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24 views

Best resources for swedish slang

My question is just that -- I've been a student of russian language and literature, thee resources for slang and profanity are hugely entertaining and vast on the internet, I've used them to mix in ...
0
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2answers
99 views

How does the Comparative Method make falsifiable predictions and how are they tested?

The previous question was closed as predicted despite it being edited to only focus on the method itself. The current question was suggested as a substitute, so lets try this one then.In order to ...
2
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3answers
811 views

Is there a common ancestor between the Hebrew לבן ("lavan", white) and the English "albino"?

I noticed these two words share the same central consonants, and wouldn't it be fascinating if the l-b-n semitic root has a common source to the English "albin-" as in albino and albinism? I ...
2
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1answer
72 views

Distinction between coordinating and subordinating conjunctions

I am struggling with finding any remotely formal criteria for distinguishing these two types of clauses. There are typologies which already define certain groups of conjunctions, but there are tons of ...
0
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1answer
73 views

On the Epistemology of Comparative and Historical linguistics [closed]

I have asked a few questions before relating to PIE, proto-languages theory and the comparative method. As these are technical areas I am unfamiliar with but thanks to some previous answers I am ...
2
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0answers
27 views

Database of Words and their Semantic Entropies?

I'm reading up on semantic entropies and it seems as though there aren't any actual databases of words and their associated semantic entropies for any given methodology. For instance, this study has a ...
-3
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3answers
80 views

What is the difference between plurality and gender?

I have just started creating my own conlang, and I was wondering if anybody could help me. I can't find anything that'll help me differentiate plurality and gender.
1
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0answers
30 views

what's the denotation of the predicate 'exists'?

What denotation do linguists assign to the predicate exists in order to make the right predictions about the truth conditions of sentences like Santa does not exist. Unicorns do not exist. My ...
0
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1answer
24 views

What are the differences of word stress, lexical stress and metrical stress?

It is said lexical stress is word stress, but I don't understand why they named it differently.
2
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2answers
695 views

Are there commonly accepted graphic symbols for common declension forms?

Some linguistic declension forms are found in many languages: Gender Singular / Plural Past, Present, Future Indication, Condition, Imperation Case: Nominative, Accusative, Dative etc. Is there a ...
3
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2answers
85 views

How to quantify the semantic depth of a sentence?

I'm looking for a robust way to roughly quantify the amount of information conveyed in a sentence, specifically in English. For instance "He went to the place" conveys less information than &...
1
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1answer
72 views

Has anyone ever ranked the prevalence of phones by number of speakers worldwide?

I'm interested in knowing the most-used and least-used phones worldwide. According to Wikipedia, the IPA charts about 140 pulmonic consonants, 80 non-pulmonic consonants, 30 co-articulated consonants, ...
3
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2answers
160 views

What languages together maximize the number of people you can speak with?

This is not quite a “which languages have the greatest number of native speakers” question, nor quite a “which languages have the greatest number of L2 speakers” question, both of which are easily ...
6
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2answers
479 views

Why is the Croatian word "vjetar" spelt with "je" rather than "e"?

Why is the Croatian word "vjetar" spelt with "je" rather than "e"? "je" comes from Proto-Slavic yat, and 'e' comes from Proto-Slavic 'en'. But there was 'en' in ...
-2
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1answer
73 views

What language (if it is a language) is it? [closed]

It looks close to Arabic, but it isn't. I wasn't able to identify which language is it using different scanning tools (including Google Translate app). Thanks. Edit: if this isn't clear - I'm asking ...
2
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1answer
97 views

Do all frameworks of syntax view the string following an inverted auxiliary verb in English as the complement of the auxiliary?

This is a follow-up question of an earlier question titled: In X bar theory, is the first auxiliary the head of an interrogative clause and the remainder the complement? In that question, I had this ...
2
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0answers
37 views

On modality and semantic roles

Do modal verbs (can, may, must, etc.) in any way affect the semantic roles of the arguments of the verbs that they govern? For example, consider the simple sentence: He plays basketball. Here, if I ...
1
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0answers
30 views

Does it have a name when you know certain vocabulary in another language but not in your own?

For example if you draw a venn diagram for all the vocabulary that you know in the languages that you consider yourself to be fluent in, you'll have some gaps in the "foreign" languages, but ...
1
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0answers
55 views

Relationship between "גולגולת" (skull) and "גלגל" (wheel)

Both "גולגולת" (skull) and "גלגל" (wheel) are listed, on Wiktionary, as coming from the shared root ג־ל־ג־ל. All of the other words except for גולגולת have clear relationships to ...
0
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1answer
56 views

(how) do natural languages distinguish classes and instances of things?

In data modeling and other areas of knowledge organization there is often a strict separation between abstract classes of things and individual objects. For instance I am an instance of the class ...
5
votes
2answers
176 views

What is the difference between neurolinguistics and similar fields of study?

What is the difference between neurolinguistics and cognitive linguistics or psycholinguistics? I am already having trouble understanding the difference between cognitive linguistics and ...
2
votes
1answer
84 views

Are there human general communication languages without a future tendency?

In Thai language there is no past tense, at least not for negative sentences: A Thai person might say "I don't go" (ฉัน ไม่ ไป) while the listener is expected to guess from the context if ...
-1
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1answer
149 views

What are the differences between lexis, lexicon, vocabulary?

My daughter's school doesn't offer linguistics, and none of her teachers studied it. Can you please answer at her 16 y.o. level? Thanks. Google yielded two answers. Logan R. Kearsley, MA in ...
0
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1answer
107 views

Middle English: y or ȝ

Lately I've been looking up the Middle English of many Modern English words via Wiktionary. It was my understanding that by this point in the history of English ȝ was in heavy use. Yet these ...
2
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0answers
36 views

On semantic roles

What is the semantic role of the direct object in the below sentence? If I'm not mistaken, the answer is 'patient' (since 'He' is doing something [in this case, 'crossing'] to the river). However, I ...
1
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1answer
96 views

What language does S -> A generates?

I read formal grammar's definition from Wikipedia, and it seems like there can be such a grammar like: S -> A //no more rules S and A are both non-terminals. What language does it generates? I've ...
7
votes
1answer
207 views

Does the orientation of the voiced uvular fricative IPA symbol (ʁ) not matter, or are these fonts buggy?

The symbol for voiced uvular fricative in IPA is ʁ (an inverted small uppercase letter "R"), but I have noticed that this symbol is not displayed consistently depending on where it is pasted ...
5
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2answers
2k views

How does an original proto language produce its daughter languages?

I am trying to understand the principles how a proto language produces it daughter languages, do they proliferate from dialects of the same proto language or do they proliferate from dialects of other ...
2
votes
1answer
40 views

Are there spaces or other marks between word in Ancient Semitic epigraphs?

Are there spaces or other marks between word in Ancient Semitic (i.e. Hebrew, Aramaic, Canaanite) epigraphs?
1
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1answer
78 views

How similar are Low German and Dutch?

In Duisburg and Düsseldorf I have heard people talking a mixture of German and Dutch which really confused me! Can anyone please explain how similar to Dutch this so called Low German language is?
1
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0answers
59 views

The grammatical analysis - "most of them civilians"

I came across this sentence today: They were most of them civilians. Now how will we analyse"most of them" here? Is it just a modifier in Noun Phrase - "most of them civilians"? ...
0
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1answer
99 views

Why does IPA have only finitely many symbols? Isn't the human voice box capable of producing a continuous range of sounds?

There are two things I've noticed: Every language has only finitely many sounds in it IPA, which is a notation for representing all possible sounds in all possible languages, has only finitely many ...
0
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0answers
70 views

How did wið shift to denote association rather than opposition?

Millar doesn't expound the semantic shift at all, but Wiktionary tries to. But wið is a functional morpheme, that at large change with less probability. So why did it shift "to denote association ...
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3answers
105 views

Why haven't the renowned etymological dictionaries for Indo-European languages been updated?

I'm addled why newer edns. of the books embolded below haven't been published? I'm assuming those authors have died or are too senile. Indisputably, etymological dictionaries probably won't be best-...
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1answer
82 views

language varieties that are languages

Language varieties Any set of linguistic forms which patterns according to social factors: i.e. used under specific social circumstances. The term includes different accents, different linguistic ...
-2
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1answer
95 views

Which regularly used writing scripts commonly spoken are not alphabetic? [closed]

I believe Japanese and Chinese are logographic and the rest are simply alphabetic or abugida/abjad/alphabetic. Using Wikipedia as a reference it appears their definition of an alphabetic is not as ...
3
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0answers
96 views

A question regarding semantics of "only"

I have a question regarding semantics of only provided by Beaver & Clark (2009) and Chierchia (2013). for something like "Sandy only met [Bush]F" (let this proposition be called p). ...
4
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0answers
52 views

Can native ASL signers ID someone’s native sign language from their accent in otherwise fluent ASL?

Google keeps trying to give me native accent variations in ASL when I try to look this up, hence asking it here. In spoken English, it tends to be relatively obvious if someone’s first language is ...
0
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0answers
22 views

Are WH-determiner, WH-adverb and WH-pronoun mutually exclusive?

I was going through this article. It describes WH-determiners, WH-adverbs and WH-pronouns. Below are examples for each from the article: WH-determiners What book are you reading? Which plane is he ...
1
vote
1answer
52 views

Name for a deliberate change of a meaning? [closed]

Is there a specific name, a figure of speech, for a "deliberate, even subtle change of the meaning of a word"? Example: "- You're doing politics at school as a teacher! - Everything can ...
0
votes
1answer
28 views

Possessive vs non possesive WH-pronouns

I was going through Jurafsky book. It says following about pronouns in the context of tag set: Wh-pronouns (what, who, whom, whoever) are used in certain question forms, or act as complementizers (...
1
vote
1answer
95 views

Is there a list of dead languages specifying the causes?

I am looking for a list, database, or encyclopedia of dead languages (better if it includes endangered ones) which specifies the causes wherby each of these languages died, or if the cause is unknown. ...
1
vote
1answer
64 views

In X bar theory, is the first auxiliary the head of an interrogative clause and the remainder the complement?

In X bar theory, the first auxiliary is the head of a declarative clause: (1) She will have finished it by tomorrow. Here, subject she is a specifier, and verb phrase have finished it by tomorrow is ...
2
votes
2answers
118 views

The correct/consistent pronunciation of -ae in English [closed]

There are many Latin words in English that contain -ae-, including proper names in biology (Archaea, Rosaceae), generic scientific terms (larvae, medusae), Church Latin (Summa Theologiae) and more &...
0
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2answers
68 views

What is the name of the phenomenon of the subsequent semantic convergence of a borrowed cognate? [closed]

What is the name of the phenomenon of the subsequent semantic convergence of a borrowed cognate? For example, similar occurs in for the borrowed Latin 'video', which, however, of course, is original p....
3
votes
1answer
42 views

Why are prepositions and subordinate conjunctions grouped as the same tag in the Penn Treebank tag set?

I was reading a book by Jurafsky et. al. It states following: English adpositions occur before nouns, hence are called prepositions. They can indicate spatial or temporal relations, whether literal (...
3
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2answers
457 views

Books on historical writing systems

Can you recommend books on the writing systems that are not widely used today (e.g. the Germanic runes, the Old Turkic script)?
0
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1answer
79 views

People learn words, but invent sentences

I am trying to find who was the first mentioned that "People learn words, but invent sentences". I read this sentense somewhere. Does anyone has any knowledge about theorist or theory behind ...
1
vote
1answer
86 views

Reference work for comparative Indo-European linguistics?

G. Kroonen, Etymological Dictionary of Proto-Germanic (Leiden, 2013) outlines the phonetic changes from Proto-Indo-European to Proto-Germanic in its introduction. However, it does not outline the ...
1
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1answer
68 views

In generative grammar, is the first auxiliary always the head of an interrogative clause?

In generative grammar, be it transformational or not, is the first auxiliary always the head of an interrogative clause? For example, in (1), is the first auxiliary will always the head of (1)? (1) ...

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