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59 views

What is the information density of factual knowledge in large bodies of English text?

An ML paper I was reading mentioned an estimate of no more than 0.7 bits per word, in footnote 4: As of February 1, 2024, English Wikipedia contains a total of 4.5 billion words [...] We estimate ...
2 votes
0 answers
24 views

Where can I find more about inked cuneiform?

A recent question asked about cuneiform painted or drawn on a surface instead of being inscribed or engraved, and it seems there are three tablets from the Library of Ashurbanipal that had colophons ...
2 votes
2 answers
212 views

Did Dutch ever have a G like in Garden sound?

In Modern Dutch I do not see or hear any hard G sound. Garden would be pronounced like Harden.. how did that happen?
2 votes
1 answer
22 views

Inchoative aspect and movement verbs

I'm relatively new to the topic of grammaticalization and I'm investigating the grammaticalization of motion verbs, e.g. the movement verb gaan ('to go') can have an inchoative function in Dutch (Ze ...
2 votes
3 answers
162 views

Is there a language that has temporal noun modifiers?

I am not a linguist, so my question is most probably very poorly worded. I have obviously searched on google, but to no avail. Is there a language that has noun declensions or suffixes/affixes that ...
0 votes
0 answers
24 views

Is Charles Bell's Colloquial Tibetan Book Still Useful?

I'm working through Charles Bell's Grammar of Colloquial Tibetan. There's a lot of beating of mules and mulemen, and capturing of the men who stole the money because it's a century old and written ...
2 votes
1 answer
309 views

Accuracy of Этимологический словарь иранских языков (Etymological Dictionary of Iranian Languages) by Rastorgueva and Edelman

I have been studying these books with the help of Google Translate. In the third volume on page 176, the authors seem to derive the Persian درنا (crane) from an Iranian root. This is obviously ...
0 votes
3 answers
98 views

Errors of inflection in languages other than English -- more common or less common in very inflected languages?

Note: While a question similar has been suggested and the replies indicate that even uneducated Russians do not make mistakes as even educated English speakers tend to, I am firstly not convinced this ...
2 votes
0 answers
47 views

What exactly is the role of Gilchrist in history of Hindvi?

Recently there has been an influx of polemics on Reddit/4chan etc., saying that "Hindi is just Sanskritized Urdu", or "the language of Hindustani is a gift of invaders" or ...
15 votes
3 answers
5k views

Do languages have any sort of upper limit for how long it takes to say things?

Conlangs are sorta infamous for taking a lot of phonemes to say things. This is mainly due to so many avoiding inflections and preferring agglutination when they want to tack on a lot of information. ...
-1 votes
0 answers
44 views

Do Latin phrases exhibit more flexible recursion than their English counterparts?

Does the fact that common Latin phrases have many very flexible collocations, such as de facto standard, de facto control, de facto relationship, etc., mean that Latin phrases have more flexible ...
5 votes
1 answer
154 views

What is the origin of North Italian dialects' particle /g/ (cf. Italian "ci", "gli")?

I have noticed that both Lombard, Venetan and Ligurian (and I assume Piedmontese) use "gh'" (i.e. /g/) for the 3SG dative clitic (Italian "gli") and at least some of the many ...
0 votes
0 answers
7 views

Considerations when learning very similar language [migrated]

I'm considering learning danish and am native swedish speaker. The languages are partially mutually intelligible (and more so in written form). Are there any special considerations to be aware of when ...
1 vote
0 answers
55 views

Can interlinear gloss shows only specific metalinguistic elements?

Background For my research I need to create interlinear linguistic gloss between Russian and Indonesian. Russian is characterized with a highly inflective morphosyntactic grammar, and as such glossing ...
1 vote
0 answers
20 views

I'm looking for a praat script that measures the voiced portion of a consonant closure marked in a textgrid

Does anyone have or know of a praat script that can measure the voiced portion of segments that are marked on a textgrid in praat? Like, say I had a conversation and I had every /d/ spoken in that ...
1 vote
0 answers
53 views

wh-word and adjunction (Russian as an example)

I am reading The Syntax of Russian by John Frederick Bailyn. He takes the wh-word который to be of category AP/NP. Also he assumes that adjuncts operates at the level of XP, not X-bar. Given that, if ...
0 votes
0 answers
191 views

How to pronounce Proto-Indo-European words?

I want to know how do I get to know how to pronounce proto-Indo-European words from how they are spelled currently? I do understand that the exact pronunciation is not certain for many words, but it ...
11 votes
1 answer
489 views

Merger of perfect and aorist in Italic and Celtic

One of the common features of the Italic and Celtic branches is the merger of perfect and aorist. So, in the surviving "perfect" forms we find a mixture of old aorist stems and old perfect ...
0 votes
0 answers
50 views

What is the most accurate way to parse a text so that we can get the characters and the list of sentences that refer to each character?

I'm trying to come up with a method that will take a text and parse it so that we can get all the characters and a list of the sentences from the text that have references to the character (either ...
0 votes
0 answers
109 views

How do languages with head-marking possessive phrases parse noun phrases?

I'm sick of not being able to find info any any grammatical feature I look up that isn't found in an SAE language. Anyway, looking up this feature, I have a hard time imaging how languages can keep ...
2 votes
0 answers
95 views

In the German word "Winter" (winter), why didn't the High German Consonant Shift change 't' to 'z' /ts/, so as to be "Winzer"? [migrated]

In the German word "Winter" (winter), why didn't the High German Consonant Shift change 't' to 'z' /ts/, so as to be "Winzer"? German "Winter", just like English "...
0 votes
0 answers
42 views

What is an applied argument?

What does an applied argument mean? I have an assignment and cannot seem to understand this. Can we say that a sentence doesn’t have an applied argument when it doesn’t have a direct object?
0 votes
1 answer
70 views

The etymological dictionary of Persian by Mohammad Hassandust

I'm considering purchasing this book, but it's not available in ebook format, and the price is rather steep. Therefore, I'm eager to ensure its scientific accuracy. I've noticed numerous papers citing ...
9 votes
5 answers
5k views

Can children learn up to 4 different languages? And how to do it?

An example is parents with different mother tongues living in a foreign country, teaching those three languages and also English. How and when should this language be taught? Can all be taught in ...
2 votes
0 answers
96 views

Syntactic representation of a compound word

I want to create a syntactic representation of a compound word "стакан воды". Here, "стакан" is in the nominative and "воды" is in the genitive. Both nouns also have no ...
0 votes
0 answers
31 views

Is this a good translation [closed]

I am working on a translation project and using DeepL. Could a native Swedish speaker please tell me the meaning of the following: Där de bränner böcker kommer de till slut att bränna människor I am ...
-2 votes
0 answers
61 views

What is the Sanskrit reflex of PIE *ǵombʰos “jaw”? [closed]

What is the Sanskrit reflex of PIE *ǵombʰos “jaw”?
5 votes
3 answers
8k views

Where can you download the IPA chart with audio?

Where can you download or obtain (preferably freely) such a chart like http://www.internationalphoneticalphabet.org/ipa-sounds/ipa-chart-with-sounds/ with each phone pronounced, for offline use?
1 vote
0 answers
49 views

Where can I find a relatively comprehensive X-bar analysis of English noun and adjective phrases?

Could anyone guide me to where I might find a relatively comprehensive, or well representative, X-bar analysis of English noun phrases and adjective phrases? I'm looking for common things, for ...
14 votes
2 answers
4k views

Was cuneiform ever drawn on a surface, as opposed to carved?

Cuneiform's glyphs are well-known for the odd way they were made; stamping. I wonder though, given that it remained in used for thousands of years, was this the only way it was ever utilized? Was ...
19 votes
2 answers
7k views

Ncuti Gatwa is, according to Wikipedia, pronounced /ˈʃuːti ˈɡætwɑː/ - where is the NC orthography derived from?

On trying to find the pronunciation of the name of Mizero Ncuti Gatwa, a Rwandan-Scottish actor who will be playing the Fourteenth Doctor, I noticed the NC pairing and its pronunciation is listed on ...
0 votes
0 answers
65 views

Hypothetical ancestry and evolution of PGmc *auziwandliaz

This is cross-posted from r/asklinguistics, with influence from Wiktionary's Tea Room. So I'm bundling up three questions regarding the PGmc. proper noun *Auziwandilaz. First: The /w/ in the ...
2 votes
1 answer
111 views

How commonly are [u] and cardinal close-mid [o] allophones?

I ask because I listened to the recordings of [o] here: https://www.internationalphoneticassociation.org/IPAcharts/inter_chart_2018/IPA_2018.html For me (being a speaker of Finnish) all but the first ...
2 votes
0 answers
55 views

Drawing phrase markers "What/Who is a phonologist?"

In the book "Analysing Sentences" by Noel Burton-Roberts, there's an exercise on drawing phrase markers for the 2 sentences "What is a phonologist?" and "Who is a phonologist?&...
1 vote
1 answer
236 views

Why would "But" function as its own clause in Hunt's (1965) T-unit and clause system?

I am learning about Hunt's (1965) system of parsing writing into T-units (minimal terminable units) and clauses. In this system, a T-unit is "one main clause with all the subordinate clauses attached ...
0 votes
0 answers
109 views

Semantic loans; words borrowing a meaning already there?

What exactly is a semantic loan, how can a word borrow a meaning it already has? I am trying to figure out whether there are any limitations (can we choose any morphemes) on the recipient word and the ...
4 votes
1 answer
239 views

What was the original pronounciation of the Thai consonant symbols?

The Thai language was devised to serve two main purposes: to write Thai words and to write Sanskrit (or Pali) words. For this reason, the Thai alphabet has one consonant symbol for each Sanskrit sound ...
1 vote
0 answers
91 views

In chinese 命運, 安慰. In japanese 運命, 慰安. it seems chinese graphs are switched regularly

Why these differences are made. Thanks in advance. (This question body does not meet our quality standards. Please make sure that it completely describes your problem - including what you have already ...
2 votes
0 answers
58 views

What are grammatical features specific to Eurasia?

I'n curious about what typological/grammatical features are prevalent across the entirety of Eurasia but are rare or absent in the rest of the world. I'm aware of "Standard Average European" ...
3 votes
2 answers
461 views

How to find info on rare languages?

I keep trying to find languages that match the features of my conlangs for help figuring out how to use features I'm not used to. However, its rare that WALS to tell me about any language you can find ...
2 votes
0 answers
36 views

Are there any rules governing the variation between codaic /n/ and nasal vowels in Hindustani?

Are there any rules governing when a vowel + /n/ combination in Hindustani will become a nasal vowel, or are they completely separate and unpredictable? If so, are there any minimal pairs to prove so? ...
-2 votes
0 answers
42 views

What is the word for a clip of time

When I say the past 30 seconds, I mean this amount of time’s end point is the immediate present and always will be, and the starting point is set somewhere in the recent past. But I’m not referring to ...
2 votes
2 answers
80 views

Schwa vowel in indonesian

I am starting to study indonesian, and every manual/grammar that I consulted so far (and even the teacher of our course and some youtubers who teach the language) insist that indonesian has five ...
1 vote
1 answer
202 views

Formant measurements errors in Praat

I am trying to measure formant trajectories in /lV/ sequences. I started by extracting values at 11 temporal points, but I am getting a lot of incorrect values, as if Praat is struggling to recognize ...
2 votes
2 answers
207 views

Is the sound change /y/ > /i/ more common than /y/ > /u/? Are there any good examples of /y/ shifting to /u/?

Front rounded vowels are somewhat uncommon. If we focus on the high front rounded vowel /y/ and consider cases where it was lost, it seems most likely to shift to /i/ by losing its rounding or to ...
0 votes
0 answers
168 views

How can my SOV conlang handle quotations? [migrated]

In English, a way to express what someone is saying is usually done by putting what the character said in quotes, and place 'x said' either before or after the phrase: Bob said, 'Bill took my fishing ...
1 vote
0 answers
71 views

Why did so few changes occur in "Pre-Proto-Germanic"?

Proto-Germanic is dated pretty late. Grimm's Law, the first and defining change, is dated to 500 BC. However, the dialects are supposed to have split up throughout the 3rd millennia BC. This would ...
7 votes
2 answers
411 views

Which writing systems have the highest/lowest stroke-to-sound ratios?

Preemptive note: This question is about sound-based writing systems, excluding logographic systems like Chinese. Transitional systems like Egyptian hieroglyphs, Maya script or Man’yōgana are also ...
1 vote
2 answers
117 views

How to populate tiers in a Praat textgrid based on another text file?

I created an excel file with the following columns: start_time, end_time, transcript, quotative, tag. The start_time and end_time columns indicate the boundaries of each interval. I turned this excel ...
3 votes
2 answers
9k views

How is the Filipino expression “salamat” related to the Arabic?

Salamat in Filipino means “thank you”. In the Arabic form, the word is in the feminine plural salāmat سلامت from the singular salāmah . Salamat in Arabic is equivalent to peace and blessings (a ...

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