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The distinction is between arguments (sometimes also called complements) and adjuncts. In general, arguments are expressions that complete a predicate, and that are required by the predicate. Adjuncts, on the other hand, are not required by the predicate, but they do add (usually temporal or locative) information. Here are some examples: (1) Paul lives in ...


7

The examples given in the question are not examples of resultative adjuncts. Resultative adjuncts give the result of an action, e.g. We scrubbed the tub clean. The situation worried us silly. The music soothed her into a meditative state. The expressions clean, silly, and into a meditative state are resultative adjuncts because they give the result of ...


4

Short answer '[I]n the many places where I was guilty of the reprehensible and shockingly common confusion of the notions of "adverb" and "adverbial"; these defects, for which I hang my head in shame, I have corrected wherever I have found them.' McCawley The Syntactic Phenomena of English, 2nd Ed,(p. xii) In the quote above, McCawley ...


4

As you correctly figured out, at nightand for his girlfriend start with a preposition followed by a noun phrase. This is called a prepositional phrase (= PP): The head (= the element which determines the grammatical properties and the main meaning of the phrase) is a preoposition, and the noun phrase is a complement that is selected by the prepositional head....


3

As is, your question has no answer, since you haven't mentioned what theory or whose classification you were interested in. Here's what Hilde Hasselgård writes on this: "A striking feature of descriptions of adverbials is that there are hardly any two grammars that use the same classification scheme and/or terminology" (Hasselgård 2010: 21). For more ...


2

Adjuncts and complements are different. An adjunct is not necessary, and adds extra information. A complement is necessary in order to complete the meaning: [S]He [V]put [O]some salt [C]in the soup. The verb put must have a complement saying where something is put. Without the complement (in the soup), the clause would not be complete. We cannot just say ...


2

At the university I was taught those are predicatives, and these are sentences with compound nominative predicates (like in "He is drunk). Your bold words are adjectives, and the verbs ("entered", "left") in such sentences are, actually, play the role of the linking verbs (like "be" or "become"), although many otherwise action verbs can be used as the verbal ...


2

Complements are arguments, in the sense of logic. Your example is a nominalization of the sentence "Latin influence(d) English strongly." In the sentence, "Latin" and "English" are subject and object, making them arguments and therefore complements (while "strong(ly)" is not). So, they should also be counted as complements in the nominalized form. I think ...


2

Somewhere there is a crime happening. In the sentence above from the Robocop films the word somewhere is functioning as a Locative Adjunct. Notice that it can appear either at the beginning or end of the clause: There is a crime happening somewhere. Notice also that the word there cannot move with the word somewhere: *Is a crime happening somewhere ...


2

The high notes returned to his compositions towards the end of his life, [which suggests he was hearing the works that were taking shape in his imagination]. Yes, it is an adjunct, more specifically a supplementary (non-defining) relative clause. The antecedent of "which" is the entire preceding clause, thus "R suggests he was hearing the works ...", ...


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I think you're right, and iirc this is what McCawley argues in Syntactic Phenomena of English. The antecedent of "which" in the appositive relative clause is the S "The high notes ... his life". Such relative clauses are placed as "adposits" immediate after the antecedents of the relative pronoun, so the relative clause goes after the sentence "The high ...


2

Prepositional phrases are always tricky and depend on the semantic frame dictated by the verb and related participants. You can use FrameNet for example to see the set of known frames for a given verb. In your example work takes a PP{at} as a theme so it is a participant thus a complement. Teach on the other hand takes only a recipient or a topic as ...


1

The common meaning of "adjunct" on its own is as "adverbial adjunct". So the Wikipedia page spends most of its time talking about adverbial adjuncts and even acknowledges this: Most discussions of adjuncts focus on adverbial adjuncts, that is, on adjuncts that modify verbs, verb phrases, or entire clauses But you can have non-adverbial ...


1

Actually, "alcohol" is an argument of the verb "ban" (not the noun "ban"). Note the interpretation of "sudden" as adverbial in "a sudden alcohol ban". The NP is a nominalization of a sentence whose main verb is "ban".


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[1] He kept it handy. [2] He kept it in the drawer. Briefly, Huddleston & Pullum in CGEL pp. 257-8, note that there is a structural similarity between the predicative complement in [1] and the locative complement in [2], which suggests that assigning a location to something is comparable to assigning it a property. They argue that one respect in ...


1

Adjuncts do modify verbs: how was the action done - well or poorly? The bigger problem is with complements: "The waiter treated me well." differs from "The doctor treated me [well]." in that the first 'well' is obligatory ("The waiter treated me" would mean that my meal was free!), but the second is not ("The doctor treated me"). Both forms (adverbial or ...


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Edit: As Araucaria pointed out, OP (and consequently I) misinterpreted the sentence for Somwhere there a crime is happening/Somehwere there, there is a crime happening, which, however, is not what the sentence says; so my below answer only applies to the other assumption, not to the original sentence. I would argue that there is the head for the following ...


1

It's an adverb, using McCawley's definition of adverb as "a modifier of something other than a noun". (I don't think your term "adjunct" conveys anything useful.) IIRC, Joseph Emonds characterized "right" as a PP (prepositional phrase) modifier, but also proposed that some bare prepositions were actually objectless PPs.


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