8

why the harmonic frequencies are integer multiples of the fundamental frequency? Physics! Pretty much all of the physical processes that create vibrations at a base frequency, also create vibrations at integer multiples of that base frequency. This includes the way the human vocal chords work. You can artificially synthesize a sound with any frequencies ...


6

Well, yes and no. Vocal F0 range is mainly determined by the length and thickness of the vocal folds. Inasmuch as neck circumference correlates with the size of the vocal folds inside the neck, you could find a loose, indirect correlation between neck circumference and F0 range. For example, adults generally have thicker necks than children, and they ...


6

Is point 2 above still true? Not any more, thankfully! If not, why was it so difficult? Back when this paper was written, spectrograms of sound were right on the cutting edge of technology. They generally involved hooking a microphone up to a huge bank of band-pass filters, each of which was receptive to a certain frequency range, and making ink marks ...


5

It’s not practical or reasonable to scale sound intensity linearly. It’s impractical because the resulting visuals would be unreadable, and it’s unreasonable because (simplifying a little) humans perceive loudness on a logarithmic scale. To crib a common example, imagine you’re listening to a single violin. To double that loudness, you’d need 10 violins, not ...


5

All segments were given an acoustic definition in the feature theories of Jakobson, Fant & Halle (1951) and Jakobson & Halle (1956). Many of the features were passed down to Chomsky & Halle (1968) where the definitions were supplemented with an articulatory definition. This table compares the articulatory and acoustic definitions of the J&H ...


5

It is possible, in principle, to distinguish consonant place of articulation with spectrograms, within certain limits of precision, but only given certain prior knowledge. It used to be a standard exercise that students would be given a spectrogram and they had to transcribe it. The technique involves figuring out the formants of the consonant, usually via ...


4

Bartlomiej Plichta has written a Praat script which automates your first solution, shelling out to the open-source ImageMagick package to do the colour conversion: http://bartus.us/blog/?p=579 Along the lines of your second solution (using something other than Praat): There were a fair number of free and commercial acoustic analysis programs around before ...


4

This may be a useful overview, also this (ultimately, Johnson “Acoustic and Auditory Phonetics” chapter 9, not online). Nasals have anti-formants at 1100 Hz and 3300 Hz, laterals at 2100 Hz, and the anti-formant of laterals is not as strong (the nasal passage is much larger so absorbs more sound energy). The formants are not as close together for laterals as ...


4

You can't use the standard f0 analysis. There's no such thing as standard. You need a framework e.g. Autosegmental-meterical Phonology (AM) supposing you are going to work in the phonological category But again this is when you are going to do a scientific study for a non-scientific observation you can take guess by looking at the pitch track but it's not ...


4

Phones are a "thing" because they were the first decent method of objectively and accurately recording unwritten languages (in the 19th century). Back then, if you heard a Lushootseed speaker translate English "The bear ate the salmon", the standard practice was to guess with untrained English-speaker ears that the person said "Oo uhshluh tube tea skuchicuss ...


4

Richard Wright discusses this w.r.t. Tsou, which has a number of initial stop clusters, e.g. pka:ko "to escape", tpihi "mend cloth" (and other kinds of clusters, but stop clusters are the most challenging). There are a number of strategies for making consonants without vowel transitions perceptible, and in the case of stop clusters, there is a high-amplitude ...


4

Your spectrogram is not clear. You should use a narrow-band spectrogram to see formants efficiently. So change your settings. To obtain this visualisation, you should use a small window length as it is indicated here: http://www.fon.hum.uva.nl/praat/manual/Intro_3_2__Configuring_the_spectrogram.html After that, if it appears harmonics with a high energy, so ...


4

This is just a subjective feeling that really depends on your native language or the languages you are used to speaking. Other languages are fine with this particular combination. For example, in my native Czech it is quite fine to have non-voiced + non-voiced st- or voiced + voiced zd-. But you cannot have zt-. You can write it, but due to voicing ...


3

It’s true that there is a learning curve, but I’m not sure what the alternative is. What does ‘f0 analysis’ mean here? How can you interpret changes in pitch, intensity, duration without an interpretive framework?The point of ToBI is to assign meaning to the physical observations (e.g., pitch, duration), which otherwise do not have meaning. To do this, pitch ...


3

None of the above. The waveform display program shows the raw sampled numbers (not anything in decibels), but there can also be an intensity curve, in dB, superimposed on the waveform display. In Praat, the string of numbers that is the waveform is typically scaled to a real between -1 and 1, but underlyingly (in the input file) it is a 16 (or so) bit signed ...


3

I'm not aware of any work on this topic in linguistic phonetics, but there may be something out there in musical acoustics for voice. The main problem for quantifying inharmonicity is detecting harmonics exactly, and the main issues can be seen using Praat. Frequency information comes in fixed-width bins which is inversely related to the length of the ...


3

I also don't know of any ready-made tool that does this. It would be very helpful to know roughly what you were hoping to use this for, since that would dictate exactly what kind of tool you would need to use. Praat of course has the ability to quantify many of the phonetic correlates of stress, such as pitch and volume, so if that's all you need then there ...


3

Searching online returns quite a few results, some of which are quite tailored to your needs: Tepperman, J., & Narayanan, S. (2005, March). Automatic syllable stress detection using prosodic features for pronunciation evaluation of language learners. In 2005 IEEE International Conference on Acoustics, Speech, and Signal Processing (ICASSP) Proceedings (...


3

This is somewhat surprisingly hard to determine. The best study on the topic that I know of is Denzer-King's study of Tlingit. The basic strategy is to compare the frequency and amplitude of higher formants in the release. A very quick synopsis is that the frequency separation of F2 and F3 may be much greater in uvular compared to velars; F2 may be higher ...


3

Unfortunately, the answer is no. The space of vowels is continuous: given any two vowels, you can find a midpoint between them, and that's also a perfectly valid vowel that people can pronounce. But for consonants, that doesn't work. What would be the average of a bilabial plosive and a labiodental nasal, for example? There's no real point of articulation ...


2

You can either downmix it to mono, or delete one channel. choosing one over the other depends on your situation. if your channels are identical you can delete one, if your channels are not identical you can downmix them in one channel so that you will not lose any data. To downmix your audio in Praat go to Convert - Convert to mono To extract one channel, ...


2

In the objects window, choose Convert > Convert to mono This converts your recording from stereo to mono by overlaying the two channels. Then draw as usual. If the two channels differ substantially and you want only one of them (instead of a mixture of both), you can load the recording into Audacity and split the stereo track into two mono tracks.


2

Sonic Visualiser is one of the programs I've been using to view/analyze my audio. It is freeware but it's a pretty decent prog imo. It does have many options to adjust your Spectrogram and a couple other options to get creative with. I mostly use it to listen to my techno tracks ;) Another nice option this prog has is where ever you put your mouse ...


2

A band-pass filter is a device that passes frequencies within a certain range and rejects (attenuates) frequencies outside that range. That gives you information about a particular frequency range. An electromagnetic oscillograph is an oscillograph which measures variations of electric current by having it go through a magnetic coil....Some models ... were .....


2

My first job as a graduate assistant in linguistics in 1965-66 was in Ilse Lehiste's acoustic phonetics lab at Ohio State, and for a time, I spent many hours running a Kay Sonagraph, making sonagrams (spectrograms) from taped informant sessions. I don't know how the variable bandpass filter was implemented, but you could see what was happening. The ...


2

The number you get in Query ---> Get Intensity... is the mean intensity of the sound which for the sound file I have is 81.49346601915424 dB when I open the sound file in View and edit and select the whole sound file I will approximately get the same number: The windows showing spectrum analysis : As an alternative you can also select Spectrum ---> ...


2

I was interested too so I looked up this lecture. The definition it provides in the second slide is illuminating: The cepstrum is defined as the inverse DFT of the log magnitude of the DFT of a signal Okay, so it seems that the steps to get the cepstrum are: Perform a Discreet Fourier Transform (DFT) on your time domain signal. Take the logarithm of ...


2

Mechanical and electrical components are analogous. Ideal resistors are mathematically identical to ideal dashpots, ideal inductors are identical to ideal springs, and ideal capacitors are identical to ideal masses (see for example, Analogous Electrical and Mechanical Systems). This means that mechanical filters, like those that shape speech in the vocal ...


2

Though I haven't worked with an oscilloscope directly but I presume both are the same. sine wave in oscilloscope sine wave in Praat


2

MusicalLinguist answer is excellent, but I thought I'd point you in the direction of some interesting literatute. There is research done into the relationship between F0 and physiological factors, but not strictly in linguistics. It's found a lot in Animal vocalisations though. Here's a paper by some researchers at Queen Mary in London. http://www....


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