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1answer
68 views

Why does the pronoun and verb order vary in Polish language?

My go nie lubimy - we do not like him On nie kocha mnie - he does not love me Why in the first example go is followed by nie lubimy, but in the second sentence we have the opposite: nie kocha followed ...
2
votes
1answer
49 views

How dialectal/linguistic variation in Plains Indian Sign Language

Plains Indian Sign Language (PISL) was used as a lingua Franca in the Americas between tribes which didn’t have shared spoken languages. But according to Wikipedia, PISL was spoken across most of a ...
1
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0answers
18 views

Which syntactic dependency parsers perform best on search query phrases?

Lots of NLP libraries contain syntactic dependencies parsers (e.g. spaCy, NLTK, Stanford NLP, Spark NLP...). As I understand it (please correct me if I'm wrong), these are mostly designed to parse ...
2
votes
0answers
38 views

Duplex perception experiment - Can I try it on my own?

I was reading about speech perception over headphones, “duplex perception” (Lieberman et al., 1981) — who note that when a speech stimulus was split into two parts and presented to different ears over ...
6
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4answers
1k views

Language acquisition by 100% immersion -- any cases you know of?

I am looking for documented cases where some person or group of people learned a language (= gained ability to communicate) with no prior knowledge of the target language through being immersed in ~...
0
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1answer
62 views

Is there a Chinese translation of Tesniere's Elements of Syntactic Structure?

Is there a Chinese version of Elements of Syntactic Structure written by Tesniere? Has anyone ever translated it into Chinese?
2
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0answers
30 views

Bilingual corpora work from the late 1980s

Does anyone know if the paper by Warwick and Russell (often cited as below) exists? I have looked on the EURALEX website and the authors are not listed as speakers in the 4th Conference. Maybe the ...
2
votes
1answer
170 views

Dependency Syntax tree problems

This is a Dependency syntax tree from an official website. As can be seen from this pic, "off" is deemed as a complete subtree. But when we use constituency tests to verify it, it does not ...
1
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2answers
102 views

Looking up PIE roots, converting between conventions and reconstructions, e.g., h1ueld <-> gheldh

My basic goal is to look up a Greek word and be able to find cognates in other languages that will help me to memorize its meaning. A technique that often works is to look up the Greek word on English ...
7
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2answers
1k views

How did Latin "aqua" became sardinian "abba" and romanian "apă"?

The way I believe it happened was by the change of "w" into "v" and the fall of the velar "k". Furthermore, betacism caused the change of "v" to "b" ...
0
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1answer
51 views

Are there any signs requiring side-to-side movement of fingers?

Lately I've been thinking about the kinematics and kinemes of ASL. For lack of better terminology, I'll use "side-to-side" to mean the movement one's finger makes when tilting it left or ...
4
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1answer
206 views

why in Polish we change ją to jej when negating the phrase?

ja lubię ją - I like her ja nie lubię jej - I do not like her Do I understand correctly what these sentences mean? If yes, why do we change ją to jej when negating the phrase? In both cases the ...
2
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0answers
55 views

Examples of languages that distinguish fewer modal categories in the negative than they do in the affirmative

Are there any languages that distinguish fewer modal categories in the negative than they do in the affirmative? I can think of one example of a language, Burmese, that appears to show fewer tense-...
1
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0answers
65 views

How can the polysemy of the Polish instrumental case be explained?

If the instrumental case in Polish is used to designate the tool with which an action, or state of being, is being performed/is, how is it that the instrumental is also used to express time and ...
1
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1answer
90 views

Accents of Sung Language vs. those of Spoken Language

I'm a GenAmE speaker, but I've noticed that many BrE-speaking singers seem to sing in an accent that is almost indistinguishable from my own. I first noticed it with Ed Sheeran, who I didn't even know ...
6
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2answers
1k views

Why does "brother" have the instrumental case in this Polish sentence?

The instrumental case is used to indicate the instrument/object with which an action or state of being is performed. For instance, when you go to work "by car", car is instrumental because ...
1
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1answer
79 views

What is subphrasal constituent? How to define it?

Could somebody specializes in SYNTAX help me explain the term subphrasal constituent? What is subphrasal constituent? How to define it?
0
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0answers
63 views

What is it called when an argumentative yes-or-no question has different meanings depending on the answer?

I'm wondering if there's a word for this specific type of informal fallacy. An example of such a question is "Do black lives matter?", where the questioner specifies the literalness of the ...
2
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1answer
81 views

What is the linguistic term for sounds such as 'um', 'uh', 'like', etc. when used to control the rhythm of speech?

Sounds such as 'um' and 'uh' are common in speech when the speaker needs to prolong a sentence or otherwise control the rhythm of the sentence. I also hear these sounds used to convey indifference or ...
3
votes
1answer
226 views

What is the origin of a Hungarian word cápa (shark) [closed]

The word for shark in Hungarian is cápa. Quick search for its origin didn't bring me anything. Probably there are some Hungarian sources, but I don't know the language, unluckily. As Hungary is a ...
3
votes
1answer
187 views

A fundamental question about 'subject-to subject raising'

Raising is defined in Oxford Dictionary of English Grammar as follows: The displacement of a noun phrase from a position within an embedded clause to a position in a higher clause. ... With subject-...
1
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0answers
34 views

To what extent do the number and respective functions of performative constructions vary across languages?

For those who came in late, a performative predicate is one that denotes an act made possible by the use of the verb or predicate itself. For example: When a clergyperson or justice of the peace ...
1
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1answer
141 views

Why are E and É both part of the Hungarian and Icelandic alphabets but the English and French alphabets only have E?

The letters "E" and "É" occur in English, French, Hungarian, Icelandic, and other languages. However, the Hungarian and Icelandic alphabets include both "E" and "É&...
0
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0answers
113 views

What is the maximum number of accusatives you can have in an English sentence? [closed]

I know things like the double-accusative exist in English, like "I call sodas cokes." Then things can get more complex with words like "bet," where you can have "I bet you 5 ...
0
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2answers
133 views

Is there a rule which accounts for a d in PIE becoming a b in Latin?

According to Wikitionary, the Latin word verb is derived from the Proto-Indo-European word *werdʰh₁om which is the etonym of the English word word and the German wort. I am familiar with Grimm's Law ...
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0answers
30 views

When enclosing a phonetical annotation, what are the differences between [] and //? [duplicate]

When enclosing a phonetical annotation, what are the differences between [] and //? Are they not completely equivalent?
-3
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1answer
87 views

Do Polish 'rz' /ž š/ and rhotic English have something in common? [closed]

This is a bit of a silly question that will need an explanation of the background that motivates this question. Background. I met a man named Andrzej. He was called approximately An-jay /dʒ/, or ...
-3
votes
1answer
77 views

Longest word in all languages [closed]

https://www.google.com/search?q=longest+word+in+all+languages&sxsrf=AOaemvKcePJS8wsKGqzL_U6e1NC7gQvzAg%3A1631976735337&source=hp&ei=H_1FYe7REZDn-QaKqY6ACQ&oq=longest+word+in+all+la&...
6
votes
1answer
2k views

Is 😂 a word/letter?

Can "😂" be technically considered a word, from a linguistic point of view? Obviously, emoji are different from "ordinary" words, but: "😂" was the Oxford Word of the ...
0
votes
2answers
124 views

Does English have words that are clearly masculine or feminine that do not form pairs or are proper nouns?

While English does not have gender in the same way a Romance language does, it is still obviously able to define masculine and feminine concepts. But words that are clearly masculine or feminine in ...
2
votes
1answer
131 views

If mora are potentially sufficient to describe language, then what do syllables add, in theory?

Following the answer to the recent Question, Why is/was Gokana claimed to lack syllables?, I don't really understand the difference. I have heard of moras in the context of poetry before and didn't ...
1
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1answer
82 views

Correspondences between Mandarin and Spanish: coincidences or limitations?

I’m studying mandarin and know a little spanish. One of the things that stuck out to me in particular is that both languages sometimes draw semantic lines in very similar ways. In particular: A) Both ...
0
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0answers
62 views

Are there languages without separate words for man and woman, just a generic term for both?

I am not talking about how in some languages, e.g. English, "man" is the more generic term, but languages where there is no separate word for "man" or "woman" at all. I ...
3
votes
1answer
48 views

Why treat 'verbal group', not 'verb phrase', as a constituent of a clause in Systemic Functional Grammar?

SFC (Halliday, etc.) doesn't treat as a constituent of a clause a verb phrase (VP), which combines with an noun phrase (NP) to form a clause in a canonical English construction. Instead, SFC uses the ...
0
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1answer
29 views

Is there any connection between formalism and generativism [closed]

Is generativism originated from formalism? How formalism is related to linguistics
7
votes
3answers
2k views

/t͡ʃ/ vs. /ʧ/ vs. /tʃ/

In English for example, the "ch" sound (as in China) is sometimes written as /t͡ʃ/, other times as /ʧ/ or simply as /tʃ/. Similarly, I have seen the German "tz" (e.g. Katze) ...
1
vote
1answer
123 views

Why is/was Gokana claimed to lack syllables?

Wikipedia says that Gokana has been argued to lack syllables, a radical claim because syllables are traditionally considered to be universal, offers no details, but points out that later the claim has ...
0
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2answers
94 views

Why is fucus reconstructed as *bhoiko-?

Why is fucus reconstructed as *bhoiko-? Not *bhoikos or *bhoikon? Is "cus" a suffix like in raucus > ravis?
0
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1answer
76 views

Octopuses and Non-phonetics

This is an odd question. I was thinking about octopuses and wondering about the nature of language. To my knowledge (and this isn't my field) all human language has a phonetic components. Are there ...
-1
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1answer
79 views

Etymology of "kipos", the greek for garden

Consider the following ancient greek word: κήπος This means "garden". 'Horto' is the latin. 'Jardin' in french is obviously the root for garden, but the links between Latin, Greek and ...
9
votes
1answer
719 views

Old Norse, 'r' vs 'ʀ'?

On the Snoldelev Stone (https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Snoldelev_stone) is found the following inscription: kun'uAlts| |stAin ' sunaʀ ' ruHalts ' þulaʀ ' o salHauku(m) What is the difference between ...
0
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0answers
32 views

What is a list of the first words acquired during different points in language development?

What words are acquired at what age, across languages, or just in English if that's too broad? Wondering what concepts and specifically what sound-sequences (words) are the most useful to a baby (like ...
1
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0answers
30 views

Where are the original research papers on when phonemes are acquired developmentally?

I received this as a guide to when the phonemes are acquired developmentally, such as: 1-2 years - The child is able to say the following sounds in words - /p/, /b/, /m/, /n/, /t/, /d/ Where can I ...
0
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0answers
32 views

Is there a category for phrases like "all the time" where any competent speaker of the language is expected to know the domain restriction?

If someone says "I go to the theater all the time" we know implicitly that this means "a lot" and is not meant to claim that literally "For all times t, I am going to the ...
0
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1answer
61 views

Why is the Croatian word "pjena" (foam) spelt with "je" as if it were from Slavic yat, rather than "i", as it is from Slavic "y"?

Why is the Croatian word "pjena" (foam) spelt with "je" as if it were from Slavic yat, rather than "i", as it is from Slavic "y"? We know it is from Slavic &...
1
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0answers
115 views

Perfect and Preterite

How can one communicate subtle differences in meaning that in other languages would be signaled only by the distinction of Preterite/Perfect when in fact in the language spoken there is no distinction ...
-5
votes
1answer
57 views

What are some example linguistic glosses for the early languages which lack definite articles ("the")? [closed]

My working assumption is that definite articles evolve in language after much of more simpler language, though they can later be lost from a language as it evolves further. First, it appears to me ...
0
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1answer
149 views

Why is took not a word? [closed]

Why is took not a word? The dictionary takes you to take, and it say's "past tense: took" But it doesn't take you to the word, took. So Why is took not a word?
0
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4answers
165 views

When/how did "articles" like "the" first appear in language?

I am wondering this sort of cross-linguistically. I know many (most?) languages don't have a word for "the", but the English language does. First part of the question is, did Middle English ...
0
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0answers
70 views

What is the etymology of the maghrebi interjection "شاه" (chah or cheh)?

At least in the Maghreb, there is a word to say "serves [somebody] right!", i.e. "!شاه" or "ccah!" in Berber form. I'm struggling to find its etymology. Although it might ...

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