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3
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0answers
55 views
+50

Origin of English's phrasal possessive

This site claimed that the phrasal possessive in English came from French influence, while the synthetic possessive is Germanic. Germanic Pattern: the king’s son - cf. German "des Königs Sohn&...
-5
votes
1answer
53 views

What is the etymology of the Western Georgian family name Ashkinadze (borne by both Christians and Jews)? [closed]

The Western Georgian family name Ashkinadze consists of at least two morphemes, the last of which (-ძე = -dze in romanization) is the Georgian for ‘son’. A Georgian trained in linguistics told me in ...
6
votes
3answers
568 views

What do you call a failed attempt to use the “standard” speech?

Some speakers who use a non-standard accent or dialect of a language, occasionally desire to "adjust" their speech to the standard. I'm interested in knowing if there is a word for when this fails ...
1
vote
0answers
14 views

cohesion- ellipsis

I'm currently analysing some of my old literacy work from primary school (5/6 years old), focussing on cohesion. When looking at ellipsis I find that I cannot place a category on what kind (if at all) ...
0
votes
1answer
117 views

what is the etymology of Hebrew word lasse‘irim לַשְּׂעִירִם

Why would this be translated as a demon/goat? I'm also unclear as to the lemma. Is seems unrelated. Is it שָׂעַר
6
votes
1answer
556 views

Pahlavi and Parthian numerals

Does anybody know how the following numerals had been used and provide some examples? (source of images is Unicode characters maps)
0
votes
1answer
170 views

The most relative for ə sound in Arabic

The IPA for "man" in American English is mən. Arabic, however, doesn't have the vowel sound ə. So, what's the most related sound in Arabic? I know there are some short vowels (Harakat) but I don't ...
3
votes
1answer
62 views

Vowels in the second syllable of 'harmonic' and 'harmonious'

I came across a question on English Language & Usage asking about why the vowels in the second syllable of 'harmonic' and 'harmonious' are pronounced differently. Harmonic → /hɑːˈmɒn.ɪk/ ...
2
votes
0answers
27 views

Which books did John read which books? Displacement and reconstruction

In his talk available on YouTube as “Language, Creativity, and the Limits of Understanding” by Professor Noam Chomsky (4-21-16) at 56:36s Noam Chomsky starts talking about the phenomenon of ...
0
votes
1answer
39 views

If adjectives denote functions of type <<e,t>,<e,t>>, then what denotation of *be* will allow adjectives to appear in predicative position?

Suppose [[gray]] = λf ∈ D<e,t> . [λx ∈ De . f(x) = 1 and x is gray]. Since this function is of type <<e,t>,<e,t>>, it would seem that sentences like Julius is gray are ...
5
votes
2answers
123 views

Why is the subject outside the VP in most theories of syntax?

I'm trying to understand why in most theories of syntax, the subject of a sentence is the sister of the verb, and not the child eg: S -> NP VP instead of VP -> NP V (NP...) The latter feels more ...
-5
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0answers
54 views

“That-clause” after noun [closed]

What is the “That-clause” after nouns like “way” or “fact” Or What is the “That-clause” after nouns functioning as In the phrase or noun phrase “the way that you moved it” or “the fact that you moved ...
0
votes
0answers
25 views

how does one properly escape the context of a definition when writing one

When a lexicographer is forming a definition how do they make sure they are not overly influenced by the examples they refer to when forming their definitions. how do they properly escape the ...
1
vote
1answer
34 views

some basic questions about morphological aspect

According to the definition, morphological aspect presents the reported event or state of affairs as if viewed either from inside the event (‘in progress’) or outside the event (‘as a whole’). For ...
-5
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0answers
32 views
38
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5answers
6k views

Why is there (almost) no variety to the Hebrew accent in Israel?

Hebrew is my native language, and I grew up and spent most of my life in Israel. Unlike English, in Hebrew we don't have a variety of accents. In fact, generally all of the people in Israel have the ...
0
votes
2answers
106 views

Why is Hungarian considered a mostly agglutinative language?

Hungarian is often used as the prototypical example of a heavily agglutinative, synthetic language, and with regards to noun declension and derivational morphology this is doubtless true; Hungarian ...
7
votes
3answers
5k views

Are the longest German and Turkish words really single words?

First, I don't speak/understand any so-called agglutinative languages, like Turkish. I also don't know German. I understand there's no good definition for the concept of "word", which could ...
2
votes
1answer
62 views

How would've the Old Novgorodian language looked like?

I need help reconstructing the Old Novgorodian words for "earth", "hand", "bee" and "bird nest". I'm not good at linguistics at all and don't really understand ...
0
votes
1answer
33 views

Turkish stem consonant alternation

I am currently writing a paper which draws on the characteristics of Turkish (or Turkic) phonology, and would like to know more about stem consonant alternation in this language. Specifically, will ...
-1
votes
0answers
27 views

Pronunciations of Arabic كرباج‎ ‘lash, whip' [closed]

I would appreciate knowing the various pronunciations of the noun كرباج‎ ‘lash, whip’ in Egyptian Arabic as spoken in Cairo and northward all the way to the Mediterranean Sea (= more or less Lower ...
-2
votes
1answer
45 views

What does Daniel actually mean? [closed]

The name Daniel is often translated as "judged by God" or "God is my judge". As I understand it, its compents are דִּין (din) to judge / to arbitrate and אֵל ('el) God, right? So ...
-2
votes
0answers
25 views

All the recorded meanings of the Turkish noun yağmurluk [closed]

Could you please give me all the recorded meanings of the Turkish noun yağmurluk (except 'raincoat, mackintosh, etc.', which I already know)? My understanding is that the word also designates some ...
20
votes
9answers
3k views

Languages with different words for 'we'

Are there any languages that make a distinction between the following: We (you and I) We (them and I, but not you) We (all of us) I don't think any of the Germanic languages do. Also, what is this ...
2
votes
2answers
67 views

What is the exact position of the tongue for [ n ] in these circumstances?

Hi I am an English learner, and I recently had this question about pronouncing n sound. I understand the standard way of pronouncing n sound is to put my tongue behind the top teeth, however, when I ...
0
votes
1answer
34 views

is there a /c/ vs. /k/ or /g/ vs /ɟ/ minimal pair in turkish

i checked the wiki subarticle "Consonants" and there is an example of /kar/ vs /ca:r/ (youglish link, as evidence for ":") which might not be a good minimal pair. do you know one? /...
0
votes
0answers
21 views

Always in the shit; only the depth changes [migrated]

I came across this humorous Latin phrase on social media, rendered as: Sumus semper in excretum, sed alta variat ...but when I searched it, I realised there was a more common rendering of it: ...
0
votes
1answer
27 views

Spanish Dipthongs - Why does the verb Cerrar(to close) experience stem change but cerro (hill) is “fine” as is?

I know that vulgar latin experienced a diphthongization with several of the vowels when in tonic positions of a word. My specific question is why did all latin originating words not consistantly do ...
-4
votes
1answer
31 views

Metonym Hyponym: nym relationship

is there a "nym" relationship between "Ford" and "car"?
3
votes
1answer
63 views

Is there a collection of Ancient Egyptian hieroglyphic transliterations of foreign names/words?

The Ancient Egyptians sometimes had to transliterate foreign names (for example, the name Cleopatra) into hieroglyphs, and I'm sure there are loanwords or technical terms from other contemporary ...
-3
votes
0answers
42 views

How one can explain similarities in Fore numerals with those in Eurasiatic languages?

Here is a table that shows some similarity: Fore PIE Korean Tungusic Burushaski Chukchi PAinu Mongolian OTurkic FU PKartvel One - kanone h₁oinom hana ömen hen ...
0
votes
0answers
23 views

Connection between “wiseguy” and the Cantonese slang 古惑仔

"Wiseguy" can mean a made man in the mafia or a smart ass who acts like they are smarter than others. What I find interesting is that the Cantonese/Chinese slang term 古惑仔(Gu Wac Zai) has ...
0
votes
1answer
80 views

Does the English word 'six' violate the Sonority Sequencing Principle?

I'm aware that it's spellt with an X, however phonetically it's [ks]. According to the SSP, plosives should come after fricatives word-finally. Does the spelling with an x stop it from violating the ...
0
votes
0answers
18 views

Is Proto-Uralic piŋз “hand, palm” related to PIE pn̥kʷstis “fist”, pénkʷe “five”?

There was Proto-Uralic piŋз "hand, palm": https://en.wiktionary.org/wiki/pivo#Etymology_2 I wonder whether it was related to the PIE words.
1
vote
0answers
27 views

Does Gothic have /r/-umlaut and /x/-umlaut?

Charles Nydorf believes that /r/-umlaut and /x/-umlaut in Yiddish come from /r/-umlaut and /x/-umlaut in Gothic, but he gives no examples in either language. Yiddish has (/i/ >) /e/ > /a/ before ...
-2
votes
1answer
51 views

If you clumped all English words into synonyms, instead of word by word, how many unique concepts/definitions would there be in the English language?

Particularly based on the selection of entries in the New Oxford American Dictionary.
1
vote
2answers
68 views

Why does /zd-/ require more effort even though both the consonants have the same voicing?

In most language, the rule for combining consonants is that they should have the same voice. For example: in English, a word can never start with /zt-/ but can start with /st-/. It's not that /zt-/ ...
0
votes
0answers
15 views

How to find research questions in the field of generative grammar for a beginner? [closed]

Currently, as a graduate student, I am in the stage of reading textbooks, while I feel lost about how to find the research questions which are worth exploring in syntax.
2
votes
1answer
365 views

Can we build semantic mappings for CFG same as we do in CCG?

In CFG we "simply" have production rules. Whereas in Combinatory Categorial Grammar (CCG) on the other hand, we have both composition rules over categories, and a mapping from syntax to semantics (...
3
votes
1answer
240 views

Umlaut in Gothic

It's said that Gothic had no umlaut, but there would seem to be, although I'm sure it's not, signs of a-umlaut. The digraph au in Gothic is thought to have represented three different sounds, one of ...
0
votes
1answer
56 views

Why are Proto-West Germanic hwaʀ and OHG wēr cognate?

Why are Proto-West Germanic hwaʀ and OHG wēr cognate? What is the kind of mutation a > ē?
-2
votes
0answers
33 views

Looking for a word like reaching rod but with a meaning [closed]

I want to describe controlling someone at a distance like dancing but the dancer is in control of someone else. I was searching for a specific word that means this but I end up with reaching rod. Can ...
3
votes
1answer
53 views

How can one fill out the quadrat when a word consists of a single uniliteral?

In Egyptian hieroglyphic writing, glyphs are commonly arranged into quadrats (blocks) to minimize empty space. And I was taught that it's good style not to have a word boundary within a single quadrat....
4
votes
1answer
51 views

Why are palatalized consonants commonly accompanied by stretched lips?

In many languages, muting the sound and watching the lip movements is enough to guess palatalized/non-palatalized. Is there a reason for "Why palatalized consonants are commonly accompanied by ...
4
votes
1answer
86 views

Did Common Brittonic use /ṽ/?

I heard on the Wikipedia article for Sindarin (which I admit is far from being the best source) that Common Brittonic, like Old Irish, had a nasalized v sound ṽ. Is this true? If so, are there any ...
4
votes
1answer
96 views

How can the continuum s-sʲ-ç-ɕ-ʃ-ʂ be described in technical terms?

To me, it seems clear that there is a continuum between this group of sounds, as all of them (apart from ç, which I will touch on later in the post) are sibilants, and the only difference between them ...
4
votes
4answers
162 views

Generic name for Hànzì/Kanji/Hanja/Chữ nôm/Sawndip?

So I was thinking about how to talk about these characters in a culturally-neutral way. Chinese seems to be used, but it implies a particular way of writing characters (not to mention it makes it ...
2
votes
2answers
192 views

How similar are the prototype writing systems of Ugarit-Tyre (“Phoenician”) and Safaitic?

I understand that that in the ancient Levant, two main writing system patterns were used by the different peoples of the region: Phoenician and Ancient North Arabian. I further understand that both ...
8
votes
2answers
332 views

Did Proto-Indo-European put the adjective before or behind the noun?

Did PIE put the adjective behind the noun (like Romance languages usually do) or before the noun (like Germanic languages)?
2
votes
2answers
175 views

I have read that in Mishnaic Hebrew, some pronounced the 6th letter as waw/w and some as vav/v What is the evidence of this?

I have read that in Mishnaic Hebrew, some pronounced the 6th letter as waw/w and some as vav/v What is the evidence of this? I see it mentioned here https://forum.wordreference.com/threads/%D7%95-vav-...

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