjunct> X' -> X <comp.> What's stopping us from generating phrases like the following? [SPEC ...
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2k views

Multiple Adjectives in an X-Bar Tree

I'm having some trouble integrating phrases with multiple adjectives into x-bar trees. Based on what I can understand from the textbook, I would get something like this (apologies for the verb ...
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2answers
12k views

X-Bar theory and Trees [closed]

I am studying linguistics and now this semester my subject is Syntax. I tried a few times to draw a tree using X-Bar theory and Dp's but I couldn't achieve. Can someone please draw a tree of the ...
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115 views

X after X construction?

We were given some data and the questions below. I don't need someone to tell me the answer, I just need someone to help explain what X after X construction is. It makes NO sense to me! Major ...
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2answers
836 views

How are topic-phrases represented in X-bar trees

How is the word "elephant" in the following Japanese sentence represented in the corresponding X-bar tree? Elephant trunk long TOP NOM NPST Is the tree flat or are "elephant" and "trunk" ...
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2answers
5k views

Basic syntax notation: noun phrase vs determiner phrase

I'm a first-semester student in linguistics and I need clarifications regarding the following trees: (1) and (2) My course notes seem to stick with the first kind of notation but when I read ...