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6 views

Is the propositional attitude verb an eventive verb?

In terms of aspect, verbs can only be categorized into stative verb and eventive verb, right? Then how about propositional attitude verb like "think" "say"? Are they also eventive ...
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0answers
11 views

What are some more examples of doubly centre embedded clauses?

Hey guys I am a uni student doing psycholinguistics and currently studying doubly centre embedded clauses for a study on comprehension. For example a phrase such as: "The man the boy the cat ...
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0answers
10 views

Which term is used to refer both to sentences and expressions shorter than a sentence?

I believe, "expression" is a good term for a word or a meaningful part of a sentence, which is shorter than the sentence, but "expression" does not sound a good term to refer to a ...
3
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1answer
36 views

Are “haff to” and “have to” different words in spoken English?

This sentence: How many apples do you have to eat? (at least in my dialect of English) means "How many apples do you possess and can eat?" if the final consonant in "have" is ...
-2
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0answers
17 views

Is “fact” the opposite of “opinion?” Can there be absolutely true opinions, as well as false facts?

I have a long-running argument with friends that the word "opinion" has more to do with how something is expressed, not whether it is true or not. That is, "I think it is raining ...
1
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1answer
28 views

What is the reconstructed root for fire in Proto-Uralic or Proto-Finno-Ugric?

Starostin alleges that IE root h₁n̥gʷnís has cognates in Finno-Urgic. But I distrust this database and also I would like to know what was the proto-form of the root, particularly, the origin of Mari ...
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0answers
9 views

What is an example of a speech repertoire?

From what I read, a speech repertoire is defined as a set of varieties controlled and used by an individual, including varieties associated with their region and social class but also with the ...
0
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0answers
14 views

Why are Australian Aboriginal languages said to have coronal and peripheral consonants?

In most languages the world over, place of articulation is divided in a fairly obvious way, with labials, coronals, dorsals, and laryngeals (each obviously potentially having various sublocations), ...
-3
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1answer
50 views

What's the reconstruction of the word for fire in proto-Australian?

The word for fire in some modern Australian languages: Tiwi yikwani Djinang junggi Maung yungku Walmajarri yakun This is strikingly similar to that in PIE: PIE h₁...
2
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0answers
27 views

Does the universal use of noun and verb phrases reflect how humans cognitively see the world as objects and relationships?

The question is: why are noun and verb phrases the basic building blocks of all grammar? Candidate answer: cognitively, we perceive the world as objects and relationships between objects. Thus, nouns ...
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1answer
53 views

Spoken languages known for their articulation

Are there any spoken languages which are known for their inherent articulation. In other words, where in the world would a person with hearing disabilities like to have been born (if we only consider ...
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3answers
55 views

Is [ë̞] another symbol for [ə]?

I know that the diacritic ̈ is for centralization and ̞ for lowered. So when [e] is centralized, it becomes [ɘ] and when lowered it becomes [ə]. See the diagram: If someone gives me the ...
2
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2answers
82 views

Do any languages fail to distinguish “who and ”what"?

English distinguishes interrogative pronouns "who" referring to humans and "what" referring to non-humans, and the same distinction is made in Lushootseed, any Bantu languages that ...
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0answers
34 views

The possible sound change when /t/ sound is preceded by fricatives or affricatives

Here, I am talking about the assimilated /t/ sound that is one of the most common features of Standard Southern British English (such as /t/ at the beginning of a syllable, time, task, Twitter, twice, ...
11
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7answers
2k views

Are there any diacritics not on the top or bottom of a letter?

I don't know of any besides the horn on Ơ and Ư and the middle tilde on ᵯ and some other consonants I'm interested in particular in a diacritic precomposed with both "I" and "U"
1
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1answer
34 views

Books recommendation on syntax, semantics and pragmatics interaction

Can anyone here suggest any texts that deals especially with the interaction between Semantics, Pragmatics and Syntax? I would like to understand how these various levels, especially syntax-semantics,...
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1answer
48 views

Best book for introduction to Syntax, with exercises

I am new to the field of linguistics and I was looking for some books in order to learn syntax. I put my eyes on two main textbooks: Basic English Syntax with Exercises, by Mark Newson (I was ...
0
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0answers
46 views

Reconstructing pre-Tiberian pronunciation of Hebrew texts?

Has anyone attempted to reconstruct the pronunciation / phonological form of the Torah as it would have been heard at the time of the fixing of the consonantal text (ca. 6th c. BCE)? So, just as a ...
1
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1answer
31 views

Phoneme production metrics

(Apologies in advance for the expected misuse of terminology; I am not a linguist. Please correct as appropriate.) I am considering a Deep Learning language evolution experiment and would like to ...
2
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3answers
101 views

Are proto-languages necessary to divide languages ​within a family into groups?

For example, Indo-European family is divided into groups, such as Slavic, Romance, Germanic, etc. Some of these groups can also be divided, but let`s just assume, that there is no further division. ...
0
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1answer
31 views

“Matter” and “What Matters”; “Substance” and “Of Substance”

This thought is directed at those who have an interest in the deeper meaning of language and how it connects to our perspective of reality. Perhaps a bit philosophical. If this is not the proper place,...
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0answers
24 views

What's the difference between event time and reference time?

Here is an example, "Molly had left at 10 pm". The temporal references will be event time < reference time < speech time, right? But why? Also, for "The sun has set", why ...
0
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1answer
35 views

Is have+ negation equal to imperfective?

I know aspect can be categorized into perfective and imperfective, but I'm just curious whether the example "John hasn't gone to Paris" is still perfective or converted into imperfectve?
18
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4answers
4k views

Introducing 1 more language to a trilingual baby at home

I am a French mum who has a 2 year old baby. My husband is Swedish and at home we speak English. Our son is already speaking French and Swedish and some English. We speak a bit of English with him ...
3
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3answers
93 views

A term for sign/symbol that represents multiple letters

At the time the Quran was revealed, the Arabic letters that we know of today was different. As I understand it, they did not have the concept of letter in the meaning we understand today. For example,...
6
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3answers
831 views

What does linguistics call sets of words with the same spelling, different (but perhaps related) meaning, and different emphasized syllables?

In my idiolect, the word "defense", with the emphasis on the first syllable means "the role of defending". With the emphasis on the second syllable, it means "the act of ...
2
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2answers
72 views

What is known about the Hurrian “wa” compound signs?

According to the classic Hethitisches Zeichenlexikon, Hurrian used a handful of special signs made by combining the WA (aka PI) sign with others: wa+ap, wa+i, wa+pí, wa+ú, wa+e, wa+u, wa+pu, wa+ip, wa+...
2
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2answers
186 views

elicit judgment: source revealed?

I'd like to know whether it's okay to reveal the identity of a person in advance when having others judge his or her sentences for grammaticality. Will that affect the reliability of the judgments? If ...
3
votes
1answer
76 views

What is the difference between phone (speech sound) and a sound?

I am not sure if I am asking a question in the right site. I don't know know if I am even asking a biological, linguistic or physics question. But I recently started learning about language and its ...
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0answers
52 views

Why are the following sentences ungrammatical? [closed]

I'm working on a few exercises to prepare for my upcoming exam and I'm kinda stuck right now on a specific topic. The exercise wants us to explain why certain sentences are ungrammatical and to ...
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0answers
14 views

Theoretical framework of comparing linguistic landscapes of an urban and a rural location

I am working on a thesis and I chose a topic about comparing linguistic landscapes of two locations. One is urban with international community and relatively economically privileged class of the ...
-1
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1answer
38 views

In what century did people start using the word “profession”?

I need to find out in what century the word "profession" appeared. My final goal: to understand whether this word could be used in the Middle Ages in everyday communication, in the meaning ...
6
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2answers
262 views

How can an endonym for a specific group mean “people” or “humans” in this group at the same time?

I understand that some people who speak Inuktitut self-designate as "Inuit" which allegedly means "people", or "human beings" or something similar. I've heard the same ...
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0answers
25 views

What is the syntactic structures of the ff [closed]

the pencil inside the box may go to the classroom could earn the credit the house is big the gown was very expensive
0
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1answer
43 views

Algorithms used for identifying the syllables in a Sanskrit word

Could anyone give a reference to the best book or website for learning the algorithms used for identifying the syllables in a Sanskrit word, in a completely unambiguous way, just from a piece of text? ...
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0answers
18 views

cohesion- ellipsis

I'm currently analysing some of my old literacy work from primary school (5/6 years old), focussing on cohesion. When looking at ellipsis I find that I cannot place a category on what kind (if at all) ...
2
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0answers
39 views

Which books did John read which books? Displacement and reconstruction

In his talk available on YouTube as “Language, Creativity, and the Limits of Understanding” by Professor Noam Chomsky (4-21-16) at 56:36s Noam Chomsky starts talking about the phenomenon of ...
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0answers
30 views

how does one properly escape the context of a definition when writing one

When a lexicographer is forming a definition how do they make sure they are not overly influenced by the examples they refer to when forming their definitions. how do they properly escape the ...
-5
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0answers
40 views

Does Asega-bôk exist in English translation? [closed]

Does Asega-bôk exist in English translation?
3
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1answer
83 views

Vowels in the second syllable of 'harmonic' and 'harmonious'

I came across a question on English Language & Usage asking about why the vowels in the second syllable of 'harmonic' and 'harmonious' are pronounced differently. Harmonic → /hɑːˈmɒn.ɪk/ ...
1
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1answer
42 views

some basic questions about morphological aspect

According to the definition, morphological aspect presents the reported event or state of affairs as if viewed either from inside the event (‘in progress’) or outside the event (‘as a whole’). For ...
-5
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1answer
62 views

What is the etymology of the Western Georgian family name Ashkinadze (borne by both Christians and Jews)? [closed]

The Western Georgian family name Ashkinadze consists of at least two morphemes, the last of which (-ძე = -dze in romanization) is the Georgian for ‘son’. A Georgian trained in linguistics told me in ...
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0answers
31 views

Pronunciations of Arabic كرباج‎ ‘lash, whip' [closed]

I would appreciate knowing the various pronunciations of the noun كرباج‎ ‘lash, whip’ in Egyptian Arabic as spoken in Cairo and northward all the way to the Mediterranean Sea (= more or less Lower ...
-2
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0answers
27 views

All the recorded meanings of the Turkish noun yağmurluk [closed]

Could you please give me all the recorded meanings of the Turkish noun yağmurluk (except 'raincoat, mackintosh, etc.', which I already know)? My understanding is that the word also designates some ...
0
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1answer
37 views

Turkish stem consonant alternation

I am currently writing a paper which draws on the characteristics of Turkish (or Turkic) phonology, and would like to know more about stem consonant alternation in this language. Specifically, will ...
7
votes
3answers
5k views

Are the longest German and Turkish words really single words?

First, I don't speak/understand any so-called agglutinative languages, like Turkish. I also don't know German. I understand there's no good definition for the concept of "word", which could ...
0
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1answer
43 views

If adjectives denote functions of type <<e,t>,<e,t>>, then what denotation of *be* will allow adjectives to appear in predicative position?

Suppose [[gray]] = λf ∈ D<e,t> . [λx ∈ De . f(x) = 1 and x is gray]. Since this function is of type <<e,t>,<e,t>>, it would seem that sentences like Julius is gray are ...
0
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0answers
21 views

Always in the shit; only the depth changes [migrated]

I came across this humorous Latin phrase on social media, rendered as: Sumus semper in excretum, sed alta variat ...but when I searched it, I realised there was a more common rendering of it: ...
0
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1answer
39 views

is there a /c/ vs. /k/ or /g/ vs /ɟ/ minimal pair in turkish

i checked the wiki subarticle "Consonants" and there is an example of /kar/ vs /ca:r/ (youglish link, as evidence for ":") which might not be a good minimal pair. do you know one? /...
2
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1answer
73 views

How would've the Old Novgorodian language looked like?

I need help reconstructing the Old Novgorodian words for "earth", "hand", "bee" and "bird nest". I'm not good at linguistics at all and don't really understand ...

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