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23 views

"Ser"/"estar" acquisition in bilingual children (English-Spanish)

For the last week I've been wondering about how bilingual children (English-Spanish) might struggle with the acquisition of the "ser"/"estar" copulas, considering how these are ...
-2
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0answers
25 views

How does propitius (“favorable, well-disposed") semantically relate to PIE root *per- (1) "forward")? [closed]

Why did historical linguists impute propitius to PIE *per-1? How do they semantically appertain? All boldenings are mine. propitiation (n.) late 14c., propiciacioun, "atonement, expiation," ...
0
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1answer
67 views

Besides Proto-Indoeuropean, what would be the list of the 10 most acurately reconstructed Proto-languages?

Proto-Indoeuropean language (p-IE) has been the subject of study for more than 200 years, and a great deal of work has been published has been written about p-IE reconstruction. In addition, there are ...
-4
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2answers
52 views

What was the first human language (lets call it X) for which there is actually an X-English dictionary?

I have found that Adam and Eve spoke Adamic language. But for that there is no X-English dictionary. Then in the Tower of Babel they said that the first one was Hebrew, which is my guess here. Thank ...
-2
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0answers
22 views

X-bar tree diagram [closed]

What is the X modeling tree for this sentence? "She has decided that owners of big cars without children should pay tax."
-1
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0answers
16 views

how to draw X-Bar Theory and trees [closed]

What is the X modeling tree for this sentence? " Pirate will meet the new governess in the foyer of the opera."
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0answers
36 views

Flesch-Kincaid reading ease formula coefficients [duplicate]

About the Flesch-Kincaid reading ease formula: F = 206.835 − (84.6 ∗ S) − (1.015 ∗ P) I don't understand the meaning of the coefficient choices. Why those specific numbers? Are the studies behind the ...
0
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0answers
30 views

What is the semantic type of the expression NOT in "Tina but not John"?

What is the semantic type of the expression not in the structure below? I understand that proper nouns have their generalized qualifier types, but I am unsure how to derive the semantic type from the ...
-2
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0answers
30 views

How do you get the semantic type from denotations and determine monotonicity of individual substitutes? [closed]

What is the monotonicity of an individual substitute? How do you determine it? Please explain giving an example
0
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1answer
28 views

What does 'anterodorsal' mean?

In the context of places of articulation of consonants, what does "anterodorsal" mean? I came across it in the 2008 paper by Wai-Sum Lee: The Articulation of the Coronal Sounds in the Peking ...
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0answers
36 views

When to use ं versus म् in the end of a word in a sentence [closed]

I have observed in संस्कृत sentences that sometimes a word ends in ं (e.g. पुस्तकं) and sometimes in म् (e.g. पुस्तकम्) . Is there a rule for when to use either?
4
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1answer
69 views

What is the name of the property of what part of the tongue produces the sound?

For consonants, IPA describes 'place of articulation': the part of the mouth the tongue makes contact with, and 'manner of articulation': how the sound is produced there. Speakers may use the blades ...
-1
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0answers
26 views

Spontaneous speech is to transcription as read speech is to what?

In the context of corpora for speech recognition, we can distinguish read speech and spontaneous (or conversational) speech. A spontaneous speech corpus usually consists of recordings and ...
-2
votes
1answer
120 views

Why isn't there a [mj]/m̃ in the IPA?

We all know the nasal ɲ, found in a variety of languages including the Spanish ñ. However, instead of n, why not m or more specifically [mj]? Why are these 2 consonants not considered one, unlike [nj] ...
-1
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0answers
25 views

What does Head-Driven Phrase Structure grammar say about continuous verbs? [closed]

I would like to understand head driven phrase structure grammar better. Could someone please write some of its formal rules which pertain to continuous verbs, and explain what they are saying?
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0answers
14 views

With one click or in one click? [closed]

How would you write the following sentence? Use AI to auto translate your store in one click. Or Use AI to auto translate your store with one click.
0
votes
1answer
30 views

Are alveolo-palatal consonants more likely to be followed by high vowels, whereas retroflex consonants are more likely followed by low vowels?

It seems to me that high voles like i would more naturally follow alveolo-palatal consonants because the need to "spread the lips" (in the popular description of the latter) seem to more ...
0
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1answer
32 views

How can you computationally apply a grammar rule to a sentence?

I would like to use a rigorous and comprehensive theory of the grammar of English to formulate some grammar rule and then computationally/programmatically check whether a sentence abides by it (not as ...
0
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1answer
87 views

Do men have more trouble than women pronouncing alveolo-palatals (like ɕ)? Or are there other physiological factors involved?

I'm curious based on would-be standard samples such as provided on Wikipedia; compare the same [male] speaker there trying to show the difference between (alveolo-palatal) ɕ and (palato-alveolar) ʃ. ...
3
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2answers
141 views

Is there a clear linguistic reason for Swiss German not being considered its own Germanic language?

This question has been inspired by the fact that I’ve recently heard the Swiss talk among each other and I started to dig deeper. Having done minors in Italian and American studies which each included ...
0
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1answer
48 views

How many marked cases are there for regular nouns in English?

How many cases are marked for regular nouns in English? I see online the following: The English language has just three cases: subjective, possessive and objective. Most nouns, many indefinite ...
-1
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1answer
28 views

Where to find native speakers for acceptability tests

I just wondered if any of y'all know if there's a website which can find you native speakers in various languages to get judgments on the acceptability of sentences.
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0answers
37 views

Why is PGmc *hanhaną cogante with *hōkaz, variant of *hakô (“hook”) and not with *hanhuz?

Why is PGmc *hanhaną cogante with *hōkaz, variant of *hakô (“hook”) and not with *hanhuz?
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0answers
16 views

Difference in meanings and use of words 'röra' and 'blanda' in Swedish [closed]

I do a research about the words of action of mixing something in Swedish. I found two frequent words 'röra' and 'blanda'. Is there any difference in the meanings and in the use of these words? Also ...
1
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1answer
42 views

theta role, infinitival phrase

What is the motivation to assume an unpronounced Pro when there is infinitival phrase in the context of phrase structure grammar? Eg. I hope to hit the target.
3
votes
1answer
83 views

Why is IPA Transcriptions of Georgian so inconsistent?

for example why do some sources transcribe ღ and ხ as /ɣ x/ while others transcribe it as /ʁ χ/ also ა is transcribed as /a/ by some while others transcribe it as /ɑ/ can anyone explain to me what's ...
1
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0answers
73 views

Why does it seem like (at least some) ancient European languages didn't have words for "yes" and "no"?

This is something that's bothered me since learning Latin in high school a decade or so ago--it seems like the concepts of "yes" and "no" that I, as a native speaker of English, ...
0
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0answers
17 views

Other name for "Predeterminer"/"Noun Premodifier" Dependency Relation?

I'm reading a paper which makes use of word dependency relationships from the Stanford Dependencies (SD) list. One such relation they refer to as "Predeterminer" and "Noun Premodifer&...
2
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0answers
50 views

Do bilinguals have smaller vocabularies in each language than monolinguals?

There is conflicting information online, and I believe search engines just push me the "pop facts" instead of the modern scientific consensus. Do native bilinguals have smaller vocabularies ...
1
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0answers
26 views

How do you draw a x-bar tree with negative inversion? [closed]

For example: 'Never was I so offended' There is already a T to C inversion with 'was', where do we put the word 'Never'? And how should we label it? AdvP or Neg?
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0answers
29 views

Etymology of መለስ

What is etymology of name መለስ in tigary language and its meaning? In south Arabian inscriptions was found name of "mns" was one of followers of hymirite king abraha. Is name relation to ...
2
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1answer
58 views

Textbook: “grammar behaves as if something is left behind after movement” — How so?

From An Introduction to Language and Linguistics by Fasold and Connor-Linton, on auxiliary movement: It may seem strange that movement is done in two steps, copying and deletion of the original, ...
0
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1answer
30 views

What are the processes and mechanisms that create homo(nyms/phones/semes)?

I suspect that homonyms and homophones may arise as multiple words from different languages are brought into a language, winding up with the same graphemic and/or phonemic representation. The same ...
0
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2answers
95 views

Is there a reason germanic languages are more different from other PIE languages?

I apoligize that this question is not very formalized. Maybe the assumption in the question is wrong. I am asking because looking at latin, greek and sanskrit, these languages seem quite similar to ...
2
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0answers
56 views

How do we shape our language's lexicon?

Society always drops, creates and re-uses words. But how does that happen? When do we get to decide what word to use, dump, or create, and in what method does that occur? Does someone invent a new ...
1
vote
1answer
42 views

Reading suggestions on the historic development of the Arabic language

Specifically, I am looking for something: That isn't just an introduction, but neither a comprehensive "everything we can currently say on the topic" kind of text. That goes back to about ...
0
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0answers
25 views

Is there any rule based algorithm that can assess whether a word has "neutral" connotation?

I would like to see a system that can convert any sentence to its most neutral phrasing. Maybe Wordnet, which is a network of related words, has this kind of semantic information inside it. However, I'...
4
votes
3answers
331 views

Can an object be in functional case A even though it's declined like case B?

Pardon my word choice, since I'm obviously lacking the background in linguistics. I know that language-specific questions are off-topic, yet I still like to use Finnish as an example, since it spawned ...
0
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1answer
42 views

In syntax trees, why aren't single-word phrases reduced to that word?

Why do phrases like "the car in Texas" break down into (NP (Det the) (N car) (PP (P in) (NP (N Texas)))) Why is the prepositional phrase "in Texas" constituted of the ...
0
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1answer
29 views

Materialization of nouns by adjectives

I am not even an amateur in linguistics, especially semantics. I want to use this idea in computational linguistics that I am also new there. The idea is how to deal with nouns that become more ...
0
votes
1answer
25 views

When are prepositional phrases sibling to leaf nodes?

In syntax trees in English, can prepositional phrases, modifying either verbs or nouns, ever be sibling to the verb or noun itself for example and not a verb phrase/noun phrase? I've heard the correct ...
0
votes
1answer
41 views

Can adjuncts modify nouns?

The Wikipedia page on adjuncts gives the example Yesterday, Lorna saw the dog in the garden. Notice that this example is ambiguous between whether the adjunct in the garden modifies the verb saw (in ...
0
votes
1answer
38 views

Is one way to define a word, to choose the word closest to its meaning and add distinctive qualities?

I'm trying to help people express themselves better, where they start with a thought or feeling inside their head, and then find the best word that matches it, before adding distinctive qualities. So ...
0
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0answers
40 views

Is there a definitive modern theory of semantics?

It seems like although there may be gaps in theories of phonology and syntax we have a pretty good understanding of the nature of the system. Syntax is some kind of computational system based on tree-...
0
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1answer
79 views

Software internationalisation - displaying gendered adjectives

I'm currently working on an internationalisation project for a large web application - initially we're just implementing French but more languages will follow in time. One of the issues we've come ...
1
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0answers
27 views

Full list of ISO-639-6

Is there a full list of codes in ISO-639-6:2009 (Codes for the representation of names of languages — Part 6: Alpha-4 code for comprehensive coverage of language variants) such as a cached mirror or ...
1
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0answers
18 views

can a binder bind two bindees where one is in secondary predicate and the other is in third predicate

(1)[Zhangsan] zhidao [ta] zuo de dui. Zhangsan know he do right (2)??[Zhangsan] zhidao [ta] zuo le zhejian shiqing. Zhangsan know he do ASP this thing Huang1988 proposed that the ...
1
vote
1answer
46 views

Wikipedia sound samples: vocal fry?

In seems to me that in Wikipedia's sound samples for the vowel sounds, there's often some vocal fry, especially in the back vowels. Vowels like ɑ æ ä e and to a lesser extent: ɤ o ɜ œ. Do you concur? ...
-1
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0answers
9 views

What is a recent review article over state of the art sentence segmentation techniques?

Is there a recent review article summarising all known sentence segmentation methods?
-1
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0answers
40 views

Did the word "until" come to exist by prothesis?

According to Wikipedia, prothesis is "the addition of a sound or syllable at the beginning of a word without changing the word's meaning or the rest of its structure". In its entry for the ...

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