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1answer
126 views

Why aren't English “flame” and Croatian “plam” considered related?

Why aren't Croatian "plam" (meaning "flame") and English "flame" considered to be related, or at least possibly related? They mean exactly the same, and they seem to fit ...
0
votes
1answer
38 views

Approximant and vowels

Are there vowels considered as approximants, since some linguists consider /iː/ as high glide? I'm not sure of it but I remember I read an article about it.
1
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0answers
53 views

How to explain “Propositions are sets of worlds”?

According to Kratzer, propositions are sets of worlds, but I find it really abstract. Are there any examples to explain it?
3
votes
2answers
203 views

Tabannusi in cuneiform script

I'd like to know how to correctly write a word "tabannusi" (build) in sumerian alphabet. Is there a chance then anyone can help me?
0
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2answers
38 views

How to read sound change transcriptions? [closed]

https://chridd.nfshost.com/diachronica/ I don't understand what most of these transcriptions mean. I only know what #, #, and _x mean.
-2
votes
1answer
63 views

Is there any other known use of the Graphemes 'ϑ' & 'δ' outside of Avestan?

I think Avestan is really fascinating, but this confuses me. Old Persian uses 'θ' which I think is a better way to write /θ/.
2
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0answers
45 views

Angelika Kratzer's modal bases

In Kratzer’s theory, for each world w, modal base is the set of propositions p such that the speaker knows in w that p is true, e.g. f(w) = {p1, p2, p3}. Following the standard assumption in possible ...
2
votes
1answer
47 views

Are coda obstruents a universal, or is the phenomenon that is caused by coda obstruents (vowel epenthesis) a universal?

Linguistics student confused about universals here. I'm writing a paper on vowel epenthesis, and I'm very lost with the categories of everything. Tarone (1980) claims that vowel epenthesis is actually ...
1
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0answers
39 views

Tree Structures: Sentence breaks and TP vs. S as tree structure head

I am currently working on my Linguistics homework and I have to draw a tree diagram of the sentences: (1) Peter thinks Susan asked if she needs to resign. (2) Johnny said he wants to study French. The ...
1
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0answers
24 views

Moraic vs Non-Moraic Codas

What determines a coda to be moraic or non-moraic relative to stress? I am a little confused about this.
3
votes
2answers
134 views

What are the incentives for neologisms (new words)?

My best explanation of why new words come into existence is: Economy: a new word may allow you to say more with fewer words/syllables/characters (or in less time) Articulacy: a new word may allow you ...
2
votes
1answer
73 views

Animal or plant names used to describe children

I noticed in a few languages that people can address children using names of animals or plants, to show affection. For example in English you get: pumpkin, tiger (sorry, can't think of more examples,...
0
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1answer
35 views

Epenthesis using SPE-notation

Suppose in some language the following happens: when the stem ends in front vowels (i, e), then adding a certain suffix X requires j insertion (so it looks like [.. i j X] or [... e j X] instead of [....
0
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1answer
88 views

How does lexical replacement occur?

For example, in Mycenaean Greek, the word for king was Wanax or Anax, whereas the Modern Greek word for king is Basileus, nothing at all like Wanax. How did this happen & how do these kinds of ...
1
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0answers
60 views

How do you distinguish verbs, nouns, and adjectives in Chinese?

I am messing around with a conlang and trying to figure out how to write sentences. Man this is hard, there are so many possibilities and I don't know where to start. But basically, I am looking at ...
3
votes
0answers
89 views

List of initial consonant clusters in English

At a certain point in a macro I have to determine whether shifting the final consonant(s) of one syllable to the next syllable results in a valid onset. Can anyone point me to a complete list of ...
2
votes
1answer
72 views

What is a “conservative” language?

(1) Does aconservative language better preserve its roots? (for example, Romanian is said to have best preserved its Latin roots due to being geographically surrounded by countries with non-Romance ...
0
votes
1answer
47 views

What parts of speech are common across every language?

I am trying to make a word game, and part of it requires dividing the words into types. I want it it to work across any language, but so far I can only see 3 things that seem to exist in every ...
0
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0answers
21 views

What are the practical pieces of evidence that suggest that Krashen's Monitor Theory is correct?

I cannot find the basis for the language acquisition model proposed by Krashen - that includes the silent period, anxiety minimization, and optimal input. Could someone, please, link me to some of ...
1
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0answers
69 views

Germanic words together with Romance words

Do combinations of words of Germanic origin with words of Latin origin have any influence on the level or register of language? I can think of examples like: exquisite work, unwavering resolution, ...
-1
votes
1answer
60 views

Has a sound change ever happened that voiced only stops in between vowels and not fricatives?

Has this ever happened? Can it happen? I'm a novice in linguistics and I'm trying to study sound changes.
1
vote
1answer
38 views

Expressing a phonological process happening only at morpheme boundary

If some phonological process (like gemination from here) happens only at morpheme boundary (say, only in the coda of a syllable when a certain suffix is added to the stem whose final syllable is that ...
0
votes
1answer
31 views

Expressing gemination in SPE

Is there a way to express gemination in SPE notation? Is it common/correct to say things like [+anterior] -> [+anterior][+anterior] / __ [+vowel] ?
10
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2answers
947 views

Does any living language contrast /kʷ/ and /kw/?

Does any living language contrast /kʷ/ and /kw/? If yes, is there a way I can hear a minimal pair spoken?
6
votes
0answers
49 views

What is the origin of certain Hungarian suffixes?

I have a question about the etymology (within the Uralic family) of three Hungarian morphemes Accusative -t- suffix: Hungarian has an accusative in -t- (eg. fíu, fíut), which has no cognates in any ...
5
votes
0answers
57 views

In Armenian, which parts of each letter are intrinsic and must be demarcated from joining up strokes in joined-up handwriting?

My question [1] is about handwritten Armenian [2], but to illustrate what I am asking I will first say something about English and Russian, languages which are likely to be known by larger proportions ...
1
vote
1answer
37 views

how to interpret probabilities of sequences given by ngram language modelling?

Question about ngram models, might be a stupid question: With ngram models, the probability of a sequence is the product of the conditional probabilities of the n-grams into which the sequence can be ...
2
votes
2answers
168 views

Is it possible to automatically recognize a single syllable as its IPA transcription?

Is it possible to take a sound file as the input, in which there is a single syllable, and we can get the IPA transcription of the syllable automatically? If it is, how? Or to say is there already a ...
0
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1answer
57 views

A question about possible worlds and truth value

The sentence "He must be Mr. White." can be interpreted as "In all the possible worlds, the proposition that he is Mr.White is true", right? But I'm just wondering all the possible ...
7
votes
3answers
993 views

Advances in Glottochronology

I have read some old works on lexicostatistics and glottochronology, like Swadesh's original articles or this work, where using Swadesh's basic assumptions, the author obtains a temporal estimation ...
1
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0answers
67 views

Are these “phrases” or “clauses” before a noun a modifier adjective?

In these clauses or sentences "I love those "I love you" messages" or "I hate those "I love you" messages", Is this "phrase" or "clause", &...
1
vote
1answer
55 views

What is the frequency of Devanagari signs in Sanskrit?

I've been searching everywhere to find the frequency of Devanagari's signs (including the sign in a conjunct) in a typical Sanskrit text. I found the frequency of Devanagari conjuncts here and there ...
-1
votes
2answers
107 views

Are there any languages that don't “fit” on a keyboard?

The standard QWERTY keyboard has keys for all the letters in English, and also numbers, symbols and a few punctuation marks. Other languages, such as French, might have diacritics in their spelling. ...
1
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1answer
105 views

Etymology of latin suffix -idus

What is the (probably Indo-European) origin of the latin suffix -idus, as in "acidus"? Are there any known cognates?
-2
votes
1answer
55 views

A word that will cover both words and numbers

Is there a word that covers the meaning of both words and numbers? Here is a sentence in English: Historically, the year 1500 is also often identified, somewhat arbitrarily, as marking the end of the ...
3
votes
1answer
109 views

When does do-support apply in wh-questions?

For reference, I'm working off of Carnie's Syntax (2002). In the book's framework, T → C movement is triggered by a [+Q] feature in C. In the case we have an auxiliary verb, it can raise to T and then ...
1
vote
1answer
36 views

Is there any tool where I can effectively find some examples of a specific sound change in world's languages?

For example, I have once read about an example of the sound change g > dʐ. I need it now but I cannot find it. Is there anything like "sound change corpus" where I can effectively find ...
0
votes
0answers
48 views

What is the relation between modal base and ordering source?

I edited the question again. Here is an explanation for epistemic modal, John must have the flu. a. Epistemic Modal Base (MBepis) = { John has a fever, John has a cough, John did not get a flu shot, .....
14
votes
5answers
6k views

Why do Arabic names still have their meanings?

As someone born in Britain whose first language is English, but with origins in Pakistan and an understanding of both Punjabi and Arabic, it's always seemed to me that most modern Arabic names are ...
3
votes
1answer
85 views

“Voiceless labialized velar plosive” or “labialized voiceless velar plosive”?

The /k/ in the word "cool" is often labialized i.e. round lips and is transcribed as [kʷ]. How do linguists say its name in phonetics? Voiceless labialized velar plosive or labialized ...
0
votes
1answer
80 views

Is there any notion of a single “standard” dialect in various languages?

I am thinking of "standard languages" in the sense of normalized pronunciation of words within a language (English, Chinese, Hebrew, Arabic). I know for one in English there are at least 2 &...
1
vote
1answer
199 views

/t/ sound is pronounced like [ts] in British English

My question is about the sound /t/ being pronounced more like [ts] in British accent. For example, The words like Tomato, Peter, water, task, Tom, talented, take the /t/ sound is definitely not ...
4
votes
1answer
57 views

Is there a consensus on plene spellings in Anatolian?

"Plene" spellings (with extra vowel glyphs, like ma-a-an instead of ma-an or e-es-zi instead of es-zi) are common in Anatolian cuneiform. Sometimes they disambiguate between signs with ...
1
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0answers
23 views

What do you call the range of possible subjects a word can be predicated of

What do you call the range of possible subjects a word can be predicated of? i.e., brown can be predicated of furniture but not numbers; running can be predicated of people but not rocks; fruitless ...
22
votes
3answers
5k views

Why do some Indo-European languages have genders and some don't?

In some languages, like German and French, every noun has a gender and each gender has its article. Whereas languages like English and Persian do not have genders. Why is that? Even though these ...
3
votes
2answers
102 views

Aspiration versus C+h cluster

Since there are languages with consonant clusters and languages with aspirated consonants, in principle there could be a language that has a surface contrast between [Ch] and [Cʰ]. Word-internally it ...
1
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0answers
109 views

Are Russian words пять (five), пясть (fist), пятка (heel) related? What about English “fist”?

I wonder whether the PIE word for five in fact meant "fist", in other words, when people counted, they closed their fingers and when they obtained the closed fist, it was "five"? ...
0
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2answers
102 views

What is the difference between a glide and a semivowel?

Is the following distinction made by this university lesson between glides and semivowels standard?: Glides include speech sounds where the airstream is frictionless and is modified by the position ...
1
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1answer
71 views

Phonetic vs phonological consonants: What is the difference?

I come across such distinctions in quite a few places such as in this Wikipedia article, Voiceless glottal fricative, where it states: "The voiceless glottal fricative, sometimes called voiceless ...
0
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0answers
24 views

Guessing phoneme duration for english words

Is there an existing method or dataset, which, given just a word in English (no context), could give a best guess as to how long to make each phoneme when recreating it as speech? Obviously the true ...

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