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11 views

Are the longest German and Turkish words really single words?

First, I don't speak/understand any so-called agglutinative languages, like Turkish. I also don't know German. I understand there's no good definition for the concept of "word", which could ...
0
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1answer
11 views

If adjectives denote functions of type <<e,t>,<e,t>>, then what denotation of *be* will allow adjectives to appear in predicative position?

Suppose [[gray]] = λf ∈ D<e,t> . [λx ∈ De . f(x) = 1 and x is gray]. Since this function is of type <<e,t>,<e,t>>, it would seem that sentences like Julius is gray are ...
0
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0answers
21 views

Always in the shit; only the depth changes [migrated]

I came across this humorous Latin phrase on social media, rendered as: Sumus semper in excretum, sed alta variat ...but when I searched it, I realised there was a more common rendering of it: ...
0
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1answer
19 views

is there a /c/ vs. /k/ or /g/ vs /ɟ/ minimal pair in turkish

i checked the wiki subarticle "Consonants" and there is an example of /kar/ vs /ca:r/ (youglish link, as evidence for ":") which might not be a good minimal pair. do you know one? /...
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0answers
16 views

How would've the Old Novgorodian language looked like?

I need help reconstructing the Old Novgorodian words for "earth", "hand", "bee" and "bird nest". I'm not good at linguistics at all and don't really understand ...
0
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1answer
9 views

Spanish Dipthongs - Why does the verb Cerrar(to close) experience stem change but cerro (hill) is “fine” as is?

I know that vulgar latin experienced a diphthongization with several of the vowels when in tonic positions of a word. My specific question is why did all latin originating words not consistantly do ...
-2
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1answer
21 views

Metonym Hyponym: nym relationship

is there a "nym" relationship between "Ford" and "car"?
0
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0answers
28 views

Why is Hungarian considered a mostly agglutinative language?

Hungarian is often used as the prototypical example of a heavily agglutinative, synthetic language, and with regards to noun declension and derivational morphology this is doubtless true; Hungarian ...
0
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0answers
15 views

Connection between “wiseguy” and the Cantonese slang 古惑仔

"Wiseguy" can mean a made man in the mafia or a smart ass who acts like they are smarter than others. What I find interesting is that the Cantonese/Chinese slang term 古惑仔(Gu Wac Zai) has ...
0
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0answers
16 views

Is Proto-Uralic piŋз “hand, palm” related to PIE pn̥kʷstis “fist”, pénkʷe “five”?

There was Proto-Uralic piŋз "hand, palm": https://en.wiktionary.org/wiki/pivo#Etymology_2 I wonder whether it was related to the PIE words.
-3
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0answers
33 views

How one can explain similarities in Fore numerals with those in Eurasiatic languages?

Here is a table that shows some similarity: Fore PIE Korean Tungusic Burushaski Chukchi PAinu Mongolian OTurkic FU PKartvel One - kanone h₁oinom hana ömen hen ...
1
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0answers
21 views

Does Gothic have /r/-umlaut and /x/-umlaut?

Charles Nydorf believes that /r/-umlaut and /x/-umlaut in Yiddish come from /r/-umlaut and /x/-umlaut in Gothic, but he gives no examples in either language. Yiddish has (/i/ >) /e/ > /a/ before ...
3
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1answer
50 views

Is there a collection of Ancient Egyptian hieroglyphic transliterations of foreign names/words?

The Ancient Egyptians sometimes had to transliterate foreign names (for example, the name Cleopatra) into hieroglyphs, and I'm sure there are loanwords or technical terms from other contemporary ...
-1
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1answer
45 views
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0answers
14 views

How to find research questions in the field of generative grammar for a beginner?

Currently, as a graduate student, I am in the stage of reading textbooks, while I feel lost about how to find the research questions which are worth exploring in syntax.
1
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2answers
60 views

Why does /zd-/ require more effort even though both the consonants have the same voicing?

In most language, the rule for combining consonants is that they should have the same voice. For example: in English, a word can never start with /zt-/ but can start with /st-/. It's not that /zt-/ ...
-2
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0answers
32 views

Looking for a word like reaching rod but with a meaning [closed]

I want to describe controlling someone at a distance like dancing but the dancer is in control of someone else. I was searching for a specific word that means this but I end up with reaching rod. Can ...
18
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8answers
3k views

Languages with different words for 'we'

Are there any languages that make a distinction between the following: We (you and I) We (them and I, but not you) We (all of us) I don't think any of the Germanic languages do. Also, what is this ...
4
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1answer
46 views

Why are palatalized consonants commonly accompanied by stretched lips?

In many languages, muting the sound and watching the lip movements is enough to guess palatalized/non-palatalized. Is there a reason for "Why palatalized consonants are commonly accompanied by ...
-4
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0answers
47 views

“That-clause” after noun [closed]

What is the “That-clause” after nouns like “way” or “fact” Or What is the “That-clause” after nouns functioning as In the phrase or noun phrase “the way that you moved it” or “the fact that you moved ...
2
votes
2answers
55 views

What is the exact position of the tongue for [ n ] in these circumstances?

Hi I am an English learner, and I recently had this question about pronouncing n sound. I understand the standard way of pronouncing n sound is to put my tongue behind the top teeth, however, when I ...
5
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1answer
62 views

Where can I find a modern overview of Luvian hieroglyphs?

According to Melchert, the reading of Hieroglyphic Luvian (HLuvian, HLuwian) was completely revolutionized in 1974 by Hawkins, Morpurgo-Davies, and Neumann. However, I haven't been able to find an ...
3
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0answers
49 views

Definiteness and indefiniteness

Is there a term that encompasses both terms at once? Suppose I am writing a paper titled [Single-word-here] in Language X, where the required word will refer to both definiteness and indefiniteness. ...
4
votes
1answer
84 views

Did Common Brittonic use /ṽ/?

I heard on the Wikipedia article for Sindarin (which I admit is far from being the best source) that Common Brittonic, like Old Irish, had a nasalized v sound ṽ. Is this true? If so, are there any ...
8
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2answers
326 views

Did Proto-Indo-European put the adjective before or behind the noun?

Did PIE put the adjective behind the noun (like Romance languages usually do) or before the noun (like Germanic languages)?
1
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0answers
37 views

Performative verbs - speech act

The sentence: "I order you to do X". order is a performative verb, it is a speech act which has the illocutionary force is an order. The sentence: "I inspire you to do X". Although ...
2
votes
0answers
51 views

What limitations of generative grammar was Lakoff referring to?

In his keynote address in 2015, George Lakoff said the following (at 22:10) The whole idea of generative grammar fell apart. There were things that you could not do with it. Even if it was ...
0
votes
1answer
51 views

Is an unambiguous description of left and right side of the body available in some languages

The nautical terms "port and starboard" refer to the left and right side of a vessel when looking from the stern to the bow. At first it seems silly, but, it's actually great to ...
2
votes
1answer
149 views

What makes “can't get any” a double-negative, according to Steven Pinker?

The Rolling Stones famously sang "I can't get no satisfaction", which is a double-negative. "I can't get any satisfaction" is seen as more grammatical in modern English. In his ...
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0answers
41 views

What's it called when someone makes a language mistake because of an unrelated phenomenon? [closed]

What’s it called when someone makes a mistake because of something else? For example, someone saying “there is a two version”. They should have used the null article instead of the indefinite article, ...
-1
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0answers
26 views

Finding the sentiment score from a given bit of text but not the entire text

I am trying to find the sentiment score of some politicians on reddit on a daily basis(sticking to a specific subreddit of course). My idea is to get a bunch of posts(perhaps all of them) on any given ...
3
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1answer
30 views

Unmoving F1 / formant below F1?

I'm trying to understand some basics, hope this is an ok question. Here's a recording of me producing /i/, /ɛ/, /a/: https://namakajiri.net/misc/i%c9%9ba.webm nevermind the transition between the ...
0
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1answer
56 views

Why are Proto-West Germanic hwaʀ and OHG wēr cognate?

Why are Proto-West Germanic hwaʀ and OHG wēr cognate? What is the kind of mutation a > ē?
-2
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0answers
61 views

Are there formulated rules or taxonomies for riddle as a language? [closed]

It appears that the Baraita on the Thirty-two Rules or Baraita of R. Eliezer ben Jose ha-Gelili may be a formulation for interpreting riddles and word-play. He defines the use of puns, paralleisms, ...
3
votes
1answer
49 views

How can one fill out the quadrat when a word consists of a single uniliteral?

In Egyptian hieroglyphic writing, glyphs are commonly arranged into quadrats (blocks) to minimize empty space. And I was taught that it's good style not to have a word boundary within a single quadrat....
-2
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0answers
72 views

“That clause” after noun [closed]

I think I wanted to analyze the nominal “that clause” or the “that clause” after some nouns and I was wondering if the “that clause” might be an appositive phrase or a relative clause Or I was ...
2
votes
1answer
52 views

Words with “hybrid” declension (in Latin, or borrowed by English from Latin)?

There is a recently-coined technical usage (in mathematics) of the word "anima", borrowed from Latin to English. The funny thing about this coinage is that the coin-ers of the term insist on ...
-4
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0answers
26 views

Yiddish or Hebrew slang for “bad-ass” [closed]

Is there a Hebrew of Yiddish word or phrase that captures the meaning of the English term “bad-ass”? Example: how would you describe Chuck Norris in Hebrew or Yiddish?
0
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2answers
54 views

What cues would you look for in this spectrogram to figure out the word? [closed]

(It is produced in American English and the word is one syllable. The time scale is arbitrary so feel free to ignore it.) I was wondering what cues everyone would look for when reading this, and ...
0
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1answer
47 views

What is the more natural parsing, the one that leads to the preferred reading of the sentence

I have those rules: and those two possible parse trees: I am asked for the next question: What is the more natural parsing, the one that leads to the preferred reading of the sentence? Can anyone ...
3
votes
0answers
67 views

What was the original pronounciation of the Thai consonant symbols?

The Thai language was devised to serve two main purposes: to write Thai words and to write Sanskrit (or Pali) words. For this reason, the Thai alphabet has one consonant symbol for each Sanskrit sound ...
0
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0answers
15 views

Are there such things as verbs that are experiential AND ditransitive?

Does any natural language have verbs that are both ditransitive and experiential? I'm working on a conlang in which ditransitive experiential verbs exist. For example, we could have verbs that mean &...
6
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0answers
58 views

How can you establish that a word is a proform?

A pro-form is a word, substituting for other words, phrases, clauses, or sentences, whose meaning is recoverable from the linguistic or extralinguistic context. But how do you establish a word as a ...
5
votes
0answers
45 views

Have there been any reconstructive efforts of proto-languages, where aspects of historic culture have been inferred for languages other than PIE?

I'm not sure if this is the right SE to ask this question (possibly History SE?), but here goes! Similar to the source material for this video, have there been any efforts to infer aspects of culture ...
3
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0answers
28 views

Inverse scope reading

It is well known that any sentence with two or more quantifiers will result in in multiple possible readings depending on the ordering of the quantifiers. To take a known example (1), there will be ...
2
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1answer
67 views

Are there any attested languages with a VCV or VC syllable structure?

In Googling this question, I found out about Arrernte, which is arguably VC(C). Are there any other languages which have been argued to be a VCV language? And is there any reason why they're so rare ...
1
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0answers
47 views

Categorization of English and French connecting words

Does anyone know of a resource that proposes a categorization for connecting words (conjunctions, adverbs, prepositions, etc.) based on their semantic meanings? I'm working on analyzing the word(s) ...
4
votes
1answer
92 views

How can the continuum s-sʲ-ç-ɕ-ʃ-ʂ be described in technical terms?

To me, it seems clear that there is a continuum between this group of sounds, as all of them (apart from ç, which I will touch on later in the post) are sibilants, and the only difference between them ...
0
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0answers
31 views

Are there any theoretical properties of punctuation marks that allow to identify them without understanding the text?

Imaging that you have discovered a stone with written text in an ancient (or alien!) language that doesn't resemble any known language. Is there a way to show that some of the symbols are likely ...
9
votes
1answer
135 views

Why does Polish have male and female accents?

This is particularly interesting to me as I can't seem to find any information on the topic, but, having listened to numerous Polish speakers from both sexes, the male─female pronounciational split is ...

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