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19 views

In the sentence 'he was very early', would it be correct to say that 'early' functions as both a noun and the object of the sentence?

I'm currently trying to construct my own language as an exercise, and I need to know if such a description is linguistically accurate, or if the word should be described otherwise.
3
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2answers
126 views

Why does purple mean red in some places?

The English word purple nowadays refers to the color that is a mixture of blue and red. This word ultimately derives from the Latin purpura which also referred to that color, so it is faithful to that ...
7
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2answers
566 views

How did Gothic "𐌰𐌽𐌳𐌱𐌰𐌷𐍄𐌹" (andbahti) become Medieval Latin "ambasiator"?

I found the following etymology of the word "ambassador" on Wiktionary. From Middle English ambassadore, from Anglo-Norman ambassadeur, ambassateur, from Old Italian ambassatore, ...
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1answer
44 views

what are ways to calculate difficulty / required time to learn specific languages

The amount of effort and time required to learn a language highly depends on the language(s) already known. For example, generally, learning a language within the same language family will be ...
0
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2answers
45 views

a term for the type of ambi-transitive verb that can do away with an object

I found some terms like (non)ergative, inchoative, but neither quite fits the type of transitive verb that can do without an object, for example, "eat" I ate. Have you eaten? I ate an apple. ...
3
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0answers
43 views

Question on the semantic role of the objects of verbs indicating prevention

It goes without saying that the title of this question is perhaps rather prolix, so allow me to illustrate what I mean. Consider the below sentence. The man's heroic actions prevented the innocent ...
3
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1answer
36 views

What are the possible theta roles for to-infinitives in these sentences?

For example, in the sentence I want to sleep. The verb want takes two arguments, which get two theta roles, I gets the agent role, what theta role does to sleep get? Here is another example: I want ...
-1
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1answer
82 views

Why does text in Cyrillic or Japanese contain Latin characters for technical/scientific terms?

Through a question on a sister site, I stumbled upon a Bulgarian document that includes drawings and measurements. What stroke me is that the text in Cyrillic contains Latin characters when it comes ...
2
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1answer
59 views

How common is Teke as a written language in Gabon and what variety is usually the basis of the written language?

In many instances of Gabonese media, "Teke" seems to be regarded as a single language, however there are several varieties that are distinct enough to be considered as separate languages. ...
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0answers
60 views

Where do the "îs" and "îi" forms of "a fi" ( "to be" ) originate in dialectal Romanian?

perhaps the Latin first person singular indicative "sum" with an "î" of uncertain origin? Im not sure about "îi". I guess from the short "e" /je/ form of "...
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2answers
62 views

Does موجود is a Modern Standard Arabic word? [closed]

Does موجود is a Modern Standard Arabic word which is originated from وَجَدَ after the revelation of Quran because موجود is not mentioned anywhere in Quran?
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0answers
66 views

What are subjunctive and indicative?

I read that (Burzio, 1996, pp.13 ) uses the following table to illustrate the fact that the same pattern holds across a range of languages: I can understand what PP and AP mean. But I am quite ...
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0answers
69 views

How do proper names get translated to other languages efficiently/effectively?

I don't know if this is the best place to ask, but there is no "cultural" SE, and this is related to language, so perhaps it can be a decent fit here. My question is how do names of things ...
-1
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0answers
64 views

Have linguists normally studied Latin

I have wondered for a while how closely married the field of linguistics is to the Roman lingua. Now somebody commented something to that effect Also, people who do linguistics normally have studied ...
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0answers
57 views

German contraction "wara" - morphology or phonology?

The regular form War er ... 'was he ...' would, in certain positions of sentence in my idiomatic sociolect, sound approximately as * wara /vaːʁɐ/. I can not imagine at the moment how this came ...
1
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1answer
65 views

ʕattiq, antiquus

When I first heard the Hebrew name for the Old City of Jerusalem, haʕir haʕattiqa, lit. "the old city", I thought I heard an echo in the term. I thought of Attic Greece but more plausibly of ...
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0answers
33 views

Why some triphthongs are retained orthographically in Arabic, but not others

According to Ahmad Al-Jallad's "A manual of the historical grammar of Arabic", a sound change from old to classical Arabic was the collapse of triphthongs. These triphthongs are sometimes ...
-1
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1answer
34 views

meaning & origin of "wardul" [closed]

What is the origin of the surname "Wardul" used in some Asian countries (Pakistan, India...)? Does the word "wardul" mean something in any language? (ex.Hindi, Sanskrit etc etc)
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1answer
66 views

Why can't you treat prepositions as simply noun/verb modifiers (i.e. as adjectives or adverbs)?

I am working on a conlang and have (for many months/years?) been perplexed by the prepositions. They standout because they are extremely hard to pinpoint what they actually mean, unlike a noun or verb,...
-6
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1answer
62 views

Why did linguisticians choose 'Patient' (noun) to denote this Thematic Role? Why not Undergoer? [closed]

THEMES and PATIENTS are rather similar, and not all linguists distinguish between these roles. A THEME typically moves from one location or one person to another, like the letter in (31). A PATIENT (...
3
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2answers
363 views

What language branch of PIE does Kartvelian belong to? (Georgian language)

I know little about language, so I would like to preface that this question may appear disjointed. I have been listening to some wonderful Georgian folk music and have been trying to relate it to any ...
0
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1answer
89 views

Is there reason to believe that English will drop declension of personal pronouns "soon?" [closed]

I am sure I am not alone in having to think about whether to use "I" or "me" etc. and I also I sure I and others get it wrong frequently. What's really the point in retaining these ...
12
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3answers
1k views

Timescale for language divergence at ~10,000 years: Polynesian languages vs languages of the Americas?

I want to make it clear from the start that I'm not any kind of expert in linguistics or history, which is why I'm asking this question here. (Perhaps it's because of my physics background that I'm ...
3
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1answer
345 views

Why does lower case "a" look so different from capital "A"?

Despite my best efforts, I can not find the answer specifically for "a" online. For the rest of the letters of the Latin alphabet, I can see the connection between the different forms (...
2
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0answers
84 views

How did latin "de post" become Romanian "după"?

Wouldn't the expected result be: "dopă"? I understand that the short "e" was assimilated by the long "o" from the next word, and then /o/ -> /ə/, but why o -> u ? ...
3
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1answer
84 views

Middle Korean Pronunciation

How did the final consonants of each syllable sound in Middle Korean? English Wiktionary (https://en.wiktionary.org/wiki/%EA%B3%B6) states that 곶(flower, 꽃) sounded kòs̚, but not kòt͡s. Can you tell ...
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0answers
45 views

Do Diphthongs occur in Georgian?

I'm asking this question because of this study https://www.cambridge.org/core/services/aop-cambridge-core/content/view/A7DCF9606BA856FCA5CC25918ADB37EF/S0025100306002659a.pdf/standard-georgian.pdf ...
0
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2answers
87 views

How do natural languages prevent word ambiguity in "compound words"?

So for context, I am occasionally working on a sort of conlang, and asked this question just recently: How to create words which will be unambiguously parsable in a conlang? In there I run into the ...
0
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1answer
57 views

Glottal approximate and rhotic consonants and R-colored vowels

Is there some reason why the consonant "r" can't simply be a glottal approximate and "er" be the corresponding vowel? This would explain why different r's can be produced with the ...
0
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1answer
41 views

Confusion about compression vs. protrusion in rounded vowels

I'm making a song-synthesizing software, so I built some models about human speech, and I'm testing them. But it turns out there is an obstacle. I seem to have misunderstood how vowels are rounded. I ...
0
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0answers
14 views

what is tonal crowding in intonation literature

What is tonal crowding, especially under Autosegmental-Metrical Framework? Is it simply a collection of different intonation tones associated with one segment?
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0answers
73 views

Why is there a proxy reading in this sentence from Reuland (2011)?

For English, himself can function as proxy reading, for instance, One of the well-known properties of reflexive pronouns is their ability to have "proxy readings." This is illustrated in (1) ...
0
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2answers
135 views

Why do the Hebrew characters look so different from Greek, Latin, even Phoenician?

Why do the Hebrew characters look so different? See, for example: chart of letters If I look at Greek, Phoenician, etc. I can still see similarities (maybe with rotations or flipping of characters) ...
1
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0answers
38 views

What is the best way to define the origins of a language's vocabulary?

I have often read that the vocabulary of the English language consists of words of roughly 60% Latin origin and of roughly 40% words of Germanic origin, give or take. This to me seems accurate as a ...
0
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1answer
40 views

Can the PAM/SLM model be used to explain French speakers' perceptual issues with /h/?

Basically what it says in the title. I'm writing about the perceptual difficulties that French speakers have with /h/, and it seems that the main works for this phenomenon are Paradis & LaCharité ...
-4
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0answers
58 views

Why does Proto-Germanic discard PIE "w"?

Why does Proto-Germanic discard PIE "w"? Proto-Germanic *flōaną <- PIE *plōw-.
3
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2answers
98 views

What is a word?

The way I see it, a word could be conceptualized as different sets. I'll list them below. Word as a singleton set: { to jump } Word as a set of all its inflections: { to jump, jumps, jumped, jumping, ...
1
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2answers
55 views

Is being a loan word time limited by the time it was adopted?

Is being a loan word limited by time of adoption? For example the English word "loci" comes from Latin, as other 60% of English words do. Is it a loan word in English? Or is it only for &...
-1
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1answer
64 views

What is “sense”? [closed]

Why is that morning star and evening star have different senses? What is the sense of morning star and what is the sense of evening star? I understand they refer to the same object, so they have the ...
32
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3answers
7k views

Why isn’t the letter “G” immediately after “C” in the alphabet?

I have absolutely no formal linguistics background, but I enjoy learning about it a lot. I’ve seen multiple times before how the alphabet mutated from Roman times to our own: The letter “J” was a ...
3
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1answer
94 views

Why is 'There are most of us in the party' ungrammatical?

Sentence a: There are many of us in the party. Sentence b: There are most of us in the party. Why is sentence b ungrammatical? Is it a matter of some kind of constraints?
4
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1answer
93 views

How does "own" affect binding?

How does own affect binding relationships? I am studying binding theory as it applies to English. I have learned that own can influence the binding relations. For example: (1) John is his boss. The ...
0
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1answer
66 views

Why do modal verbs exist?

I am looking for language inspiration in terms of modal verbs. In particular, I was looking at the perfect tense in English, which uses the verb "to have" as a modal verb it sounds like. It ...
0
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2answers
43 views

Do any languages treat "locative" words as more than suffixes or prepositions?

I am working on a conlang and wondering if there is any different way to deal with these "locative" words than either prepositions or prefixes/suffixes. That is, words like "in", &...
1
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1answer
114 views

Why do Ancient Greek words have "εί" from PIE "e"?

Why do Ancient Greek words have "εί" from PIE "e"? Ancient Greek κείρω <- PIE *(s)ker-.
1
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2answers
181 views

Why do people with a British accent make an "r" sound at the end of words ending in an "ah" sound

I'm American so I've seen this in so many movies and just wondering, what's up with that? Example: We will not need those blankets in Russia-r.
12
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8answers
4k views

Do any languages use words like particles to represent commas, periods, hyphens, quotes, parentheses, etc.?

Wondering if any languages use words, particles, or other speakable markers to represent punctuation like periods, commas, hyphens, quotes, parentheses, question marks, exclamation marks, or ...
0
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1answer
75 views

How do languages other than English deal with compound, hyphenated adjectives?

In looking at some long, hyphenated adjectives in English (or this), you find: a twenty-one-gun salute a five-acre farm a five-day week the four-colour problem the low milk-and-cream-yielding dam the ...
0
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1answer
54 views

Do any languages provide markers or particles or the like for marking compound terms?

Considering How do you denote compound nouns and verbs in Chinese?, and the linked What is an example of 3 or 4 word compound verbs?, and working on a sort of intermediate language, I am wondering how ...
1
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0answers
28 views

Are there languages which restrict adverb usage to only one of either preceding or following a verb?

We have adverb sentences like this: I basically initially ran quickly. That means the same thing pretty much as: I basically initially quickly ran. First part of the question is, why do some ...

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