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66 views

What is the difference between theta-role, theta-grid and argument?

I know that theta-role has the distinctions like agent, theme, goal, etc., but all of them refer to entity, right? And argument can refer to both entity and sentence? Could you please explain them as ...
3
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0answers
88 views

Does the stem of a word carry the sense information of its inflections?

From what I understand the lexeme or lemma of a word carries the sense information of the word, and hence for an inflected form like tablets, it can have a different lemma, each one for each sense of ...
3
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57 views

OCR for alaska native languges

I have a physical dictionary of a language that has very few speakers. I have scanned it and would like to OCR it as it is over 300 pages long. The problem is It has characters like ł and ŋ. I have ...
3
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0answers
39 views

Does the positivity/negativity of an ERP tell us anything at all?

In neurolinguistics, we come across event-related potentials such as N400 for semantic unexpectedness or P600 for error correction. Is there anything at all, linguistic or not, that we can infer from ...
3
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0answers
61 views

Tools for converting text to logical form

What's the State of the Art in software for converting text to some sort of logical form? Pros and con's of different packages approaches, if more than one exists?
3
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0answers
43 views

Is there any IPA TTS software that also considers tone

I want to create audio files for a conlect of Chinese I am studying, and therefore tone is one aspect I have to consider. Many of the IPA to speech software I've seen so far don't consider tone (or ...
3
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0answers
86 views

How can I calculate the morphological similarity between sentences?

For my bachelor thesis i am probing various text similarity metrics for how much they incorporate different aspects of sentences. To get those aspects I use datasets that are annotated for semantic ...
3
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0answers
133 views

Measuring lexical similarity between two arbitrary languages

Pardon me if this question is naive, but I am wondering if there is a way to quantify lexical similarity between two corpora of text, each written in different languages whose alphabets differ greatly....
3
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0answers
106 views

Accurate English terminology for “complément du nom” and for “complément/complemento” as a general term

I am looking at this kind of French sentences: Le directeur de la banque Un directeur de banque Le livre de l'élève Le livre de français Having done some research about English grammar terminology ...
3
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0answers
109 views

Formal, mathematically-minded introduction to generative grammar?

I'm looking for a formal, mathematically-minded introduction to contemporary generative grammar theory, where all the concepts, such as dominance, c-command, government, etc. are defined formally in ...
3
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0answers
40 views

Can first order logic represent a past occurring adverbial dependent clause with a present main clause to form the perfect tense?

Can first order logic represent a past occurring adverbial dependent clause with a present main clause to form the perfect tense? Is this the way to represent an adverbial dependent clause with first ...
3
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0answers
88 views

Sound laws in Balto-Slavic and Slavic changes

What are the regular sound laws that explain the modern form of the words in baltic and slavic languages? I am aware of the centum/satem separation, which already helps to identify a lot of cognates ...
3
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0answers
144 views

Why does “also” in German and in English denote different things?

There are some words in the German language that may seem to be familiar to a native English speaker, but in the end, it turns out that they are so-called "false friends" and have different meanings. ...
3
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0answers
94 views

Linguistic overview/critique of the Tomatis method

Some advertisements for language training material (like this and this) have a dubious claim that each language has its own frequency range of sounds, or a "pass band", so that listening to sound, ...
3
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0answers
44 views

Hesitation markers like “uh, ehm” versus repetition

When listening to my 5-year-old son telling me a little story about dinosaurs, he used a lot of repetition in the following way: "The triceratops… the triceratops used his horns… the triceratops ...
3
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0answers
39 views

Is there a term that describes a sentence from which you can infer the meaning of a word?

When learning new Chinese words, I write down an example sentence from which I can infer its meaning. This way, when I've forgotten the word, I can simply read the sentence and deduce (or remember) ...
3
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0answers
68 views

Does a synchronically reduced or diachronically changed trill /r/ often become an [ɾ] rather than [ʐ] and why?

In the phonology of a series of languages, /r/ exists as a trill, and is reduced into a flap in informal speeches or in a syllable-final position. Why is it happened to be a flap, not a fricative? I ...
3
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0answers
37 views

vocabulary and notation for syntactic changes

As a layman I have picked up the terminology and notation for changes in phonology. But I know very little about diachronic changes in syntax other than that they happen: things like shift from SOV ...
3
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2answers
213 views

Compositional semantic: Type of conjunctions

My question is in regard to semantic type theory in connection with syntax. I understand the underlying structure of what type a certain type of phrase is ( i.e., proper names are <e>, verbs can ...
3
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0answers
62 views

Are there any recent studies on vowels of PRS?

Consonants and their phenomena are well studied for PRS (Puerto Rican Spanish). However, vowels and their phenomena are less well known. Known vowel phenomena in the dialect are unstressed/final vowel ...
3
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0answers
45 views

What (if anything) can be inferred about the way a vowel is articulated from the fact that it has well defined higher formants?

I've been experimenting with analysing vowels in Praat. Sometimes it shows a clear F4 (which seems to mean that F4 has a narrow bandwidth - I don't know whether amplitude comes into it as well) and ...
3
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0answers
49 views

Aside from English clause adverbs, are there other suborders?

A suborder is a set of related expression elements which are more strictly ordered with respect to each other than they are with respect to other expression elements. This is my own term. I offer ...
3
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0answers
148 views

Why don't modern Romance languages have the verb “to stand”?

I noticed that modern Romance languages don't have a specific word for the verb "to stand", or - you could say - don't consider the notion of standing to be a verb. For example, in Spanish - you can ...
3
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0answers
98 views

The schwa in [meɪkəθ] for *maketh* in KJV English

This Wiki article seems to suggest that words like makes had lost their final syllable schwa in normal speech already by Chaucer's time (palmeres > palmers is the example they give). The rule, as ...
3
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0answers
82 views

How do children learn to identify different languages?

A child can be raised in a sufficiently bilingual context that they learn two languages simultaneously, e.g. English & Spanish, Norwegian and Saami. The end product is that they have two ...
3
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0answers
42 views

Searching for an English Whats-app Corpus

I am searching an English Whats-app Corpus in order to analyse a linguistic phenomena. I had some difficulties to find one and maybe some of you can help me out. It is only for corpus driven study and ...
3
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0answers
60 views

Languages with direct-inverse verbal inflection or hierarchical alignment but no verbal inflection for person

Some languages have direct-inverse marking on verbs or hierarchical alignment. I'm wondering whether there are any attested examples of minimal direct-inverse systems where the verb is obligatorily ...
3
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0answers
63 views

Which are the social differences which lead to the variance in the way to address a person?

My question is: Which are the social differences which lead to the variance in the way to address a person? An example of the difference is T-V distinction some languages abolished it while others ...
3
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0answers
55 views

State of the art in controlled english languages?

https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Controlled_natural_language lists some controlled languages, of which Attempto Controlled English seems to be the most recent. However, are there any Attempto extensions, ...
3
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0answers
59 views

Languages with a common, productive construction for marking heterogeneous groups

Are there any languages with a construction similar in meaning to an associative plural or elliptical construction that's used frequently within the language? I'm particularly interested in a ...
3
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0answers
42 views

Data set for reasoning?

I am looking data set for reasoning. Basically, more examples like this one: 1. I like food. 2. Cake is food. Conclusion: I like cake.
3
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0answers
28 views

Are there standards to compare naturalness of synthetic voices?

Say that I wanted to compare Siri and Google Voice in terms of naturalness or similarity to human speech. Obviously I could give a bunch of people a survey and collate their opinions — but I wonder if ...
3
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0answers
64 views

Sound Changes From Proto Bengali to Bengali

What are the sound changes that occur from Proto Bengali to Bengali? In which order did they occur historically? Ex. PB Būdhā became B Buro PB Karisi became B koriš PB dahī became B doi
3
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0answers
67 views

Computational linguist's estimate of minimum hours of speech needed to train a neural net to recognize speech

From a computational linguist's point of view, is there a lower limit on the number of hours of speech needed to train a neural net to translate speech to text? An estimate from CMU is 3000-5000 hours ...
3
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0answers
35 views

Does UG supply default values for parameters (in P&P syntax)?

Principles And Parameters syntax posited that along with some principles, there were parametric settings for certain properties, which are either "on" or "off" in a language. Examples are the "head-...
3
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0answers
75 views

Does StanfordNLP have a problem with adverbs?

I suspect not, and I'm being dumb, but ... Usain ran quickest. is parsed (https://corenlp.run) as NNP VBZ JJS. Why JJS (Adjective, superlative) and not RBS (Adverb, superlative)? Using extended ...
3
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0answers
55 views

Is there an english news corpus available to download for between 1900 and 201X (free or low cost)

I'm attempting a word embedding analysis (think underlying meaning and implications, but computational) of certain keywords through time in the English language, but I am having some difficulty ...
3
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0answers
64 views

Learning a script as an adult

It is well-known that it is difficult to compete with native speakers when learning a language as an adult. But is there a similar phenomenon with writing systems? Can non-natives (e.g. of Arabic or ...
3
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0answers
51 views

Resources on Middle Eastern Common Greek in the First Century?

QUESTION: I would like to ask if anyone knows any decent resources on how native middle easterners, particularly in Judea, might have pronounced greek koine in the first century. GOAL: My primary ...
3
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0answers
20 views

Forced Aligner doesn’t work on denoised sound file

I’m using p2fa to do aligning for a sound file. Because the speaker has some heavy breath that was misinterpreted as words, I used praat to denoise it, and it sounds pretty good. However, p2fa almost ...
3
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0answers
73 views

How is “In we go” syntactically valid?

Various simple sentences occur in English that I can't explain precisely. "In we went!" "Off he goes!" Is this an arcane idiom from an earlier grammar, or is there a general rule that can be ...
3
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0answers
74 views

Confusion over Adverbial Adjuncts (X' Bar Theory)

For my Syntax class this semester, we've been asked to look at a language more in depth and try to develop X-Bar compatible rules for it. In doing so, I've come across a reoccurring problem that may ...
3
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1answer
965 views

Phrase structure tree of a Wh question

The sentence would be "Whose dirty underwear is this?". I assume that the base (is that called deep structure sentence?) would be "This is whose dirty underwear" but I'm not sure what ...
3
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0answers
33 views

What is the term for a specific type of collocation analysis

I am trying to write a text processing script in R. I am interested in finding a word (from a list of words I have selected) only if it is in the same sentence as another word. Eventually I would ...
3
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0answers
86 views

Behaviour of attributive nouns in foreign languages

A common construction in some foreign languages, but seemly not in English, is to use a noun where we would use an adjective. The two forms are: A: PRONOUN "BE" ADJECTIVE B: PRONOUN "HAVE" ∅-...
3
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0answers
49 views

Feature values [+/- interpretable], how these values are set?

In Minimalist Program (Chomsky, 1995) and in Derivation by Phase (DbP) (Chomsky, 2000, 2005, 2008), call it Phase Theory, features enter narrow syntax with predefined values, these values are binary (-...
3
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0answers
49 views

How often is MP taught by teaching GB first?

When a student starts learning syntax,1 how common is it to first teach them GB (or a stripped-down, GB-flavored approach), and then teach MP once they've got the hang of it? This was obviously the ...
3
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0answers
73 views

How are LH words assigned stress in Latin if we assume maximally bimoraic feet?

I recently came across a paper, "The Quantitative Trochee in Latin" (by R. Armin Mester, 1994) that seems to argue that feet in Latin were "strictly" bimoraic. The arguments that Mester gives for ...
3
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0answers
49 views

Is there such a thing as an articulatory home base for a given language, and how could it be characterized?

I've been mulling over the idea that articulatory gestures should be looked as excursions from a home base that varies according to language and accent, and that defining sounds just in terms of the ...
3
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0answers
117 views

Words per minute - language list?

I have an idea on how fast a Dutch speaker speaks: 130 wpm = medium 160 wpm = fast 100 wpm = slow I'd like to have that same knowledge about other languages. Is there a list somewhere that ...

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