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Can the word 'endorsement' be used to refer to speech acts?

Can the verb to endorse be used as to claim or to say? Can the word endorsement be said to include the five illocutionary speech acts? For example : is the phrase "Endorsement in Obama's speech&...
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0 answers
10 views

Why does Gothic ibuks from Pgmc abuhaz have "k"?

Why does Gothic ibuks from Pgmc abuhaz have "k"?
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1 vote
1 answer
12 views

Types of transliteration and/or translation

There are cases where abbreviations or proper names like brands get transliterated/translated differently. This question is asking whether there are linguistic names for these phenomena, e.g. The ...
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  • 329
0 votes
1 answer
39 views

Pronunciation of English R

I'm a native speaker and I notice I pronounce R as [ɹʋ] non finally, a spontaneous ɹ and ʋ. At the end of words though I use the regular ɹ. Is this normal and does anyone else do this?
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1 vote
2 answers
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How do native speakers of languages in which vowels reduce to schwa in unstressed syllables perceive the said schwa?

Do they perceive it as an allophone of the vowel that is reduce to a schwa? so for example if /i/ is reduced to schwa would it still be perceived as /i/ by a native speaker of that language? or would ...
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2 answers
40 views

What is the difference between an implicature and a presupposition

I have been reading on pragmatics from Levinson, Yule, Cadzar etc. English is not my native language, though i can understand basic concepts such as maxims, implicatures and its types(generalized, ...
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-1 votes
1 answer
24 views

Regex for segmentation as sentences for Thai, Khmer, Japanese, Chinese Simplified, Chinese Traditional and Amharic languages [closed]

I am processing text samples of the following languages: Thai Khmer Japanese Chinese Simplified Chinese Traditional & Amharic I need the text samples to be segmented as sentences using a regex. ...
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-2 votes
0 answers
32 views

What does `gtatki` mean? [closed]

What does gtatki mean? This word was used when I played in online board game with the woman from Poland. I asked here directly what does gtatki mean but she ignored the question. Tried to google what ...
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0 answers
23 views

Are there words for the reverse of some grammatical relations?

Henry saw the exhausted soldier. In this sentence, the subject of saw is "Henry". The modifier of soldier is "exhausted". Are there words for the reverse of these relations and ...
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4 votes
1 answer
58 views

Ways of classifying writing systems by appearance?

Are there any common groupings of writing systems by grapheme appearance? I'm currently writing about language identification and one specific goal I have as part of the work is to include steps for ...
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8 votes
4 answers
2k views

How to explain differences in mutual intelligibility?

Suppose language A and language B belong to the same language family. And suppose the speakers of language A understand language B a lot better than the speakers of language B understand language A. ...
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2 votes
0 answers
40 views

Is telicity a property of verbs or predicates?

In English, the verb "walk" is atelic. One could in principle walk indefinitely. Fatigue and aging limit the activity, but that fact is not an inherent part of the meaning of the verb. ...
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1 vote
0 answers
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What is "operator dependence" in clause-chaining, a grammatical construction that Papuan New Guinea languages are famous for?

The Glossary of Linguistics Terms at the SIL website characterizes clause-chaining by "the possibility of long sequences of foreground clauses with operator dependence." In typical clause-...
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0 votes
1 answer
38 views

How to distinguish between hiatus and a diphthong?

Recently I've been thinking about the difference hiatus and diphthongs. in my native language there are no phonemic diphthongs but phonetic diphthongs do occur e.g "კაი" ("okay") /...
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1 vote
1 answer
95 views

Does -z / -ces in Spanish plurals reflect sound change in the past?

Spanish nouns ending with -z become -ces in plural forms. (e.g. lapiz-lapices, vez-veces, etc.) While -zes and -ces sound same in Modern Spanish, they represented different sounds between 15-16th ...
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-4 votes
1 answer
44 views

Is OE "g" iegland from Pgmc "w" or "j" awjōlandą?

Is OE "g" iegland from Pgmc "w" or "j" awjōlandą?
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2 votes
1 answer
217 views

What's the difference between a single-contact alveolar trill and alveolar flap/tap

is there any difference between the two? is it even possible to produce an alveolar trill with a single vibration of the tongue?
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1 vote
1 answer
89 views

Why did the Rebracketing from "Napron" to "Apron" Figuratively Stick?

I read that the cloth that painters and chefs wear, the one now called "apron", used to be called "napron". But then because of rebracketing, "a napron" became "an ...
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-1 votes
0 answers
50 views

Morphs and morphemes [closed]

How to divide the following words into morphs (using slashes), list the morphemes (using brackets), and determine the morphological realization rule(s) responsible for each formation. Example: mice's ...
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1 vote
0 answers
79 views

Inherited kinship term that is attested only in a Scandinavian dialect out of all Germanic languages

This is again a memory refreshing question. I am looking for a specific kinship term that is considered to be inherited into a Scandinavian dialect despite the fact that no other Germanic language has ...
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2 votes
1 answer
99 views

Balto-Slavic or archaic IE loanwords in Ossetian?

There are some unique Indo-European words in Ossetian that do not exist in Avestan or Persian, but do exist in Tocharian, Germanic or BS. Ossetian ӕвзист "silver", has BS cognates("star&...
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2 votes
3 answers
626 views

Is there a name for "noun-verbing" adjectives?

Is there a name for adjectives that take the form of "noun-verbing", like "rabbit-hunting" or "self-driving"? Do this form only occurs in English?
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2 votes
2 answers
89 views

Is the active vs passive voice distinction, a property of the verb or sentence itself?

In English, I have seen some sites explaining active vs passive voice distinction as property of the verb. And, other sites as a property of sentence as a whole. I am learning German, and in that it ...
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2 votes
2 answers
68 views

Epenthesis of /u/ before the syllabic sonorant "l"

Why does Old Russian have epenthesis of /u/ only before the syllabic sonorant "l"? (before the syllabic sonorants "r,m,n" the epenthesis is /i/)? I thought earlier that only Proto-...
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1 vote
1 answer
138 views

Lateral Approximant v. s. Lateral consonant

Reference https://en.m.wikipedia.org/wiki/Voiced_dental,_alveolar_and_postalveolar_lateral_approximants#Velarized_alveolar_lateral_approximant https://en.m.wikipedia.org/wiki/Liquid_consonant ...
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-3 votes
0 answers
45 views

calculate co-occurence of long distant words in a sentence [closed]

I have a corpus and I want to calculate how often two or three distant words co-occure in a sentence and sum up in the whole corpus. Thank you in advance. Christinathem
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0 votes
0 answers
46 views

I have been reconstructing Austro-Thai but the vowels are inconsistent

I have been reconstructing Austro-Thai believing it to be a rather easy undertaking and it mostly was, the consonants between the two language families line up rather well only with occasional ...
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-1 votes
1 answer
44 views

is this sound [ɫ]?

here. my native language (Georgian) is said to have velarized [ɫ] and plain [l] as the allophones of the /l/ phoneme, [ɫ] appears before back vowels /ɑ ɔ u/ and [l] appears before front vowels /i ɛ/. ...
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0 votes
1 answer
76 views

Are the suffixes of such ordinal numbers as fir-st, seco-nd, thi-rd and six-th derivational or inflectional?

These suffixes do not change the part of speech, so are they inflectional endings?
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2 votes
2 answers
76 views

Why don't certain antonym pairs get rearranged often?

Why don't certain antonym pairs get rearranged often? We have little and big, small and large, but almost never hear little and large. Another example: weak and strong, soft and tough, but never weak ...
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-1 votes
1 answer
116 views

Apparent sound crespondences between Eurasian, Trans-New-Guinean, Pama-Nyungan and Burushaski

It seems to me that there can be regular sound correspondences between Eurasian, Trans-New-Guinean, Pama-Nyungan and Burushaski. I would call the hypthetical proto-language of these "proto-mitian&...
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0 votes
3 answers
194 views

If Hebrew is not related to Slavic, why there are apparent sound correspondences?

We have hebrew: šeš; russian: šestʹ; ukrainian: šistʹ; latin: six; english: six; hebrew: yeš; russian: yestʹ; ukrainian: ye, isnuye; latin: est; english: is; hebrew: ze; russian: se; ukrainian: сe [...
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  • 6,261
0 votes
1 answer
50 views

Is the laryngeal fricative the same as the glottal fricative /h/?

This page glottal fricative /h/ alternates between calling it a glottal fricative and a laryngeal fricative. Is the reason for it that laryngeally the only option to phonate is to exercise the glottis?...
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-1 votes
1 answer
57 views

what kind of an /l/ sound is this?

here. some speakers of my native language use this /l/ sound instead of more common [ɫ~l] colloquially it is referred to as "soft l" and is transcribed as "ლь" which is a ...
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3 votes
2 answers
1k views

How to split pronouns 'whom' and 'whose' into morphs?

Are the endings -m and -se inflectional suffixes?
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3 votes
0 answers
63 views

What is the term for a phrase that connects two objects with some relation?

In mathematics, we usually see symbols that join two objects: numbers, sets, etc. The more familiar one is the equality symbol "=" which in a formal standpoint means "is logically ...
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1 vote
1 answer
105 views

why pronunciations of cardinal vowel No.4 [a] are so different?

The cardinal vowel No.4 [a] pronounced by Daniel Jones and some other linguistics sounds more like /æ/ as in cat. but this cardinal vowel pronounced in the IPA website(by 4 speakers) sounds more like ...
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-1 votes
3 answers
70 views

Can a phonemically aspirated consonant have an unaspirated allophone?

in My native language, Georgian there exist a set of phonemic aspirated consonants /pʰ tʰ kʰ/ which are said to be aspirated in all positions. though recently I noticed that when the aspirated ...
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1 vote
0 answers
65 views

Differentiations between types of love in languages?

Are there any languages with distinctions between romantic, Platonic, familial, etc. love? The closest I know of is "te quiero" doesn't have the same connotations as "te amo" in ...
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3 votes
0 answers
63 views

the sound of "erre moscia" in Italian

In Italian we have the alveolar trill as a phoneme, but not all native speakers (me, for example) can do it: some people have what we call an "Erre Moscia" meaning we can't properly do the ...
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  • 199
-1 votes
1 answer
95 views

Even in writing, do bases take longer to construe when they share roots or stems?

Question 1 I ask about merely reading and writing here. Do human readers take longer to distinguish between stems (and bases) that share the same root, even if merely picoseconds? For example, do ...
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  • 63
-3 votes
0 answers
83 views

Did Classical Latin sound like singing at times like Italian does?

Did Classical Latin sound like singing at times and if so did Classical Latin sound like singing for the same reasons that Italian does? For example: when Thomas Bervoets sounds like he's singing in ...
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14 votes
2 answers
2k views

Derivation of the Indo-European lemma *bʰréh₂tēr ‘brother’

According to Wiktionary, the word “brother” is traced back to the reconstructed Indo-European lemma *bʰréh₂tēr with the same meaning. It seems to be structurally similar to other kinship terms, such ...
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0 votes
0 answers
24 views

What are the tenets of Relevance Theory?

What are the elements upon which one can base to process a speech with relevance theory? I've been reading but I couldn't find an answer to this question. I take the example of the Speech act Theory ...
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-1 votes
3 answers
113 views

Some languages take more words to say the same thing. Is there a reliable source for this?

I am working on a way for scientists in my field (archaeology) to evaluate how many words they have published per days they have spent doing fieldwork. Some people do lots of fieldwork, then don't ...
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0 votes
1 answer
65 views

Is there a name for the collection of languages that a person is proficient in?

I have been trying to find an accurate term for it. I speak three different languages and couldn't find an appropriate term in any of them. I have thought of: Mastered languages
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0 votes
2 answers
45 views

How is F0 determined?

I was reading Introduction to Phonetics and Phonology (Authors and page numbers will be added when I get my iPad back). And I am learning the concept of 'F0' for the first time. So according to this ...
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0 votes
2 answers
93 views

Why few languages do not have any written form?

There are many languages available in the world which have no written form like shanghainese , Hakka etc . My question is, why a language do not have any written form ? What's the root cause of it ?
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0 votes
1 answer
36 views

can a sibilant consonant like /s/ and /ʃ/ cause centralization of a following vowel?

As a native speaker of Georgian I recently noticed that in my idiolect the sibilants like /ʃ/ /s/ can make vowels /i/ and /ɑ/ sound more 'centralized', for example: /ʃiʃi/, "fear". and /...
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2 votes
1 answer
70 views

Category & Function

I have the next two sentences, and I'm asked to state the function and category of the parts in bold. I am introduced to the concepts of function and category, but I was applying what I learned about ...
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