Questions tagged [x-bar-theory]

A syntactic theory that postulates intermediate constituents below the phrase level (XP) but above the word level (X), known as "X-bar" (written "X̅" or "X′").

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14
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3answers
1k views

Is there practical application of X' theory in natural language processing?

I was taught X' theory in generative grammar lectures, only to find out that NLP uses mainly simpler grammars, such as HPSG or statistical models such as hidden Markov models. Is X' of any use for ...
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2answers
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Basic syntax notation: noun phrase vs determiner phrase

I'm a first-semester student in linguistics and I need clarifications regarding the following trees: (1) and (2) My course notes seem to stick with the first kind of notation but when I read ...
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6answers
783 views

Are English modal verbs tensed or non-tensed?

My assumption: English modal verbs are non-tensed (i.e. we don't say shoulds or shoulded). Yet, in X' bar theory, modal verbs appear under the inflection node I', precisely where we find the ...
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1answer
113 views

To what extent was Chomsky influenced by Tesnière?

Kind of a question about the meta-history of linguistics as a discipline. Chomsky released 'Syntactic Structures' in the US in 1957; Tesnière released Éléments de syntaxe structurale posthumously ...
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2answers
827 views

X Bar Phrase Structure Question

I'm running into a bit of trouble constructing a tree for the following Lakota sentence: Wičháša ki hokšíla ki hená mathó wã wãyákapi ki slolyé man the boy the those bear a see ...
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3answers
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Split-INFL Hypothesis and X-Bar Theory

According to the Split-INFL hypothesis, the subject of a sentence moves from the specifier of the predicate to SpecTP to satisfy the EPP and lastly to SpecAgrSP to obtain NOM case. Is there any reason ...
4
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2answers
928 views

How do contractions work in syntactic movement?

Specifically when the surface structure uncontracted would be ungrammatical. Eg: "Don't turtles live forever?" (Do turtles not live forever/*Do not turtles live forever). EDIT - Sorry if it's broad ...
4
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1answer
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How do noun-noun compounds fit into a noun phrase in syntax?

I have a question regarding attributive nouns, or noun-noun compounds, and how they are integrated into syntactic rules for NP formation. Typically, the rule given in textbooks for forming a NP is the ...
4
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2answers
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What exactly is the SBAR label from the Penn TreeBank?

From this list of tags: SBAR - Clause introduced by a (possibly empty) subordinating conjunction. This site explains what a subordinating conjunction is. But how can you have an empty ...
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0answers
76 views

What is the syntactic function (if there is any) of the prefix in some German verbs?

Consider the following sentence: "Ich rufe dich an". It is a very simple Standard German sentence with the verb "anrufen", the unusual thing about it is this prefix that comes ...
3
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1answer
585 views

Why doesn't X-bar theory overgenerate?

X-bar PS rules are as follows: XP' -> <spec.> X' X' -> <adjunct> X' <adjunct> X' -> X <comp.> What's stopping us from generating phrases like the following? [SPEC ...
3
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2answers
162 views

X-bar theory without movement

Are there any theories out there that use X-bar theory but deny movement (like Dependency Syntax can)?
3
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1answer
981 views

Is the X bar theory applicable to any natural language other than English?

Is Chomsky's X bar theory applicable to any natural language other than English? Or is it applicable to English only or to only a subset of natural languages including English? EDIT I think that ...
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0answers
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Confusion over Adverbial Adjuncts (X' Bar Theory)

For my Syntax class this semester, we've been asked to look at a language more in depth and try to develop X-Bar compatible rules for it. In doing so, I've come across a reoccurring problem that may ...
3
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1answer
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Phrase structure tree of a Wh question

The sentence would be "Whose dirty underwear is this?". I assume that the base (is that called deep structure sentence?) would be "This is whose dirty underwear" but I'm not sure what ...
3
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1answer
337 views

Case assignment with prepositions

Consider these examples: 'I am happy with my parents' my parents gets assigned Case by 'with'. *'I am proud with my parents' My question is as follows: What is the reasoning for 2 being ...
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2answers
654 views

What is the relation between a specifier and a determiner?

Does specifier mean "the" and "possesser" and determiner mean "the" and "possessive 's"?
2
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1answer
81 views

How to treat adverbial phrases in X-bar theory

My question is about how to represent so-called adverbial phrases like "last night" or "all day". My confusion arises because there seems to be a consensus that these phrases are ...
2
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1answer
177 views

Critics and arguments against the generative syntax theories?

The Generative approach on syntax is very elegant, useful and very complete as far as I can see. I think that, as all theories have, there must have some critics on it. But I don't know where to find ...
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3answers
159 views

How do we explain the fact that agreement comes from the object with 'there'?

For example: There is a man. There are men. How do we explain that agreement of the verb comes from the object in this case alone? What movement happens in the verb complex of the xbar tree of the ...
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1answer
2k views

Relative clauses in X-Bar

How do I break down the Complement further in accordance with X bar theory.
2
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1answer
128 views

In X Bar Theory where can "ne" and "pas" be found?

I have read past papers on French negation and it says that it is accepted that the NegP in French is null, and "pas" is specifier to NegP. So what would "ne" be then? I haven't been able to find ...
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1answer
85 views

What kind of word is 'same' in 'same-day delivery'?

I assumed it's a complement like this: But it seems like the only adjectives that can replace 'same' are numbers. two-day delivery *good-day delivery So what's going on here? What do you call the ...
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1answer
139 views

How are DPs generally structured when just encapsulating a noun?

I often see a noun such as "Jimmy" in my textbook represented as [DP_Jimmy]. But there is no more detail provided as to its internal structure. This means either the D is null such as: or that "Jimmy"...
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1answer
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Genitives without explicit genitive case marking

In English, the NP in the genitive is the specifier of D' under which the genitive 's head subsumes. E.g.: [DP [NP [N' [N Ali]]][D'[D 's][NP [N' [N mother]]]]] In Malay, nouns in the genitive case ...
2
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1answer
435 views

Predication in X-Bar theory

Where do predicatives (predicative adjectives and nominals) over the subject or over the object fit into an X-bar-tree? For instance: Pedro pintó a María sentada. Peter painted Mary seated. (=...
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0answers
391 views

Tree diagrams in CGEL

I have a question about this tree diagram in The Cambridge Grammar of The English Language (by Huddleston and Pullum): Please see the tree diagram in the red box of the nominal preposterous salary ...
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0answers
127 views

Struggling With Split Projections In My X Bar Tree Diagram

I am trying to complete this linguistics question but I am a bit stuck. I'm not sure if I'm using the AgrNomO projections correctly. I have attached the tree diagram, and here is the question: Draw ...
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0answers
235 views

Drawing trees for DP's and Sentences

I'm reading Adger's book Core Syntax and am having trouble with one of the sentences in the last exercise in the Functional Categories chapter. The task is to draw and annotate the tree (bar level and ...
2
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1answer
729 views

X-bar Theory WH and DP movements [closed]

this year I opted to study English syntax as a non native speaker and we arrived to the movements on the X-bar theory. We are studying DP and WH movements on sentences, and while I'm able to ...
2
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1answer
679 views

How do you coreference a possesive pronouns with an x-bar tree?

Following Chomsky's linguistic theory (The Minimalist Program), r-expressions must be free, where free means that nothing should c-command it such that the indices have a non null intersection (if I ...
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0answers
601 views

X-bar: Put 'Where' in a Determiner Phrase or in an Adverb Phrase?

I'm currently working on an introductory guide to X-bar Theory for a group of students, and was wondering whether to classify a specific part as a Determiner Phrase or an Adverb Phrase. I have ...
2
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0answers
171 views

Noun adjuncts (attributive nouns) in the x-bar scheme [closed]

What category are the two nouns for the following phrases: A) The play by Bill Roberts B) A chicken soup bowl according to distributional criteria "Roberts" and "soup" are adjectives, but should ...
2
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0answers
160 views

How can we account for head-final PPs and VPs in Classical Chinese?

According to Koopman (1983), there is an explanation for why Chinese, despite being a head-final language, has SVO and prepositional features. She suggested that Chinese assigns Case to the right but ...
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0answers
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X-bar analysis of Copular verbs?

Can someone help me with the analysis of copular or linking verbs in X-bar theory. What would be the position of subject in sentences like "Mary is beautiful". Is "Mary" the theme of adjectival ...
2
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1answer
708 views

How to apply x-bar structure to split verb phrases?

Consider the sentence "Who will John meet in the classroom?". What would the (s-structured) x-bar tree of this sentence look like? Does "will" still simply go in the T node, or is it a CP-specifier, ...
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2answers
89 views

Does the relative clause (which suggests...) here function as an adjunct of the whole clause in front of it?

The high notes returned to his compositions towards the end of his life, which suggests he was hearing the works that were taking shape in his imagination. I'm not sure how to write up the syntax ...
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1answer
74 views

In X bar theory, is the first auxiliary the head of an interrogative clause and the remainder the complement?

In X bar theory, the first auxiliary is the head of a declarative clause: (1) She will have finished it by tomorrow. Here, subject she is a specifier, and verb phrase have finished it by tomorrow is ...
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1answer
978 views

What is the x-bar tree of 'I am proud of my students'? (having trouble with proud)

I am having trouble attaching the 'proud' to the 'am'. 'Am' is a verb and 'proud' is an adjective for the noun 'I', so should come as an adjunct for 'I', but here it would have to somehow come from ...
1
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1answer
367 views

Restrictions on Wh-movement

I know that for wh-movement out of a non-root CP successive cyclic movement is needed, so moving to spec-CP of the lower CP and then from there to the root-CP, but what's the specific restriction on ...
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2answers
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How are topic-phrases represented in X-bar trees

How is the word "elephant" in the following Japanese sentence represented in the corresponding X-bar tree? Elephant trunk long TOP NOM NPST Is the tree flat or are "elephant" and "trunk" ...
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1answer
77 views

Why only 1 complement is possible?

Source: p 178, 179. Syntax, A Generative Introduction (3 ed, 2012) by Andrew Carnie [p 178:] 81) Adjunct rule: X' ⟶ X' (ZP) 82) Complement rule: X' ⟶ X (WP) [p 179:] What this means for ...
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1answer
173 views

You are the first person [to notice the mistake]. (complement vs adjunct/modifier)

You are the {first person to notice the mistake}. There's no doubt {} is N'. The question is whether first person is a small N' on its own. If to notice the mistake is an adjunct of first person, ...
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1answer
117 views

How to draw the NP "so little" in "He said so little" in a tree diagram?

He said so little. includes the NP so little, which doesn't include any noun. In the X-bar theory style tree diagram, how do you go about describing the NP? Do you have N' below the NP? Do you have ...
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2answers
17k views

X-Bar theory and Trees [closed]

I am studying linguistics and now this semester my subject is Syntax. I tried a few times to draw a tree using X-Bar theory and Dp's but I couldn't achieve. Can someone please draw a tree of the ...
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1answer
152 views

Floating quantifiers in X-bar theory: "the men all have gone"

In chapter 9 of Syntax: A generative Introduction (2nd ed), Carnie shows that we can solve some problems by generating subjects in Spec of VP and letting them move to Spec of TP. In the first ...
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1answer
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Can the first auxiliary verb be the specifier of a VP in the X-Bar theory?

As far as I know, the first auxiliary is normally treated as the head of a verb phrase (VP) in the X-Bar theory. He was writing a letter. In this sentence, for example, the first auxiliary, was, ...
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1answer
336 views

Why is it that the wh-word as a subject in the spec position cannot raise over an auxiliary verb like 'did'?

When the question word is the subject of the clause, there is no aux verb, eg 'Who saw you?'. I understand this, but why is 'who did see you?' also correct, with respect to Chomsky's linguistic theory ...
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1answer
84 views

Why cannot the Intermediate Structure be again XP, instead of X'?

Source: p 167. Syntax, A Generative Introduction (3 ed, 2012) by Andrew Carnie. We need these “intermediate” N' (pronounced “en-bar”) categories to explain the items that are conjoined in these ...
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1answer
547 views

Basic questions on X Bar

When formulating a answer to this question - please note I only have a basic high school level of English. I watched a video on X-Bar theory. I am just trying to get a basic understanding. What does ...