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8 views

Whats the vowel in ale [closed]

I've heard this sound a lot but haven't found it in charts. I hear it often in ant, ale, yeah, and air, but can't identify it with the sounds I already know.
-2
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1answer
17 views

What language does the phonetic inventory of ERA's "Ameno" most resemble?

The lyrics of the 1996 song "Ameno" by Era are said to be in pseudo-Latin: Dori me Interimo, adapare Dori me Ameno Ameno etc. Indeed, phonotactically (and, in one word — "imperavi&...
0
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0answers
17 views

Are implications said to be "accommodated" by listeners?

Do leading questions cause the listener to accommodate the implication, or only the objective presuppositions? Isn't Henry staying at his girlfriend's? "Henry has a girlfriend" is a ...
1
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0answers
10 views

Up-to-date performance comparison of speech recognition over time

I am looking for an up-to-date (as of 2022) figure or table which displays the improvement in speech recognition on benchmarks for read and spontaneous speech over time, ideally in terms of word error ...
0
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0answers
14 views

In attempting to create a conscript in Fontstruct, how do I figure out where it would fit into FS's existing script schema? [migrated]

Since my early childhood, I've been developing a conlang I call Fernaoki, spoken and written by the people of my dreamspatial realm Fernaokiya. I developed the whole concept in response to living as+...
0
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0answers
11 views

Slovene: when to use dates ending in -a and -ega VS normal endings [closed]

For example let's say : dvanajstega aprila and dvanajsti april. Is the first one used when we use fourth sklon and the second one first sklon?
1
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2answers
77 views

Why words in many romance languages don't have more than one part of speech, unlike words in English

I have recently just realized that in English, sometimes the same word will have different part of speech depends on the way you pronounce it. For example, record can be a noun or a verb depends on ...
0
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1answer
93 views
+50

Pronunciation of "ll" in the Romance languages

I have noticed that all the Romance languages (Spanish, Galician, Catalan, Portuguese, Romanian, Italian, and French) usually pronounce the "ll" like the "y" in "yacht". ...
2
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0answers
90 views

Western European languages tend to have fewer genders and simpler case systems than Eastern European ones, is this due to contact?

You can draw a relatively consistent line through Europe, to the west of which, Indo-European languages mostly have one or two genders and nouns don't inflect for case, and to the east of which, ...
-1
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0answers
49 views

Help identifying characters (they might be from Cuneiform script) [closed]

A friend found a file in a videogame that has these characters and we would like to know if they make sense or it might be a case where these characters are just used for aesthetic purposes. I ...
0
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0answers
42 views

Why does Old Norse ‘Óláfr’ have á instead of ei? [closed]

The Proto-Germanic (PG) diphthong *ai generally becomes ei in Old Norse (ON), except regularly before an original *h and commonly before r (but only from PG *r, not from rhotacised PG *z). Examples ...
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0answers
35 views

Is it common for languages to incorporate hortative modality when there is one speaker present? i.e. talking to themselves?

I am an undergrad working with a papuan language. There is one sentence that was in the data that has me wondering about hortatives. The sentence, in english, translates to “Okay, I’ll just leave.” ...
-1
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0answers
28 views

How to write an actionable sentence in the Dutch language? [closed]

I'm trying to improve my GTD system and a recurring suggested theme is to make your goals actionable. Things like "Repair laptop, cleanup kitchen, buy milk, call mother' all start with the verb ...
3
votes
2answers
135 views

What psychological effects does the language one speaks have on them? [closed]

Are there any known psychological effects that have been observed on people who speak one language as opposed to another. For example, in Latin languages there are genders, in English there are none; ...
4
votes
3answers
1k views

Do any languages, or is it linguistically possible, to compound multiple noun classes on a single noun at the same time?

As an example, take noun classes similar to Swahili or Navajo. In Swahili each noun belongs to one class (accepting the same noun might change class for pluralisation). In Navajo, some classes are ...
1
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1answer
93 views

What would /ɯ/ most likely be replaced by? [closed]

If a language was borrowing words from another language that has /ɯ/, what would the first language possibly substitute it with? Borrowing language phonology - Consonants: m n ɲ p b t d c ɟ k g ts dz ...
0
votes
1answer
101 views

Is meaning prescribed?

The way I see it, there's two aspects to the choice between the descriptivistic and prescriptivist approach. There's the ought aspect; how ought we view the meaning of words? Then there's the is ...
5
votes
1answer
1k views

How do non-English speakers perceive English /b d g/?

Based on some reading that I've done, the English "voiced" stops /b d g/ aren't actually voiced word-initially. For instance, /bæt/ is realized as [pæt] or [b̥æt], rather than [bæt]. The ...
0
votes
1answer
38 views

How can I cut several sound files using a script?

I am new to Praat and wondering, if someone can help me to find out, how I can cut all my sound files with a script or anything. I have like 100 sound files I need for my research. They all have a ...
0
votes
1answer
36 views

Categorizing "r" sonorants in (rhotic) English

While I usually see phonemes like /ər/ and /ɜr/ described as phonetically corresponding to r-colored vowels, I've occasionally seen them referred to as syllabic consonants, e.g., [ɹ], rather than, say,...
0
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0answers
21 views

Question about writing effective experimental prompts

I am running a crowd-sourced experiment where two participants have to engage in a text-based conversation (about movies or TV shows). My goal is to understand linguistic dynamics of the conversation, ...
1
vote
3answers
128 views

Is there any real phonemic distinction between semivowels and their vocalic counterparts?

So my understanding is that semivowels are phonetically identical (or nearly identical) to their vocalic equivalents, and that the distinction between the two is primarily based on how they behave ...
0
votes
1answer
76 views

Origin of بطريق

I read here that the Arabic word بطريق (penguin) ultimately derives from Latin patricius (patrician), through Greek and Aramaic, but I couldn't find any explanation of how and why the shift in meaning ...
0
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0answers
47 views

How can we know if two names which have the same referent have the same meaning or different meanings?

“A cute cat” and “a black cat” can have the same referent but have explicitly different meanings. Then, how can we know if two proper nouns, especially names, which have the same referent have the ...
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0answers
107 views

What are the semantic connections between interrogative and indefinite pronouns in many languages"?

I am asking for languages in general, particularly English, not just Mandarin. Schuessler used the singular "semantic connection", but is there truly just one connection? Are there no other ...
0
votes
1answer
57 views

Phonetics of labiodental / bilabial consonant cluster

So someone asked me the following question. I was wondering why the letter "b" disappears when the Beatles sing: "and I've ((b))een working like a dog" I listened to the Song on ...
-1
votes
0answers
60 views

Is there a source for English prefixes and suffixes? and English Morphology?

I'd like to study English affixes. I need a source where ALL the affixes are listed. I need this for my English morphology course. Furthermore, does anyone know that if there is a morpheme counter ...
4
votes
1answer
312 views

How a learner of a polysynthetic language like Arapaho would use an electronic or printed dictionary?

Along the lines of this question about agglutinative dictionaries, I just finished reading through the paper "Creating lexical resources for polysynthetic languages — the case of Arapaho, by ...
-1
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0answers
8 views

Order the child [migrated]

Can someone explain to me what does "order the child" mean? The context is the story of Manoah and his future son, Samson. Manoah asks the angel "How shall we order the child, and how ...
1
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0answers
22 views

Controlling for semantic shift/change in a dataset

I'm working on a project to ascertain a cohort's feelings (using a Likert scale) on different words relevant to that cohort. Individuals of the cohort are different ages, and the goal is to see if the ...
1
vote
2answers
76 views

How does r-coloring impact phonological analysis?

Edit: I realized I asked this very confusingly. I think what I really should have said was, are there any phonemic implications to r-coloring? Or thinking about it slightly differently, is there a ...
2
votes
1answer
71 views

Etymology of words in English translations

I posted this in English but they suggested this site. The question was about the English language because of roughly 50/50 Germanic/Latin roots. Anyhow here it is... I have often daydreamed about ...
0
votes
1answer
90 views

Does "Inchoative Construction" mean constructions with intransitive inchoative verbs?

The following is the sentence I extracted from a book, Binding Theory, written by Daniel Burning. The fact that a language like English, which lacks a simple reflexive, has extremely few reflexive ...
2
votes
1answer
94 views

How to count the number of unique words (lemmas) in a Russian text?

Here's the problem: I have a large deck of Anki flashcards which I memorize. I would like to know how many unique Russian words (lemmas) I have in my entire collection. What I need is some kind of ...
-1
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2answers
164 views

Is Baron Hoffman correct — "The meaning of words is a matter of dictionaries and grammars"?

happy new year. I am a legal profession, not a linguist. I hope this is a worthy linguistics question. Can I have your thoughts please on this quotation by Lord Hoffman, a former Law Lord? Nowadays ...
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0answers
59 views

Does lying violate the maxim of quality?

Hope to find someone here to help me decide whether this is a violation or opting out of the quality maxim in the following example: A: Did you pass the driving test? B: No. (A knows that B passed the ...
0
votes
1answer
63 views

Frequency of non-legal name preference

I've been looking for research on the percentage of people who have a preferred name which differs from their legal name. I've found a few papers which are overly specific but none which give a broad ...
0
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0answers
63 views

What are the sounds that define the r-controlled vowels?

For all the r-colored vowels like ɑr, ɔr, ɛr, and ɪr, I keep hearing this extra vowel sound in between the vowel and the r. This isn’t the case for ər/ɜr since this just sounds like the r sound to me, ...
4
votes
2answers
134 views

How do Sumerian cuneiform and Egyptian hieroglyphs differ?

The Wikipedia article on the History of Writing contains the following quote: the earliest solid evidence of Egyptian writing differs in structure and style from the Mesopotamian and must therefore ...
0
votes
1answer
50 views

Why and how is the following sentence erroneous?

I am studying error analysis. why is the following sentence erroneous? *Last night I was very tired that I couldn't study. Is there an error in this sentence? The only option I can think of is Wrong ...
3
votes
2answers
111 views

How to exactly pronounce IPA

I'm a native Korean speaker, and I somtimes have trouble pronuncing some of the sounds which is not used or not distinguished in Korean. For example, ɛ and e are equivalent to Korean phoneme ㅐ and ㅔ. ...
5
votes
1answer
111 views

On the use of possessive pronouns instead of definite articles in AmE

Consider the following examples: I have to go now, my Uber driver has arrived. So, have you already learned your ABCs? I now will put my eggs into the dry ingredients. All of these are examples of a ...
0
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2answers
74 views

Saussure and Modern Linguistics

To my knowledge, Chomsky and most other modern linguists rarely ever mention Saussure. Do they still agree that language is an arbitrary and differential system? If not, what happened exactly that ...
1
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0answers
63 views

Why do Proto-germanic "-as" nouns have e-grade?

Why do Proto-germanic "-as" nouns have e-grade (don't have an ablaut like Ancient Greek τρέπ-ω τρόπ-ος, πέκ-ω πόκ-ος, λέχ-ομαι λόχ-ος, φέβ-ομαι φόβ-ος)?
1
vote
1answer
176 views

Are there languages without the /j/ sound as in English "yellow"?

There are many languages without the /w/ sound as in English world, as in French oiseau, as in Spanish fuego, and as in Mandarin wang (the last three respectively mean bird, fire, and king). Some ...
0
votes
2answers
51 views

what is a "non-derived" environment?

what is the meaning of derived and non-derived environments in phonology? for example, non derived environment blocking, that does it mean? I've looked everywhere but I could not find the actual ...
1
vote
1answer
20 views

Difference between the Merge postion and the base position

I was reading this analysis of the derivation below. And I wasn't familiar with the terminology "original Merge position." Is it just like "the base position"? Here is the sentence ...
2
votes
0answers
30 views

V-Bar Syntax in Latin

I am reading Devine and Stephens Latin Word Order, but without the requisite grounding in formal linguistics. They use the term V-bar syntax, and I am not sure what they mean by this and would like ...
2
votes
1answer
95 views

Ioticism in Greek

Are there any good theories about what motivated the pervasive ioticism that developed between ancient Greek and modern Greek? Are there any other languages that went through analogous changes? The ...
0
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0answers
28 views

Why is the PP, according to this derivation, directly moved from the lower (farther) DP, not the nearer one?

The sentence being parsed: De CHOMSKY varios libros han ganado premios internacionales, no de Trotsky. of Chomsky several books have won awards international-PL, not of Trotsky Why is the PP on top ...

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