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0
votes
1answer
29 views

Is there any connection between formalism and generativism [closed]

Is generativism originated from formalism? How formalism is related to linguistics
7
votes
3answers
2k views

/t͡ʃ/ vs. /ʧ/ vs. /tʃ/

In English for example, the "ch" sound (as in China) is sometimes written as /t͡ʃ/, other times as /ʧ/ or simply as /tʃ/. Similarly, I have seen the German "tz" (e.g. Katze) ...
1
vote
1answer
123 views

Why is/was Gokana claimed to lack syllables?

Wikipedia says that Gokana has been argued to lack syllables, a radical claim because syllables are traditionally considered to be universal, offers no details, but points out that later the claim has ...
0
votes
2answers
95 views

Why is fucus reconstructed as *bhoiko-?

Why is fucus reconstructed as *bhoiko-? Not *bhoikos or *bhoikon? Is "cus" a suffix like in raucus > ravis?
0
votes
1answer
76 views

Octopuses and Non-phonetics

This is an odd question. I was thinking about octopuses and wondering about the nature of language. To my knowledge (and this isn't my field) all human language has a phonetic components. Are there ...
-1
votes
1answer
79 views

Etymology of "kipos", the greek for garden

Consider the following ancient greek word: κήπος This means "garden". 'Horto' is the latin. 'Jardin' in french is obviously the root for garden, but the links between Latin, Greek and ...
9
votes
1answer
721 views

Old Norse, 'r' vs 'ʀ'?

On the Snoldelev Stone (https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Snoldelev_stone) is found the following inscription: kun'uAlts| |stAin ' sunaʀ ' ruHalts ' þulaʀ ' o salHauku(m) What is the difference between ...
0
votes
0answers
32 views

What is a list of the first words acquired during different points in language development?

What words are acquired at what age, across languages, or just in English if that's too broad? Wondering what concepts and specifically what sound-sequences (words) are the most useful to a baby (like ...
1
vote
0answers
31 views

Where are the original research papers on when phonemes are acquired developmentally?

I received this as a guide to when the phonemes are acquired developmentally, such as: 1-2 years - The child is able to say the following sounds in words - /p/, /b/, /m/, /n/, /t/, /d/ Where can I ...
0
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0answers
32 views

Is there a category for phrases like "all the time" where any competent speaker of the language is expected to know the domain restriction?

If someone says "I go to the theater all the time" we know implicitly that this means "a lot" and is not meant to claim that literally "For all times t, I am going to the ...
0
votes
1answer
61 views

Why is the Croatian word "pjena" (foam) spelt with "je" as if it were from Slavic yat, rather than "i", as it is from Slavic "y"?

Why is the Croatian word "pjena" (foam) spelt with "je" as if it were from Slavic yat, rather than "i", as it is from Slavic "y"? We know it is from Slavic &...
1
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0answers
115 views

Perfect and Preterite

How can one communicate subtle differences in meaning that in other languages would be signaled only by the distinction of Preterite/Perfect when in fact in the language spoken there is no distinction ...
-5
votes
1answer
58 views

What are some example linguistic glosses for the early languages which lack definite articles ("the")? [closed]

My working assumption is that definite articles evolve in language after much of more simpler language, though they can later be lost from a language as it evolves further. First, it appears to me ...
0
votes
1answer
150 views

Why is took not a word? [closed]

Why is took not a word? The dictionary takes you to take, and it say's "past tense: took" But it doesn't take you to the word, took. So Why is took not a word?
0
votes
4answers
166 views

When/how did "articles" like "the" first appear in language?

I am wondering this sort of cross-linguistically. I know many (most?) languages don't have a word for "the", but the English language does. First part of the question is, did Middle English ...
0
votes
0answers
70 views

What is the etymology of the maghrebi interjection "شاه" (chah or cheh)?

At least in the Maghreb, there is a word to say "serves [somebody] right!", i.e. "!شاه" or "ccah!" in Berber form. I'm struggling to find its etymology. Although it might ...
-2
votes
1answer
80 views

How do you transcribe these sounds you make in IPA?

Uvular ejective fricative χʼ? I don’t know. It seems not. https://youtu.be/3u65Dk1bqWg?t=584 https://youtu.be/d3oBs5TljNE?t=8193 https://youtu.be/B2FkJVj2hj4?t=39 https://youtu.be/quF-CDV3K68?t=223 ...
0
votes
5answers
558 views

Is there a shared word for "word" and "thing" in any language other than Hebrew?

The Hebrew word דבר has a dual meaning because it can mean "word/speak" and also "thing." Contemporary Kabbalists use this dual meaning to argue for a metaphysical connection ...
1
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0answers
30 views

Best resources for swedish slang

My question is just that -- I've been a student of russian language and literature, thee resources for slang and profanity are hugely entertaining and vast on the internet, I've used them to mix in ...
0
votes
2answers
100 views

How does the Comparative Method make falsifiable predictions and how are they tested?

The previous question was closed as predicted despite it being edited to only focus on the method itself. The current question was suggested as a substitute, so lets try this one then.In order to ...
2
votes
3answers
832 views

Is there a common ancestor between the Hebrew לבן ("lavan", white) and the English "albino"?

I noticed these two words share the same central consonants, and wouldn't it be fascinating if the l-b-n semitic root has a common source to the English "albin-" as in albino and albinism? I ...
2
votes
1answer
75 views

Distinction between coordinating and subordinating conjunctions

I am struggling with finding any remotely formal criteria for distinguishing these two types of clauses. There are typologies which already define certain groups of conjunctions, but there are tons of ...
0
votes
1answer
83 views

On the Epistemology of Comparative and Historical linguistics [closed]

I have asked a few questions before relating to PIE, proto-languages theory and the comparative method. As these are technical areas I am unfamiliar with but thanks to some previous answers I am ...
2
votes
0answers
27 views

Database of Words and their Semantic Entropies?

I'm reading up on semantic entropies and it seems as though there aren't any actual databases of words and their associated semantic entropies for any given methodology. For instance, this study has a ...
-3
votes
3answers
84 views

What is the difference between plurality and gender?

I have just started creating my own conlang, and I was wondering if anybody could help me. I can't find anything that'll help me differentiate plurality and gender.
1
vote
0answers
34 views

what's the denotation of the predicate 'exists'?

What denotation do linguists assign to the predicate exists in order to make the right predictions about the truth conditions of sentences like Santa does not exist. Unicorns do not exist. My ...
0
votes
1answer
30 views

What are the differences of word stress, lexical stress and metrical stress?

It is said lexical stress is word stress, but I don't understand why they named it differently.
2
votes
2answers
703 views

Are there commonly accepted graphic symbols for common declension forms?

Some linguistic declension forms are found in many languages: Gender Singular / Plural Past, Present, Future Indication, Condition, Imperation Case: Nominative, Accusative, Dative etc. Is there a ...
3
votes
2answers
89 views

How to quantify the semantic depth of a sentence?

I'm looking for a robust way to roughly quantify the amount of information conveyed in a sentence, specifically in English. For instance "He went to the place" conveys less information than &...
1
vote
1answer
79 views

Has anyone ever ranked the prevalence of phones by number of speakers worldwide?

I'm interested in knowing the most-used and least-used phones worldwide. According to Wikipedia, the IPA charts about 140 pulmonic consonants, 80 non-pulmonic consonants, 30 co-articulated consonants, ...
3
votes
2answers
172 views

What languages together maximize the number of people you can speak with?

This is not quite a “which languages have the greatest number of native speakers” question, nor quite a “which languages have the greatest number of L2 speakers” question, both of which are easily ...
6
votes
2answers
483 views

Why is the Croatian word "vjetar" spelt with "je" rather than "e"?

Why is the Croatian word "vjetar" spelt with "je" rather than "e"? "je" comes from Proto-Slavic yat, and 'e' comes from Proto-Slavic 'en'. But there was 'en' in ...
-2
votes
1answer
75 views

What language (if it is a language) is it? [closed]

It looks close to Arabic, but it isn't. I wasn't able to identify which language is it using different scanning tools (including Google Translate app). Thanks. Edit: if this isn't clear - I'm asking ...
2
votes
1answer
99 views

Do all frameworks of syntax view the string following an inverted auxiliary verb in English as the complement of the auxiliary?

This is a follow-up question of an earlier question titled: In X bar theory, is the first auxiliary the head of an interrogative clause and the remainder the complement? In that question, I had this ...
2
votes
0answers
39 views

On modality and semantic roles

Do modal verbs (can, may, must, etc.) in any way affect the semantic roles of the arguments of the verbs that they govern? For example, consider the simple sentence: He plays basketball. Here, if I ...
1
vote
0answers
31 views

Does it have a name when you know certain vocabulary in another language but not in your own?

For example if you draw a venn diagram for all the vocabulary that you know in the languages that you consider yourself to be fluent in, you'll have some gaps in the "foreign" languages, but ...
1
vote
0answers
61 views

Relationship between "גולגולת" (skull) and "גלגל" (wheel)

Both "גולגולת" (skull) and "גלגל" (wheel) are listed, on Wiktionary, as coming from the shared root ג־ל־ג־ל. All of the other words except for גולגולת have clear relationships to ...
0
votes
1answer
57 views

(how) do natural languages distinguish classes and instances of things?

In data modeling and other areas of knowledge organization there is often a strict separation between abstract classes of things and individual objects. For instance I am an instance of the class ...
5
votes
2answers
231 views

What is the difference between neurolinguistics and similar fields of study?

What is the difference between neurolinguistics and cognitive linguistics or psycholinguistics? I am already having trouble understanding the difference between cognitive linguistics and ...
2
votes
1answer
88 views

Are there human general communication languages without a future tendency?

In Thai language there is no past tense, at least not for negative sentences: A Thai person might say "I don't go" (ฉัน ไม่ ไป) while the listener is expected to guess from the context if ...
-1
votes
1answer
226 views

What are the differences between lexis, lexicon, vocabulary?

My daughter's school doesn't offer linguistics, and none of her teachers studied it. Can you please answer at her 16 y.o. level? Thanks. Google yielded two answers. Logan R. Kearsley, MA in ...
0
votes
1answer
112 views

Middle English: y or ȝ

Lately I've been looking up the Middle English of many Modern English words via Wiktionary. It was my understanding that by this point in the history of English ȝ was in heavy use. Yet these ...
2
votes
0answers
38 views

On semantic roles

What is the semantic role of the direct object in the below sentence? If I'm not mistaken, the answer is 'patient' (since 'He' is doing something [in this case, 'crossing'] to the river). However, I ...
1
vote
1answer
100 views

What language does S -> A generates?

I read formal grammar's definition from Wikipedia, and it seems like there can be such a grammar like: S -> A //no more rules S and A are both non-terminals. What language does it generates? I've ...
7
votes
1answer
220 views

Does the orientation of the voiced uvular fricative IPA symbol (ʁ) not matter, or are these fonts buggy?

The symbol for voiced uvular fricative in IPA is ʁ (an inverted small uppercase letter "R"), but I have noticed that this symbol is not displayed consistently depending on where it is pasted ...
5
votes
2answers
2k views

How does an original proto language produce its daughter languages?

I am trying to understand the principles how a proto language produces it daughter languages, do they proliferate from dialects of the same proto language or do they proliferate from dialects of other ...
2
votes
1answer
42 views

Are there spaces or other marks between word in Ancient Semitic epigraphs?

Are there spaces or other marks between word in Ancient Semitic (i.e. Hebrew, Aramaic, Canaanite) epigraphs?
1
vote
1answer
88 views

How similar are Low German and Dutch?

In Duisburg and Düsseldorf I have heard people talking a mixture of German and Dutch which really confused me! Can anyone please explain how similar to Dutch this so called Low German language is?
1
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0answers
61 views

The grammatical analysis - "most of them civilians"

I came across this sentence today: They were most of them civilians. Now how will we analyse"most of them" here? Is it just a modifier in Noun Phrase - "most of them civilians"? ...
0
votes
1answer
104 views

Why does IPA have only finitely many symbols? Isn't the human voice box capable of producing a continuous range of sounds?

There are two things I've noticed: Every language has only finitely many sounds in it IPA, which is a notation for representing all possible sounds in all possible languages, has only finitely many ...

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