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167 views

Why does the Malayalam script have seemingly redundant ways to kill implicit vowels?

In the Malayalam script there are two ways to kill implicit vowels. The most widely applicable is the chandrakkala diacritic, similar to the virama that appears in other Brahmic scripts. There are ...
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126 views

Can “lexical development” and “vocabulary development” be used interchangeably?

I haven't quite been able to find the answer to this question online. I'm writing a paper for my first linguistics class and I realized one of the sources that I've been using refers to vocabulary ...
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52 views

Term for universally-used quote with additional, non-compositional meaning

There exist certain fixed expressions which people use to convey quite specific meanings and (at least to me) always invoke a famous saying which is assumed to be common knowledge, such as I am not a ...
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148 views

Month names variants

Regarding the question on TeX.stackexchange I am looking for generally used languages that use different cases for their month and day names. Based on Czech and Slovak languages I can imagine two ...
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84 views

Using (e.g.) Stanford NLP for retrieving specific “indirect” objects

I am a computer scientist using Stanford NLP for extracting a Semantic Graph from plain text. Through this tool I am already getting the universal dependencies but now I want to get all the possible ...
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423 views

Past participle agreement in French

Background (skip if you know French) In French, to generate the past tense, you use the past participle of the verb, attaching in front a conjugated form of avoir or être. For example: J'ai mangé. (I ...
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107 views

quantifiers adjoining a verb phrase?

I am working through Heim and Kratzer textbook 'Semantics in generative grammar' and there is a question in it that keeps puzzling me (pp.220); they give an example of a sentence which is supposed ...
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390 views

Understanding Symbols in Chomsky's *Logical Structure of Linguistic Theory*

I've been reading Chomsky's The Logical Structure of Linguistic Theory, and have come up rather suddenly against a stumbling block. On page 133, he uses without explanation some notation that's ...
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234 views

The expressive power of languages : Information content in a sentence : How do we measure it

What is your name Isme shoma chi e Two sentences - same content. My question is about the way to measure information content in a language. How do we do this? Because quite evidently count of the ...
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82 views

metrical analysis software for ancient greek

Does anyone know any good metrical analysis software for ancient Greek? Which are the best ones and which are the most user friendly?
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248 views

Statistic data on average morpheme-to-word ratios

I wonder whether there is any statistic data on morpheme-to-word ratio of certain languages. Is this something that can be and has been measured? The languages I am most interested in are the ...
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102 views

What is the difference between AUG and CCG?

What is the difference between Applicative Universal Grammar and Combinatory Categorial Grammar? They both use type inference rules to define their grammars. Is it simply that CCG uses combinatory ...
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79 views

Kuryłowicz on cases and prepositions

I've read Kuryłowicz's classic paper "Le problème du classement des cas" and I'm not sure how to interpret what he says about the difference between case affixes and prepositions. Does he in effect ...
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119 views

Do principal parts necessarily belong to the same lexeme?

A recent thread touched on the question of whether Slavic aspectual pairs should be considered part of the same lexeme or not. I wonder if the same logic can be applied to the principal parts of ...
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88 views

Reference for a standard, systematic, conceptual categorization of count and noncount nouns?

I'm aware of the use of the terms 'count nouns' and 'mass nouns', but this dichotomy doesn't seem to lend itself to a viable explanation to Japanese students of which nouns in English allow for ...
4
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547 views

Is there any corpus for idioms?

I'm looking for a corpus for English (American, GB, Australian) idioms. Preferably created manually, because I already have two, but they are rather small and were built semi-automatically.
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191 views

Why the E- in Etruscan?

The Etruscans had several names in antiquity: the Greeks called them Tyrsenoi or Tyrrhenoi, the Roman Tusci or Etrusci (and their country Etruria). All these names seem to be related, ultimately ...
4
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183 views

L1 memories being recalled in my L2

The situation is as follows: I have been studying my L2 for approximately 4 years. I have spent a total of 10 months immersed in the L2 environment. My current stint has been for 5 months and counting....
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569 views

Mandarin Chinese syllable and tone frequency (not character frequency)

There's plenty of good resources on Chinese character frequency available. But I'm wondering about syllable frequency independent of characters, and also tone frequency both separate and in ...
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93 views

Are there any natural languages with exclusively asyndetic coordination?

Are there any languages with exclusively asyndetic coordination, i.e. in which constituents are coordinated solely by juxtaposition, with disjunctive (or) or adversative (but) meaninigs communicated ...
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310 views

Dictionary with real IPA and English sandhi rules?

I don't like English dictionaries that use pseudo-IPA to indicate pronunciation. I've seen none indicating that most plosives should be aspirated, but when they're in "sp", "st" and other combinations ...
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110 views

Are there any natural languages in the subordination of a clause is marked only in the matrix clause?

In English, and many other languages, subordination is often marked in the subordinate clause. So complement clauses can, for example, begin with a complementizer such as English "that." e.g. "I ...
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360 views

Is there any evidence pro/contra Du Bois' Preferred Argument Structure (ergative patterning in discourse)?

In The Discourse Basis of Ergativity published in Language in 1987, John W. Du Bois proposed a theory which stated that (p. 850) [universally] the distribution of new information vs. old ...
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128 views

Is there count/mass distinction in European Portuguese as it is in English?

It is said that European Portuguese has count/mass distinction as many Indo-European languages. However I noticed out that all products/items at stores in Portugal are labeled in singular form. In ...
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377 views

Where can I find references for how to build interlinear gloss for Chinese?

I find building interlinear gloss for Chinese to be difficult without any sort of reference material for what to call different grammatical particles etc. Is there such a reference available online?
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204 views

Is there a prohibition on stems starting with /g/ in PIE?

Is there a law that prohibits PIE stems starting with what traditionally reconstructed as non-palatal /g/? So far I encountered with only one stem that the sources consistently reconstruct with this ...
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0answers
500 views

Tool for manually POS tagging texts

I'm interested if there is a text or set of texts where each word is correctly POS tagged. I know there are algorithms that can associate POS tags to the words, but there are always many of ...
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98 views

Is the taxonomy of Mongol dialects in Inner Mongolia changing?

Mongols are a tribal society: they form numerous tribes and clans. During feudalistic periods, there were political categorizations. During Qing rule, tribal units were used to define political units ...
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500 views

PIE Aspect: (Im)perfective or (Non-)progressive?

According to Wikipedia Proto-Indo-European had four tense-aspects, the first being stative and the latter three being eventive: stative aspect, perfective aspect, and past and present tense of ...
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513 views

Types of questions and questioning “ordinality”

I would like to know if there is a system for classifying the types of questions that can be asked in languages. In other words, how are sentences that query the why, where, what, who, when, and how ...
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79 views

Historical changes from 'not yet' to 'not again' and vice-versa

A two part question. Are there attested historical changes whereby a construction C in some language means 'not yet', and then C changes in meaning so that it means 'not again' at a later time (or ...
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115 views

Determining how similar audio is to human speech

I was suggested to cross post this question of mine from Stack Overflow. Hopefully my question is within the bounds of this question board! I am searching for a method of determining the similarity ...
4
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236 views

Patterns of accent changes by non-native English speakers

I am looking for a list of 'accent changes', or pronunciation inaccuracies, non-native English speakers commonly make when speaking English words. The list would obviously be native language specific ...
4
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0answers
355 views

How to decrease CRF++ feature function set?

I have a problem with the CRF++ Package. CRF++ cannot handle large training parts-of-speech corpora (large tagset and large number of words). In fact, the number of feature functions automatically ...
4
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1answer
65 views

What is the consensus on Sumerian auslauts?

(Or Auslaute if you want to be pretentious, I suppose.) In Sumerian, there seems to be uncertainty about the status of final consonants in CVC signs. For example, the unmarked form of "heart"...
4
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1answer
214 views

Loans in Indo-Aryan languages indicating possible migration routes

I am aware of only few Uralic loans into Indo-Aryan languages that show migrations from Eurasia to India, Iran etc. What are typical examples of loan words that are unquestionably a result of a ...
4
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1answer
200 views

Why must adversative coordination be binary?

At Glottopedia we read that adversative coordination expresses semantic contrast between the coordinands. In English, adversative coordination is usually accomplished with “but,” as in these sentences....
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57 views

Noun phrases in dictionaries

Today's Oxford English Dictionary word-of-the-day ("ice master") reminded me of a question that's been on my mind for some time: What criteria do dictionary-makers use to decide whether a ...
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32 views

Interleaving (Cross serial dependency) using context sensitive grammars

I saw from different sources that Context Free Grammars are insufficient to generate cross serial dependencies (interleaving) in languages and it would require mildly context sensitive grammars to do ...
3
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0answers
55 views

Definiteness and indefiniteness

Is there a term that encompasses both terms at once? Suppose I am writing a paper titled [Single-word-here] in Language X, where the required word will refer to both definiteness and indefiniteness. ...
3
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0answers
78 views

What was the original pronounciation of the Thai consonant symbols?

The Thai language was devised to serve two main purposes: to write Thai words and to write Sanskrit (or Pali) words. For this reason, the Thai alphabet has one consonant symbol for each Sanskrit sound ...
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32 views

Inverse scope reading

It is well known that any sentence with two or more quantifiers will result in in multiple possible readings depending on the ordering of the quantifiers. To take a known example (1), there will be ...
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43 views

How to incorporate sentence end marker in POS tagging with viterbi algorithm?

I am self-reading the NLP book by Dan Jurafsky. In the book, the following equation is given for incorporating the sentence end marker in the Viterbi algorithm for POS tagging. I am confused why the ...
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94 views

List of initial consonant clusters in English

At a certain point in a macro I have to determine whether shifting the final consonant(s) of one syllable to the next syllable results in a valid onset. Can anyone point me to a complete list of ...
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39 views

Is there a grammar of Middle Tamil?

I am studying the Thiruppavai, a Middle Tamil poem, as a linguist and I wondered if any of you by any chance know of resources pertaining the grammar of Middle Tamil. Overviews of the history of Tamil ...
3
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57 views

Differences in realization of intrusive-r and linking-r?

Are there any good papers that have investigated this? I seemed to notice this with some speakers on television that their intrusive-r's seemed less pronounced than their linking-r's. I did find a ...
3
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113 views

Origin of English's phrasal possessive

This site claimed that the phrasal possessive in English came from French influence, while the synthetic possessive is Germanic. Germanic Pattern: the king’s son - cf. German "des Königs Sohn&...
3
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27 views

latex package gb4e: How to make the first line “running text”

I am writing a grammatical description of a language using the package gb4e to produce the interlinear glosses. The editor has asked that the first line of the gloss appear as running text, i.e. is ...
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0answers
77 views

Where did English get its perfect tense(s) from?

Apologies if this is too basic, but I know very little about linguistics and figured this would be a good place to ask. English seems like it draws from several other langiuages, notably the romance ...
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39 views

Resolving adjoined relative clause with head nouns

In languages with adjoined relative clause, How do you know which relative clause maps to which head noun for adjoined relative clause if there are 2 head nouns each with an adjoined relative clause?

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