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What does the word Fejza mean in Albanian? [closed]

What does the word Fejza mean in Albanian? Researching online it appears as a name but with no clear origin or meaning. ChatGPT finds the closest word as "Feyza" - Turkish meaning "...
Fred's user avatar
  • 1
0 votes
0 answers
36 views

How many dimensions do phonemes have?

I was wondering if there was a better or alternative ordering for the letters of the English alphabet, than the standard “a b c d e …”. This led me to wonder by what parameters they would be ordered. ...
Julius H.'s user avatar
  • 497
1 vote
0 answers
20 views

"data cleaning" of tatoeba sentence file

I'm trying to automate Anki deck creation for my language learning. To this end, I downloaded a file with sentences from Tatoeba. My goal is to calculate the frequency ranking of each word in every ...
Z98HefcKk9bS's user avatar
0 votes
1 answer
56 views

Why don’t consonants have a definite pitch?

Is it because consonants are too fast or too slow that we perceive them as indefinite pitches?
Emotion's user avatar
2 votes
0 answers
30 views

What is the distribution of the French uvular trill vs uvular fricative?

In French, the most common realizations of the phoneme /r/ are [ʀ] (uvular trill) and [ʁ] (voiced uvular fricative). I am able to consistently distinguish them and produce either, and I'm interested ...
maritsm's user avatar
  • 153
0 votes
1 answer
76 views

Is 'will' always volitional, and if not, how can we distinguish action verbs as volitional or non-volitional?

Etymologically, will as a verb means: "to wish, desire; be willing; be used to; be about to" (past tense wolde), from Proto-Germanic *willjan (source also of Old Saxon willian, Old Norse ...
Christopher's user avatar
1 vote
1 answer
39 views

Were يانيه and یانیه interchangeable in Ottoman Turkish?

Copy/pasting from this official pdf from the Turkish government produces يانيه. Czech Wiki uses the same spelling. English Wikipedia and Wiktionary, however, both use the spelling یانیه. Those look ...
lly's user avatar
  • 149
0 votes
0 answers
32 views

Are words like "five-minute" or "two-storey" considered phrasal words?

In my Morphology course, my lecturer introduced something called "phrasal word". Basically, a phrasal word has the structure of a phrase, yet it can function like a word. For example, "...
Nora's user avatar
  • 31
1 vote
0 answers
47 views

Which one would you use "the", "that" or "this"? About English Anaphora

I read a book about French anaphora. In French, there is a distinction between the definite article "le" and the demonstrative "ce", and I wonder if the same usage also applies to ...
Jun Chan's user avatar
0 votes
0 answers
63 views

Why does German er have "e"?

Why does German er from PGmc *iz have "e"?
Вася Антонов's user avatar
6 votes
3 answers
1k views

How would vowel-heavy names be written in a pure abjad?

There are a lot of names like "Ai", "Kai", "Anita", or "Amari" that would be quite tricky to infer based on the consonants. Disregarding abjads with matres ...
John Greene's user avatar
3 votes
0 answers
34 views

Is this phrase a CP or another DP?

If I were to have a DP, such as "the car which I had washed in the garage", the "which I had washed in the garage" sounds a lot like a CP. However, I have never seen CP's embedded ...
NuitBirdy's user avatar
17 votes
3 answers
2k views

What are difficulties linguists have run into with common fonts?

Recently I've resumed work on a font I'm currently developing, meant to be released as a completely free, open-source, OFL-licensed font designed specifically for use in academic and formal writing. ...
Emily's user avatar
  • 271
0 votes
1 answer
72 views

Are there semantically well-defined purely ternary+ relations?

By purely ternary+, I mean a relation that cannot be expressed using binary ones. For example, "B is closer to A than to C" is ternary, but can be expressed using only a binary relation. B ...
AnotherSherlock's user avatar
0 votes
0 answers
32 views

Is this free indirect speech?

The next morning, when the alarm went off, he wanted to keep his eyes closed and keep on with the dream he was having. Something about a farmhouse. And there was a waterfall in there, too. Someone, he ...
Amin's user avatar
  • 11
2 votes
1 answer
87 views

Do liquid consonants ever become dental fricatives?

Is a sound change from /l/ or /r/ to a voiced dental fricative attested in any languages? (Furthermore is there some database for searching sound changes?)
Someone211's user avatar
0 votes
1 answer
69 views

Linguistic name for the change of meaning: 'apocalypse'in Greek New Testament meaning 'revelation' and the present use meaning 'catastrophy, etc

The 1-st word of John's "Revelation" is a Greek word 'apokalipsis'. Yet, in modern times the word 'apocalypse' and its equivalents in many languages means 'catastrophy', 'tragedy', etc. So ...
Wieslaw's user avatar
-1 votes
0 answers
62 views

Investigating possible etymological connections between Proto-Semitic and Proto-Indo-European words related to light

So I was looking at two Levantine Arabic words, "ضو" (daw) and "نور" (nur), both stemming from Proto-Semitic roots ⁧ض و ء⁩ (ḍ-w-ʔ) and ن و ر⁩ (n-w-r) respectively; and I'm curious ...
rcgy's user avatar
  • 67
1 vote
0 answers
58 views

Is "because" always a subordinating conjunction introducing a subordinate clause?

My grammar book says that a word like "because" is a subordinating conjunction, meaning that it is a word that can introduce a dependent clause. I know that a dependent clause contains its ...
Elisa's user avatar
  • 11
-4 votes
0 answers
38 views

What are a handful of examples of Polish words that contain the voiced velar fricative when pronounced out-loud?

There is already a question pertaining to the voice-less velar fricative. However, we are interested in the voiced velar fricative. Let ɣ be the voiced velar fricative What are three to five examples ...
Theodore Shepard's user avatar
0 votes
0 answers
53 views

Pro-form vs pronoun

The definition of a pronoun according to the Merriam-Webster Dictionary is "any of a small set of words... that are used as substitutes for nouns or noun phrases". The definition of a pro-...
shea's user avatar
  • 1
0 votes
0 answers
25 views

How can Kisserberth's idea of conspiracy is applicable in the generative explanation of word stress rules of a language X?

I am struggling to understand how can Kisserberth's concept of conspiracy is applicable in the generative explanation of word stress rules of a particular language X? Now, if we refer to Kager's (...
Shimi's user avatar
  • 1
-1 votes
0 answers
35 views

Question Constructions in CxG

Suppose we have a sentence stating some fact and an question specifying something from the sentence as in I'm studying. - What are you studying? Given this form, does the question have to "mirror&...
Shpekard's user avatar
  • 161
0 votes
1 answer
73 views

What is the standard/comprehensive reference for grammatical number in different languages?

I am a novice in this area so apologies if I use the wrong terminology. For the purpose of content localization, I am seeking an easy and reliable reference for how numbers map to different plural ...
ChaseMedallion's user avatar
0 votes
1 answer
37 views

Quantative and statistical data in Critical Discourse Analysis

In the context of my thesis, I am applying Norman Fairclough's 3-stage model of textual analysis to a corpus of governmental documents I have collected. I want to prove the existence of ideology ...
vigilantius22's user avatar
-1 votes
0 answers
88 views

What are these kinds of words and translation called?

Sometimes some words in one language don't have counterparts in a second language, and some new words are coined based on approximation of pronuciation, and trabslation follows. For example, ...
Tim's user avatar
  • 875
0 votes
1 answer
68 views

Languages with distinct pronouns for concrete and abstract things

I was wondering which languages (spoken or otherwise) have distinct separate pronouns (more specific than the words "this" and "that") for referring to concrete and abstract things,...
Joselin Jocklingson's user avatar
2 votes
0 answers
23 views

Dependent-marking on adpositions?

Is there a language such that an adposition is dependent-marked so that one can infer that it depends on head X but not Y? As a possible example, an affix is attached to an adposition to show that it ...
Shpekard's user avatar
  • 161
-1 votes
0 answers
61 views

Can an affix still be considered an affix without being fixed to the base word?

What do you call a situation where a phrase that does not act as an infix but can be inserted into a multisyllabic word that is formed out of a base word and an affix? In the Mong language, we have ...
Mòòb Lajleeb's user avatar
2 votes
1 answer
56 views

Do CP adjuncts of N require/have a subject?

"The cat that ate my homework for fun will upset my teacher." Hello! I created this sentence to help me understand the concept of EPP. Assume this is how the major components should be ...
hangrycat's user avatar
1 vote
1 answer
149 views

Why does OHG wedar have "e"?

Why does OHG wedar from PGmc *hwaþeraz have "e"?
Вася Антонов's user avatar
-2 votes
1 answer
118 views

What's this linguistic phenomenon in English speaking?

I was enjoying the relaxing vibes that the hotel provided. When Americans say the above sentence, do they sometimes say "vibes that" in a way that sounds like "vibesat"? Does it ...
Tim's user avatar
  • 875
-1 votes
0 answers
41 views

In Thai, which consonants can be made into homophones by overriding their tone rules using tone marks?

Today is my first day of learning Thai. I am attempting to simplify certain concepts in my head. From my chats with GPT, it is indeed possible to make two consonants nearly sound the same by ...
Library Seph's user avatar
-1 votes
0 answers
34 views

I have a question regarding the subordinate conjunction [migrated]

If the conjunction "that" is removed from the noun clause, Is it still a complex sentence? Because some people said that subordinate conjunction "that" is optional.
Siti Julyarahti's user avatar
-1 votes
2 answers
79 views

The Phoenician or Punic Term for Captain [closed]

So, I have been looking around for a few days now into finding what title the Phoenicians, or at least the Carthaginians, used for their ship officers. My interest is due to the fact that the word ...
Punicplum's user avatar
4 votes
0 answers
59 views

Finnish diphthongs and long vowels

From Reconsidering the Nganasan vowel system (Fejes 2021): One argument for the vowel sequence analysis is that Nganasan long vowels and diphthongs are twice as long as a single vowel (Helimski 1998: ...
Someone211's user avatar
3 votes
1 answer
80 views

What is a 'double-headed relative clause'?

WALS lists a language called Jamsay as having a feature called double-headed relative clause, but the site does not define what this means, and I can’t find a definition anywhere. Does it mean it ...
user8600's user avatar
  • 261
0 votes
2 answers
490 views

What effect does the wrong T-V pronoun have on truth-value?

Suppose someone uses the wrong T-V pronoun in a sentence, e.g. a French person uses "tu" instead of "vous". Is that considered to render the sentence (a) false or (b) without truth-...
Remster's user avatar
  • 119
1 vote
0 answers
36 views

Sample consent statement for basic online dictionary project?

Does anyone have an example of a very simple consent statement that could be used on a webpage that collects linguistic (primarily lexical) data? A guy I know is doing some basic dialectical research ...
Chala's user avatar
  • 31
2 votes
1 answer
474 views

The first multi-syllabic positive integer

This puzzle is not about linguistics, but I do not see a better place for this question. Suppose N(L) is the first multi-syllabic positive integer in the given language L. So N(Russian) = N(Hebrew) = ...
Anton Petrunin's user avatar
0 votes
0 answers
60 views

What is the pi'al form in Hebrew?

I have seen scattered references to a pi'al conjugation, which I understand to be similar to, but distinct from, pi'el. For example, for ק-ד-ש, I have seen קִדַּשׁ and קִדֵּשׁ. My impression is, ...
JMS's user avatar
  • 1
0 votes
0 answers
44 views

How does the syntax work for a phrase like "already much too cocky?"

I'm working on a syntax tree for the sentence "The belief that syntactic theory reveals the inner structure of sentences emboldened the already much too cocky professor," and I'm stuck on &...
Kaia's user avatar
  • 1
1 vote
2 answers
87 views

What ways can languages parse sub-clauses from the rest of a clause?

I only know of two strategies. Most European languages, like English, rely mainly intonation to keep the arguments in a sub-clause, particularly center-embedded clauses, from being accidentally to be ...
user8600's user avatar
  • 261
2 votes
0 answers
87 views

Is this preposition stranding or not?

I am a linguistics student and am currently doing research on supposed cases of preposition stranding in Brazilian Portuguese. So far I've come up with a few assumptions, but my data has been mostly ...
Nobody16's user avatar
2 votes
0 answers
57 views

Typological frequency of sound changes; the case of s > h sound change

I was wondering how can I infer the typological "frequency" of given sound changes? How can I find out how typical is a given sound change typologically? Is there a catalogue of attested ...
Ali Koohpaee's user avatar
6 votes
7 answers
4k views

Nations' names for themselves with foreign etymologies

TL;DR: are there any cases of nations/ethnic groups, whose name for themselves comes from a language that is foreign to them? [I feel like I am missing a term here] Many nations have a name for ...
Bennet's user avatar
  • 177
0 votes
0 answers
46 views

What would a bilabial or velar sibilant sound like?

I know that a non-sibilant velar /x/ and non-sibilant bilabial fricative /ɸ/ is possible, and that alveolar fricatives have both sibilant /s/ and non-sibilant /θ/ forms, so what would a sibilant form ...
oriihann's user avatar
2 votes
0 answers
85 views

Wh-movement of D/NP in Russian

I have recently come across the following expression: (они) попрали даже то, что ими диктуется о смысле жизни. (they) trampled even what they dictated about the meaning of life. It made me wonder: ...
Shpekard's user avatar
  • 161
0 votes
1 answer
73 views

Why does PIE *sneygʷʰ- ("snow") give L. nix, Gk. νίφα (acc.)?

What happens to internal /e/ and semivowel /y/ in *snéygʷʰm̥ to yield L. nix? I have no clue how that vowel change works.
fruitcheesy's user avatar
1 vote
0 answers
46 views

What theory of syntax and grammar do language typologists tend to prefer?

The first concerns the theory of syntax and grammar that typologists prefer: What theory of syntax and grammar do language typologists tend to prefer? Do they prefer a transformational phrase ...
Rongrong's user avatar
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