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20 views

Branch of linguistics: civilisations (empires/hegemony) and languages

What branch of linguistics deals with the relationship between languages and hegemony, such as, for example - when Classical Latin became the official language of the Roman Empire, alongside Greek, ...
-2
votes
1answer
38 views

Why are PIE oi changes to ī in Latin and Proto-Slavic?

Why are PIE oe changes to ī in Latin and Old Slavic? English PIE Latin Old Slavic wolves *wĺ̥kʷoes lupi vlĭci Is it a result of short u singular ending in place of PIE o? English PIE Latin Old ...
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1answer
43 views

What is the name of Germanic n > m near f / Greek ν > μ near π transformation?

What is the name of Germanic n > m near f / Greek ν > μ near π transformation?
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2answers
40 views

Reconstruction of PIE consonants

So, I have a question about the reconstruction of PIE consonants. According to the Etymological Dictionaries, the words "rape" and "raven" have the same PIE root *ker- however how ...
0
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1answer
29 views

What determines the vowel trigger in vowel harmony?

What dictates the dominant vowel class in vowel harmony? Is it always the case that the vowel class in the first syllable of the word triggers assimilation in the vowels of the subsequent syllables? ...
0
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1answer
16 views

The notion of categorization in phonetics

What is meant by "categorization" in phonetics? It's supposed to be related to transcription in the sense that transcription requires one to categorize speech in some two dimensions. I only ...
1
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1answer
17 views

How should I understand these acoustic and perceptive terms from phonetics?

So, while reading the New Grammar of Spanish Language (a book from a very influential institute of the Spanish languague: Royal Spanish Academy) I found out these terms (they'll be in bold) from ...
1
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2answers
72 views

Why are Proto-Slavic nasal vowels reconstructed as ę and ǫ?

Why are Proto-Slavic nasal vowels reconstructed as ę and ǫ? But not "i with a little tail" and "u with a little tail"?
1
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1answer
29 views

Is there a device that lets linguists measure aspiration?

Is there a device that lets linguists measure aspiration? I want to find out if languages in which aspiration can be the only difference between phonemes (e.g. Chinese) have more breath difference ...
1
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1answer
33 views

Principles and Parameters vs. Government and Binding

I'm a little confused about the difference between P&P and GB. This Wikipedia article suggests that they are the same as grammar frameworks, from what I understood: Principles and parameters as a ...
2
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1answer
69 views

What is the best romanization of ח?

I have seen ח represented as ch, gh, kh, H (capitalized), x, h with diacritics, etc. Personally, I like using x, because it is a single letter and does not require special diacritic markings, etc ... ...
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0answers
27 views

Currently taking a linguistics course in school. At the moment we are learning how to draw tree diagram and x-bar theory [closed]

I'm going insane comprehending this content.Can someone please draw a tree diagram that represents its structure, consistent with the principles of X-bar theory. Sentences down below. Jamie knows ...
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0answers
31 views

How many roots approximately in the German language? Is possible to make a comparison with other languages?

for example Wortbildung is a composed word from the result of Wort+Bildung, so 2 roots in this case. But also Bild and Bildung, in this case have 1 root. Is that possible to make a comparison to the ...
10
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4answers
907 views

Any languages that consider the alveolar and uvular trill distinct consonant phonemes?

I am intrigued by the difference between alveolar and uvular trills (and related phones) within and across languages, e.g., per this map of European /r/ usage (taken from this comment), which seems to ...
5
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2answers
1k views

Who decides the phonemes of a given language?

Who decides the phonemes of a given language and on what basis do they decide? Do the phonemes of a language change over time, if so, who changes them? I am extremely confused about this question ...
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1answer
33 views

Is there a widely accepted ISO 639-1 code for multilingual documents?

I know that MUL is the suggested ISO 639-2 code for multilingual documents, but what about the 2-letter equivalent in ISO 639-1? I see in the related Wikipedia article that MU is unassigned (and thus ...
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0answers
17 views

How to evaluate education research papers? [closed]

Here is my situation: when we discussed the paper in class, I always asked questions, but I think my questions are always not that important, like "what does M in M=0.1 mean", etc. So I just ...
2
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2answers
96 views

Are Germanic languages closer to Italo-Celtic languages or Balto-Slavic languages?

I ask because in some recent classifications, Italo-Celtic languages (like French, Spanish, Italian, Irish, and Breton), Balto-Slavic languages (like Lithuanian, Russian, Polish, and Serbo-Croat), and ...
6
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2answers
102 views

What is Ugaritic “Ž”?

In New Evidence on the Last Days of Ugarit (1965), Astour quotes a Ugaritic letter (RS 19.11) which seems to include a glyph "Ž": However, I haven't been able to find any source talking ...
1
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1answer
43 views

Which sounds in spanish sound louder: vowels or consonants?

I think vowels but I'm not so sure. I'm neither sure if vocal cords are what makes a phone be more audible and so what makes vowels be more audible than consonants or some of them.
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1answer
40 views

What is Rich Base? [closed]

What is rich base or richness of base? Thank you for your help I have found a lot of references to it but no clear definitions.
1
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2answers
98 views

Italian 'gn' vs Spanish 'ñ' - Why does their use differ intervocalically and word internally?

First some examples. Here are the IPA transcriptions of 'bathroom' in Italian and Spanish: bagno /baɲɲo/ baño /baɲo/ As you can see in Italian 'gn' becomes a geminate between vowels in the middle of a ...
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1answer
42 views

Optimality Theory, voiceless plosives become aspirated in English

At the beginning of a stressed syllable, voiceless plosives become aspirated in English in the output. But universally, aspirated plosives are more marked than unaspirated plosives. What can be the ...
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0answers
54 views

Could the principles of Hiragana be applied to Western languages to make it easier to learn a foreign language? [closed]

Could the principles behind Hiragana, specifically the idea that each sound has a different symbol, as opposed to each letter, be used to improve learning of Western languages. An incredible lady in ...
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1answer
68 views

Does anyone know what the name Peter translates to in Egyptian? [closed]

Peter I need to find out what the name Peter translates to in Egyptian.
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0answers
18 views

Is there a good lexicon for typed dependency abbreviations available anywhere?

I'm not a religious person - but- For the love of God! The people who work with typed dependencies love to work entirely in acronyms but prefer to keep their meaning a secret. This makes it feel like ...
2
votes
1answer
57 views

Phonological rule for liquid dissimilation

I am trying to write a phonological rule for liquid dissimilation in Georgian, but I’ve run into some issues since I haven’t had much practice yet. The rule I’m trying to write is for changing r into ...
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0answers
39 views

Is šns the correct term for “loaf of bread” in ancient Egypt? [closed]

I am looking for the term "loaf of bread" that was used in ancient Egypt. This is a long timeframe, so I am looking for the term used in the middle period of ancient Egypt. I have found šns ...
2
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4answers
134 views

Linguistic term to describe the “hash” of a word

For example, in the Spanish sentence "Yo era chico y ella era vieja" [I was little and she was old], era appears twice, each time as the same part of speech (a verb) but with different ...
1
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2answers
59 views

How to syllabify 'behave' and 'behaviour'?

I'm well aware of the Maximal Onset Principle which says that 'intervocalic consonants should be syllabified as the onset of the following syllable as long as the Phonotactic constraints allow it'. I ...
2
votes
1answer
40 views

Past Simple vs Present Perfect Continuous in questions [closed]

It is my first ask in this forum. I am not sure about proper grammar usage, so I want to ask someone who knows it well. If I want to ask a person for a duration of time he has worked at the specific ...
1
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1answer
45 views

When are 'or' and 'unless' exclusive in (daily) English?

I have two questions since I saw this SE answer. First, for the following sentence: English 'or' is only exclusive when only one premise is possible: 'You hydrate or you don't hydrate.' or 'I saw a ...
-2
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0answers
30 views

How do you analyze the word “finance” as linguistic analysis? [closed]

By comparison with similar words either as synonym or only structurally.
5
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1answer
179 views

Evolution of [v] to [b] and vice versa

There are many examples that show that two phones [v] and [b] are related: b v Meaning Old English to New English * habban have have Middle Persian to New Persian varan baran rain Middle Persian ...
1
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1answer
59 views

What is the term for the role of “believe”, “think”, and “feel” in a sentence?

I remember vaguely that there is an encompassing terms for these words when used in a sentence. Something that represent it is not a normal factual claim, but something that is subjective to the ...
1
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0answers
61 views

Is it true that neologisms (loaned words) have a more limited and specific meaning?

My impression was that many neologisms tend to provide a more specific meaning than the original, have a more limited application, and a less large sense than the origin-word. But I have seen some ...
-1
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0answers
41 views

Does Sephardi Hebrew pronunciation distinguish between the vowels Tsere and Segol? [closed]

Does Sephardi Hebrew pronunciation distinguish between the vowels Tsere and Segol? I'm aware that Ashkenazi Hebrew pronunciation distinguishes them. And I've heard that Modern Hebrew pronunciation ...
2
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0answers
52 views

What factors determine how you continue the sentence “Are you together with your brother or…” with the word “sister”?

For example if I call my friend. I know he is wether with his brother or sister, and then I ask further: Are you together with your brother or... you can finish the question in several ways: ... ...
1
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0answers
25 views

Is the sequence of time adverbials, place adverbials and manner adverbials appearing in the same sentence universal or typologically determined?

For example, in English there is "I bought a dress with my friend at the mall yesterday" where the sequence is manner-place-time, while in Russian it is time-place-manner, in Mandarin it is ...
12
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2answers
3k views

Why are J, U, W considered part of the basic Latin Alphabet?

J, U, W are included in ISO basic Latin alphabet which consists of 26 letters. However, The classic Latin has only 23 letters, and J was only used as a variant of I as σ do to ς. J, U were not ...
1
vote
1answer
432 views

Does Biblical Hebrew have a plural of majesty?

Does Biblical Hebrew have a plural of majesty? I'm aware there's the word Elohim which can mean God or gods. But I don't think that's good evidence of plural of majesty because for example, you have a ...
1
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0answers
29 views

Is there a standard accepted definition of in-situ quantification, and if so what is it?

I'm reading a paper that references Montague being focused on in-situ quantification. I'm not a linguist, so apologies for the naivety, but how does this differ from what is being called bounded ...
5
votes
1answer
529 views

What was Anatolian language during the Neolithic era according to Kurgan hypothesis proponents?

The Anatolian hypothesis asserts that people in Anatolia spoke Proto-Indo-European during the Neolithic era and that the language spread from there starting in 7000 BCE. On the other hand, the Kurgan ...
2
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0answers
65 views

Easier to understand some foreign languages with a higher pitch

As a bit of background: I've native level in English and French, I can understand day to day discussions in German and Spanish and I'm able to understand what's going on in a conversations in Italian, ...
2
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0answers
71 views

What is the origin of the pronunciation difference between 'replicate' (noun) and 'replicate' (verb)?

In English, the noun 'replicate' is pronounced with a schwa (ə) at the end while the verb is pronounced with the diphthong 'eɪ'. The same is true for the word 'duplicate'. Is there a more general ...
3
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1answer
103 views

Historically, did the Sanskrit alphabet contain two 'la' consonants?

Historically, did the Sanskrit alphabet (varnamala) contain two 'la' consonants (vyanjan varnas)? It seems there was one in the 'ya' series (varga) and another one in the 'sha' series. Current texts ...
0
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0answers
30 views

Is there an example of ʔɓ/ʔɗ sounds in contrast to ʔb/ʔd in Vietnamese?

I'm unable to distinguish between the preglottalized implosives ɓ/ɗ and the preglottalized explosives b/d in Vietnamese. Is there any audio sample of these sounds that would allow me to make out the ...
3
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3answers
643 views

Proto-Indo-European and Proto-Yeniseian paper

I'm an amateur linguist and recently wrote a paper called "The relationship between Proto-Indo-European and Proto-Yeniseian" which mostly comprises a short history of the Yeniseian language ...
0
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0answers
50 views

Are Vietnamese lệnh and Thai เลย related?

Are Vietnamese lệnh and Thai เลย related? If I understand correctly both words are vague in both languages in the sense that they can have various meanings depends on context but in general used as ...
0
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1answer
32 views

Where can I get the complete list of word entries present in Merriam Webster's dictionary?

I can't find any list, github repo, etc to find the total list of entries defined in merriam webster. Any ideas?

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