All Questions

Filter by
Sorted by
Tagged with
1
vote
0answers
14 views

Why is tense obligatory in some languages and not in others?

In some languages like Chinese, it isn’t imperative that the tense of the verb is explicitly marked. So if you mean an action that will occur in the future, you can still refer to it in an all-...
0
votes
0answers
11 views

i don't know how to draw the syntax tree for present perfect tense sentences

like this one, for example, the students have played the overture I think the auxiliary verb 'have' is positioned in Aux, but should I still include the tense feature somewhere, or should I just put '...
0
votes
0answers
16 views

Modern connotations of a פֶסֶל or תְּמוּנָ֡֔ה in Biblical Hebrew? [closed]

Would television or computer graphics be considered either? What about audio recordings (since they are technically representations of physical waves)?
1
vote
1answer
44 views

Did Dutch ever have a G like in Garden sound?

In Modern Dutch I do not see or hear any hard G sound. Garden would be pronounced like Harden.. how did that happen?
5
votes
1answer
106 views

Why we do not usually say "who did eat the apples" while "What did she eat" is perfect to use? [closed]

I noticed that in English, it is incorrect to say "Who did eat the apples?" but it is correct to say "who ate the apples?" It would be very helpful if you can give me some clues ...
4
votes
3answers
684 views

How can I find the frequency for the Russian word "чем-нибудь"?

I've tried searching for the word "чем-нибудь"on the 20,000 word list I found on Wikipedia. You can link directly to it here. For the sake of thoroughness, I even searched the larger 50,...
1
vote
1answer
28 views

How Polish influenced Ukrainian

I have noticed some complexed loanwords in Ukrainian from German via Polish like the word for taste “smak”. Is it just slight influence that Polish had on Ukrainian or was it related to assimilation ...
0
votes
0answers
42 views

Is the Latin alphabet the most widely known in the world?

Note: By "Latin alphabet," I'm referring to the 26 letters (A-Z) that English uses. Sorry if this is the wrong term (I don't want to call it the "English alphabet" since it's used ...
9
votes
2answers
542 views

Does lexeme and stem mean the same?

Wikipedia says following about lexeme: A lexeme is a unit of lexical meaning... For example, in English, run, runs, ran and running are forms of the same lexeme, which can be represented as ...
0
votes
1answer
18 views

Handling enumerations in Generative syntax trees

How can we build syntax trees for sentences with enumerations? I have three sentences as examples: S1: John, Mary, Paul, Alice and Bob eat a cake. S2: I'm eating an apple, a pear, a cherry, a ...
3
votes
1answer
89 views

Why "a liter of water" but not "a 100ºC of water"?

Imagine a volume of water, 100 ml in size, with a temperature of 100ºC. Interestingly, you can refer to the water as "100ml of water" but you cannot call it "100ºC of water". That ...
0
votes
1answer
54 views

Do the Turkic languages have "-ia" suffix/ending to denote countries or abstract notions?

Both the Indo-European and Semitic languages have a combination of suffix+ending -i-a, which can be applied to form country names. It also conducts the feminine gender. The IE and Semitic suffixes are ...
0
votes
0answers
32 views

Looking for English grammar rules governing the allowable order of different parts of speech in different combinations [closed]

I am trying to find an organized set of English grammar rules governing the allowable order of different parts of speech in different combinations. English is much more restrictive than Italian, ...
0
votes
0answers
27 views

Turing-completeness of Minimalism and HPSG

I read several times that HPSG and Minimalism are Turing-complete. Could someone explain (or tell me some references) why this is the case? And does this constitute a major problem since natural ...
0
votes
1answer
42 views

Is Generative / X-bar Theory prescriptivist? (can the descriptivist linguist create X-bar syntax trees?)

I'm drawing some x-bar syntax trees. These seem highly prescriptivist in that it says that you can only do x,y & z. For example the sentence "Because I'm lazy means I'm more efficient" ...
0
votes
0answers
73 views

origin of the word "de" in the name of Tycho de Brahe, Danish astronomer

I am conducting a little research about the origin of the word "de" in a version of a name of the Danish astronomer "Tycho Brahe", namely: "Tycho de Brahe". Here is what ...
1
vote
1answer
41 views

Understanding "inflection" and "grammatical category"

The Wikipedia article Morphology says: A further difference is that in word formation, the resultant word may differ from its source word's grammatical category whereas in the process of inflection ...
0
votes
0answers
47 views

Is the rule that "Lists with three items sound better" specific to English?

For example, the sentence "Todd liked crunchy apples, brown bananas, and small oranges" sounds better than "Todd liked crunchy apples and brown bananas". Generally, if you're ...
4
votes
1answer
96 views

When / why can adjective phrases come after nouns in English?

When and why can adjective phrases come after nouns in English, if at all? So, firstly: I am not talking about special usages like poetry or drama etc. where people may say things like "The night ...
5
votes
0answers
74 views

How did Old Norse influence Old English to lose genders and cases?

Wikipedia says that "Norse influence is ... considered to have stimulated and accelerated the morphological simplification found in Middle English, such as the loss of grammatical gender and ...
3
votes
1answer
82 views

What acoustic similarities are there between phonetically similar consonants?

I really want to know what exactly the similarity between consonants depends on. For me, the core might be the place of articulation, manner of articulation and voiced vs. voiceless. For example, b/p/...
1
vote
1answer
79 views

Can ambiguous sentences be ungrammatical?

In linguistics textbooks, whenever ambiguity is discussed, those ambiguous sentences are grammatical on both readings. However, recently, a few native speakers of English say that a particular ...
5
votes
2answers
731 views

Etymology of the Turkish word "rüzgâr"

In Turkish rüzgâr means "wind". From the looks of it (especially the long â vowel which is not native to Turkish) it seems to be of Persian origin: "روزگار". Some sources verify ...
-3
votes
0answers
58 views

A word can be a sword? [closed]

I was reading a book today and I saw for the first time that "word" and "sword" differ for just one letter. Is it related to the fact that "words" can wound as much as &...
0
votes
1answer
63 views

What to call a verb phrase with no subject?

What do you call a verb phrase with no subject, like a description of purpose: "to exact revenge" or ability: "juggle cats while tap dancing"?
5
votes
2answers
241 views

relationship between C-command and Binding

What is the relationship between C-command, binding and Co-reference? Does it mean that C-command is the precondition of binding? Can somebody help me get clearer about these three terms?
1
vote
2answers
105 views

History of language- how come rules are followed?

Thinking about languages- I speak a few- I find it fascinating that languages follow rules across the board. Of course there are important exceptions in each language, where we just have to memorize ...
-1
votes
0answers
44 views

Some participles are defined as adjectives, some aren't

Both excited and rattled are past participles derived from excite and rattle, respectively. However, excited also has a separate entry in the dictionaries where it is described as an adjective, ...
0
votes
1answer
134 views

Can someone explain to me the Zipf–Mandelbrot law?

I really can't understand. It's about linguistics and I can't understand anything because there are mathematical formulas in it that I can't understand at all. Can anyone explain this with ...
-1
votes
0answers
27 views

Words of Encouragement [closed]

I am currently studying the meaning of specific words of encouragement in different languages and cultures and I wonder: Are words of encouragement present in all languages and cultures?
1
vote
1answer
34 views

Python's treetaggerwrapper does not recognize numbers

I'm using treetaggerwrapper to stem Italian texts and I'm interested in the final lemmas. As you can see, while other parts of speech are transformed correctly, all numbers are changed to @card@. Is ...
0
votes
0answers
23 views

Scientific sources/ literature regarding (spanish) speech rate

I'm interested in scientific sources or literature regarding speech rate/ tempo of speech of the Spanish language. Do you know any? Specifically, I'm looking for sources that compare the speech rate ...
4
votes
1answer
96 views

How and when did the modern western convention of not translating personal names arise?

In many languages it is a convention to translate or at least adapt foreign personal names to the language when discussing foreign people, especially notable and often mentioned people such as foreign ...
2
votes
3answers
112 views

What is the specific sound law that describes the change from Proto-Indo-European "*h₂éǵros" to Latin "ager"?

Is there a rule for the movement of the "r" to the end of the word? Or is it moreso that there was some kind of intrusive "e" that separated the "-gr-" to form "-ger&...
2
votes
1answer
385 views

Is there any natural language having minimal pairs over tongue root position?

I am building a conlang, which is very likely going to be an isolating language. As such, I decided to make it a tonal language. But there is a problem. This language is to be sung very often, so ...
3
votes
0answers
98 views

Is "dzeru" : "ceru" a minimal pair in Latvian?

I'm finding it a bit hard to determine the prosody of these words. I'm basically asking if "dzeru" and "ceru" are prosodically identical. If "dzeru" : "ceru" ...
0
votes
1answer
36 views

English / French speech to IPA

Are there any open-sourced library / Deep Learning models that convert an audio clip of a word to its IPA representation? In this case, the audio is from a non-native speaker and the goal is to ...
5
votes
4answers
448 views

Are there any tonal languages with syllable-final consonants that are not unreleased, or even aspirated?

All the tonal languages I have some familiarity with, Mandarin, Thai, Lao, Vietnamese, and Cantonese either lack stop consonants in syllable-final position, or allow only "unreleased" stop ...
2
votes
0answers
68 views

How to modernize a dead language vocabulary [migrated]

This is an enthusiastic question: Currently I'm studying Akkadian for fun, but as it is a dead language, the vocabulary may have some missing words/concepts. For example, I didn`t found a word for &...
2
votes
0answers
100 views

Why did some conquerors change the region's language and others didn't?

In history we see many examples where a conquered people ceased to speak their native language and began speaking the conqueror's language, and also many examples where conquering groups ceased to ...
0
votes
0answers
77 views

How is collision entropy of German syntax higher than of English one?

As I explained in the draft of my latest paper about linguistics, I have measured the collision entropies of English, German and Croatian syntax. The entropy of consonants in a long English text was ...
4
votes
1answer
138 views

Peculiarities of English as spoken/written by Norwegians [closed]

I'm writing a fiction book. Some of its characters are Norwegians who exchange emails in English. I'd like to lightly stylise their texts. What mistakes / peculiarities / word choice / sentence ...
4
votes
1answer
470 views

Beta vs eszett character difference

How to write the Greek letter beta and the German letter eszett so that they look different enough? I've seen variants of beta with the final arc ending on the vertical line and ones which have a ...
0
votes
0answers
5 views

Meaning of כָּמ֑וֹךָ in Hebrew / ὡς in Greek ("love thy neighbor *as* thyself") [migrated]

What is the correct interpretation of the Hebrew "כָּמ֑וֹךָ" in Leviticus 19:18, or the Greek "ὡς" in Luke 10:27 (which is quoting the Leviticus verse)? I have a theory that "...
3
votes
1answer
93 views

Pre-fortis clipping of /n/

Pre-fortis clipping is usually defined as operating on vowels. See, for example, John Wells’s blog post on the subject. But at least in my idiolect (Northern English-influenced RP), in the environment ...
2
votes
0answers
64 views

What counts as a factive verb in terms of presupposition triggers?

Though words like knew or realised are commonly know factive verbs that trigger presupposition. Does verbs like enjoyed, paid, looking forward, commended and delighted also count as factive verbs ...
0
votes
0answers
43 views

Native Pronunciation of -rr- in the place name Wirral as voiced alveolar stop -d-

I was surprised to hear the Native Pronunciation of -rr- in the place name Wirral as voiced alveolar stop/tap -d- in this video as spoken by a native centenarian at the time point 0:47: Life Lessons ...
3
votes
1answer
68 views

discontinuity in dependency grammar

According to Wikipedia, only about 15–25% of actual sentences contain a discontinuity, and the percentage of discontinuous dependencies is even much less, approximately 1–2%. What confuses me is that ...
6
votes
4answers
785 views

Is there a collective term for the Latin, Cyrillic, and Greek alphabets?

I was just wondering if such a term exists, since they are very similar to each other, and all of them derive from the Greek alphabet, so I thought perhaps there might be a collective term for the ...
0
votes
0answers
59 views

What does Axel Schuessler mean by "area word"?

My son's studying Chinese. His teacher asked how 念 semantically appertains to its components 今心. I don't speak Chinese, and he had no idea. Then we resorted to Wiktionary that refers to Axel ...

15 30 50 per page
1
2 3 4 5
189