All Questions

Filter by
Sorted by
Tagged with
2 votes
0 answers
105 views

Syntactic representation of a compound word

I want to create a syntactic representation of a compound word "стакан воды". Here, "стакан" is in the nominative and "воды" is in the genitive. Both nouns also have no ...
5 votes
3 answers
8k views

Where can you download the IPA chart with audio?

Where can you download or obtain (preferably freely) such a chart like http://www.internationalphoneticalphabet.org/ipa-sounds/ipa-chart-with-sounds/ with each phone pronounced, for offline use?
14 votes
2 answers
4k views

Was cuneiform ever drawn on a surface, as opposed to carved?

Cuneiform's glyphs are well-known for the odd way they were made; stamping. I wonder though, given that it remained in used for thousands of years, was this the only way it was ever utilized? Was ...
19 votes
2 answers
7k views

Ncuti Gatwa is, according to Wikipedia, pronounced /ˈʃuːti ˈɡætwɑː/ - where is the NC orthography derived from?

On trying to find the pronunciation of the name of Mizero Ncuti Gatwa, a Rwandan-Scottish actor who will be playing the Fourteenth Doctor, I noticed the NC pairing and its pronunciation is listed on ...
0 votes
0 answers
68 views

Hypothetical ancestry and evolution of PGmc *auziwandliaz

This is cross-posted from r/asklinguistics, with influence from Wiktionary's Tea Room. So I'm bundling up three questions regarding the PGmc. proper noun *Auziwandilaz. First: The /w/ in the ...
2 votes
1 answer
119 views

How commonly are [u] and cardinal close-mid [o] allophones?

I ask because I listened to the recordings of [o] here: https://www.internationalphoneticassociation.org/IPAcharts/inter_chart_2018/IPA_2018.html For me (being a speaker of Finnish) all but the first ...
2 votes
0 answers
56 views

Drawing phrase markers "What/Who is a phonologist?"

In the book "Analysing Sentences" by Noel Burton-Roberts, there's an exercise on drawing phrase markers for the 2 sentences "What is a phonologist?" and "Who is a phonologist?&...
1 vote
1 answer
237 views

Why would "But" function as its own clause in Hunt's (1965) T-unit and clause system?

I am learning about Hunt's (1965) system of parsing writing into T-units (minimal terminable units) and clauses. In this system, a T-unit is "one main clause with all the subordinate clauses attached ...
0 votes
0 answers
117 views

Semantic loans; words borrowing a meaning already there?

What exactly is a semantic loan, how can a word borrow a meaning it already has? I am trying to figure out whether there are any limitations (can we choose any morphemes) on the recipient word and the ...
1 vote
0 answers
95 views

In chinese 命運, 安慰. In japanese 運命, 慰安. it seems chinese graphs are switched regularly

Why these differences are made. Thanks in advance. (This question body does not meet our quality standards. Please make sure that it completely describes your problem - including what you have already ...
2 votes
0 answers
61 views

What are grammatical features specific to Eurasia?

I'n curious about what typological/grammatical features are prevalent across the entirety of Eurasia but are rare or absent in the rest of the world. I'm aware of "Standard Average European" ...
3 votes
2 answers
476 views

How to find info on rare languages?

I keep trying to find languages that match the features of my conlangs for help figuring out how to use features I'm not used to. However, its rare that WALS to tell me about any language you can find ...
2 votes
0 answers
37 views

Are there any rules governing the variation between codaic /n/ and nasal vowels in Hindustani?

Are there any rules governing when a vowel + /n/ combination in Hindustani will become a nasal vowel, or are they completely separate and unpredictable? If so, are there any minimal pairs to prove so? ...
2 votes
2 answers
90 views

Schwa vowel in indonesian

I am starting to study indonesian, and every manual/grammar that I consulted so far (and even the teacher of our course and some youtubers who teach the language) insist that indonesian has five ...
1 vote
1 answer
205 views

Formant measurements errors in Praat

I am trying to measure formant trajectories in /lV/ sequences. I started by extracting values at 11 temporal points, but I am getting a lot of incorrect values, as if Praat is struggling to recognize ...
2 votes
2 answers
210 views

Is the sound change /y/ > /i/ more common than /y/ > /u/? Are there any good examples of /y/ shifting to /u/?

Front rounded vowels are somewhat uncommon. If we focus on the high front rounded vowel /y/ and consider cases where it was lost, it seems most likely to shift to /i/ by losing its rounding or to ...
1 vote
0 answers
76 views

Why did so few changes occur in "Pre-Proto-Germanic"?

Proto-Germanic is dated pretty late. Grimm's Law, the first and defining change, is dated to 500 BC. However, the dialects are supposed to have split up throughout the 3rd millennia BC. This would ...
7 votes
1 answer
418 views

Which writing systems have the highest/lowest stroke-to-sound ratios?

Preemptive note: This question is about sound-based writing systems, excluding logographic systems like Chinese. Transitional systems like Egyptian hieroglyphs, Maya script or Man’yōgana are also ...
3 votes
2 answers
9k views

How is the Filipino expression “salamat” related to the Arabic?

Salamat in Filipino means “thank you”. In the Arabic form, the word is in the feminine plural salāmat سلامت from the singular salāmah . Salamat in Arabic is equivalent to peace and blessings (a ...
0 votes
1 answer
90 views

Is it possible for two words to have the same underlying representation but different surface forms?

I'm trying to wrap my head around a mental concept and I was wondering if this was even possible, and how you would seperate the two using the exact same rules?
0 votes
0 answers
95 views

Is standard Arabic considered a dead language? What are the differences from Latin?

I fail to see the difference in usage between Latin and Fusha. Maybe not contemporary Latin but Latin from few centuries prior. Is Standard Arabic the most widely spoken dead language?
0 votes
1 answer
197 views

When were the Greek names for these countries first used?

I'm analyzing this Greek prophecy which is contested to be from 1053 or 1753. I've seen claims that it uses Greek words anachronistic to 1053: Now over the years I began to doubt if the dating of the ...
1 vote
0 answers
125 views

How is this question ambiguous?

How is this question ambiguous? Who knows when the train will arrive? The sentence is ambiguous and I have to argue the reason of its ambiguity focusing on the interpretation of the wh-adverb. And ...
0 votes
0 answers
28 views

How to find free, readable language-to-language dictionaries

A group of friends and I are working on a project that requires access to downloadable "language-to-language" dictionaries, where words and their corresponding definitions are written in the ...
0 votes
1 answer
232 views

Is Malaweg/Malaueg a language or a dialect?

I'm so confused, i got into Wikipedia, and searched up 'Philippine Languages', until i came across the Northern Luzon Languages, and within the family i found the Cagayan Valley languages, I found the ...
12 votes
8 answers
900 views

Do multi-dimensional writing systems exist?

I am not sure whether linguistics board is the right place to ask this question, but since I couldn't find any better place here is the question: Most (all?) of the writing systems are using the ...
1 vote
1 answer
77 views

How does the Hungarian accusative case suffix -t come from Proto-Uralic partitive case suffix?

How does the Hungarian accusative case suffix -t come from Proto-Uralic partitive case suffix? One wouldn't be understood if he consistently used the partitive case instead of the accusative case, ...
2 votes
3 answers
244 views

Are there Romance parallel descendants to Italian "cicalare" and Romanian "cicăli(re)"?

I am looking for the etymology of the Romanian verb a cicăli (to make reproaches repeatedly, to nag), which is reported of unknown origin, and I have found an almost identical word in Italian: ...
4 votes
0 answers
206 views

Did Proto-Slavic allow four syllables with yers to be consecutive?

On another forum, we were discussing my proposal (presented in a paper I published in Valpovački Godišnjak and Regionalne Studije in 2022) that the river name Karašica comes from Illyrian *...
0 votes
0 answers
24 views

What kind of communication is physical demonstration?

Imagine a species of a proto-humans that have yet to develop any form of spoken language. There is a proto-human, Greg, who roams around with another proto-human, Larry. Greg, from past experience, ...
0 votes
1 answer
40 views

Ideal number of randomized concordancing lines

I want to perform randomized concordancing on a news corpus with 807 mil. tokens from 2 mil. documents from 2011-2022. Is there any ideal number of concordancing in order to be able to make a ...
1 vote
3 answers
766 views

Types of Sound Variations (Like Accents and Tones) in Languages

So in Spanish and other languages there are accents like: café tú And in Chinese there are tone shifts as in this graphic: The tones are accounted for in English / Romanization by adding accent ...
3 votes
3 answers
2k views

What is the “Chomsky hierarchy”?

What truly is the Chomsky hierarchy? I know it aims to categorize core features of “languages”. But what essential properties does each type have? Why are they so distinctive? Why are there four? And ...
0 votes
0 answers
83 views

Why is schwa considered 'one' sound when it can be pronounced many ways?

I have almost no linguistics knowledge, but apparently schwa is the 'A's in America, the the 'e' in problem, or the O in complete. It's always an unstressed vowel and I guess it's like if you could ...
1 vote
3 answers
3k views

Modern Khmer and modern Vietnamese genetic proximity

I know that Khmer and Vietnamese are considered genetically related (Austroasian language family) but I don't know what were and/or are significant commonalities to justify that consideration. I also ...
0 votes
0 answers
23 views

Numbers appearing in PIE transcription e.g. in *méh₂tēr "mother" [duplicate]

Can someone please explain the 2 in PIE expressions e.g. in *méh₂tēr "mother". Is it related to *ph₂tḗr "father"?
0 votes
1 answer
153 views

Translating unknown language with AI

I've read around the web there are AI's they used to translate ancient languages, even without any comparation with known texts. What I wasn't unable to find, is the specifications of those AIs, and ...
3 votes
3 answers
2k views

What languages have a Perfect Imperative and what is the meaning of such a tense-mood combination?

I self-studied Greek long ago, and I found this Perfect Imperative. Now all the Greek grammars I looked at just throw it at you, expecting you to either completely ignore or downright not have what ...
3 votes
2 answers
612 views

Feudali“zmie” or feudali“źmie”?

I have a problem. I have always used such pronunciation that if a word ends with the sound “zm” (like “feudalizm”), when declining it to the locative case “zm” turns into “źm”, i.e.: Feudalizm -> ...
4 votes
6 answers
1k views

What was the original pronunciation of 'ä' in German?

I always learnt it was pronounced the same as how 'e' is usually pronounced in German (in either its short or long forms respectively). But then the question is: why have a different letter for it? ...
0 votes
0 answers
16 views

What is "description" in terms of a metalanguage?

Suppose I have a formal system consisting of a formal grammar and deductive rules. To "describe" the formal grammar and deductive rules, I require some sort of metalanguage. My question is, ...
0 votes
0 answers
6 views

Discourse similarity techniques, beyond LSA

I want to think of a methodology that would claim two “discourses” are “equivalent” or fuzzily equivalent in form. I think this requires some sort of semantic parse where you choose very precisely ...
-3 votes
1 answer
71 views

10 examples of complex infix / circumfix words which also contain prefixes and/or suffixes (cross language)? [closed]

I am putting together a cheatsheet of complex word forms across languages, so myself and others if so desired want to have a test suite of words to work with to figure out how to handle their complex ...
18 votes
4 answers
3k views

What is the meaning of the number 2 in Proto-Indo European reconstructions? e.g. As in *tewtéh₂, meaning "people" or "tribe"

I am a writer doing some research into ancient languages for a story I am creating. Despite having done some formal and informal study on linguistics (I am familiar with a phonetic chart) and informal ...
5 votes
5 answers
406 views

Halegannada/Proto-South Dravidian Phonological Changes

What is the explanation behind the /p/ to /h/ phonological change from Halegannada to Kannada?
0 votes
1 answer
62 views

How likely is it that Old Medean /ṛ/ and /b/ would have been rendered in Biblical Hebrew as /ħ/ and /w/?

I've recently been doing some research involving a possible connection between the names Astibaras (a named Diodorus Siculus used to refer to Cyaxares the Mede) and Ahasuerus (the name of both the ...
2 votes
0 answers
39 views

What is the term for PIE *eu > Proto-Balto-Slavic jau?

What is the term for PIE *eu > Proto-Balto-Slavic jau? Raising? Vowel breaking?
0 votes
1 answer
43 views

How did οι merge with υ and υι in Koine?

Before the merger of ι and υ, there was a previous merger between υ, υι, and οι. υι makes sense as it was the long equivalent of υ. I’m still unsure how οι came to be pronounced as /y/.
3 votes
1 answer
204 views

The analysis of 'for NP to VP' in HPSG

This is from a paper titled "What for?" by Bas Aarts: (35) [NP It [S′ [COMP for] [S Mary see his relatives]]] [M may] [VP distress John] Bresnan’s account was very influential in proposing ...
0 votes
0 answers
32 views

Phonetic/ phonological, not orthographic, syllables of تَطْوِيْل?

Pronunciation of تَطْوِيْل (as verbal noun), is it 'tat-weel', or rather 'ta-tweel' ? Notice the difference in syllable structure.

15 30 50 per page