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20 votes
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Why are some Old English suffixes marked with a preceding asterisk?

The first thing to realise here is that that is not Old English. Read the quote carefully: an *-ian verb-forming suffix in Germanic That means the form is Proto-Germanic, rather than Old English. It’...
Janus Bahs Jacquet's user avatar
10 votes
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What are some of the most prefixing languages?

Athabaskan languages would be the "most prefixing", in (a) being almost or in fact exclusively prefixing and (b) allowing many prefixes (11 positions). Papers on Navaho include this, as well as J. ...
user6726's user avatar
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9 votes
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Are the inflectional endings in English known to have evolved from separate words or do they go too far back into PIE to know?

English is generally regarded as having the following 7 inflectional suffixes. All of them have been suffixes since Proto-Indoeuropean, but most have followed a rather circuitous path along the way. ...
Mark Beadles's user avatar
  • 6,860
7 votes

Are inflectional morphemes considered affixes in English?

Wikipedia captures the usual understanding of the term: Affixes may be derivational, like English -ness and pre-, or inflectional, like English plural -s and past tense -ed. In this terminology also ...
Keelan's user avatar
  • 4,221
5 votes

Are inflectional morphemes considered affixes in English?

You have inverted the usual "considered" relation. There is no uncertainty as to what a prefix is versus a suffix. A prefix precedes the root, a suffix follows the root. "Affix" is ...
user6726's user avatar
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5 votes
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Where did Irish "-acht" come from?

A quick look at Stair na Gaeilge yields this (in Kim McCone’s chapter An tSean-Gaeilge agus a réamhstair — “Old Irish and its prehistory”)… 21.2 … It can be seen that use is made of the suffix *-(i)...
Moilleadóir's user avatar
4 votes

What part of speech is a phoneme?

"Part of speech" is usually interpreted as a technical term, referring to a classification of words, based on similarities in syntax, for example "cat, house, bear, truth" are ...
user6726's user avatar
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4 votes

Can words be formed by deriving from just prefix(es) and suffix(es) with no actual root morpheme between?

In Esperanto there are some words of this kind, e.g., malina "male" composed of mal- "negation, opposite of" and -ina "feminine" More examples can be found in this answer: https://esperanto....
Sir Cornflakes's user avatar
4 votes

Is the {-ing} of the gerund a verbal inflectional suffix?

As usual in linguistics, a lot depends on your theory of language. Not everyone has gerunds in their theory (actually most modern syntacticians don't). There are some researchers who understand ...
Alex B.'s user avatar
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4 votes

Do Turkish sentences have to ever "fall back" to using extra words instead of using suffixes?

I can't speak for Turkish, but I suspect your question is more general than that. In some languages, these "suffixes" are case markers, which show agreement (so you basically put the marker ...
Draconis's user avatar
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4 votes
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Do Turkish sentences have to ever "fall back" to using extra words instead of using suffixes?

Yes, there are plenty of modifiers in Turkish that are standalone words, like prepositions and postpositions, not suffixes. Often a similar idea can be expressed with either a suffix or a standalone ...
Adam Bittlingmayer's user avatar
4 votes

Do any languages regularly derive their words for males from words for females?

Manambu Manambu, native to northern Papua New Guinea, is such a language since the unmarked form is used for females and a suffix is added when referring to males ("-də" or "-d"). ...
Laurel's user avatar
  • 538
4 votes

Is -ce in Latin a clitic or suffix?

It depends what you mean by word. This is a surprisingly difficult term to define! One definition is that a "word" is a phonological thing. Various phonological processes and constraints ...
Draconis's user avatar
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3 votes

Do any languages regularly derive their words for males from words for females?

German has such kind of derivation, but only marginally, for some animals where the default is female and the male form is marked. Examples include Ente, Enterich or Erpel "duck" Gans, ...
Sir Cornflakes's user avatar
3 votes
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What is the difference between a phrasal affix, an affix, and a clitic?

The difference between an affix and a clitic is usually discussed in most textbooks on intro morphology. e.g. the textbook we used in grad school was Bauer 2003. Here's how he explains this. Even ...
Alex B.'s user avatar
  • 8,744
3 votes

The affixation differentiating between nominal arithmetic and adjectival arithmetic

I've never seen this kind of vowel alternation analyzed as a "simulfix" like that. I would say that it would be preferable to use either of the following analyses: the different ...
brass tacks's user avatar
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3 votes

How did the prefix 'be-' function in 'behind'?

This "be-" prefix (originally bi-) was originally used to create prepositions—compare fore against before, hind against behind, twain against between, low against below, and so on. In essence, the ...
Draconis's user avatar
  • 67.1k
3 votes

How to learn more about contradictory or superfluous affixes efficiently?

Most users of a language will neither know nor care about an individual word's etymology. The odds that an individual native speaker of French knows that accabler comes from ad- + cata- + ball- + -āre ...
Draconis's user avatar
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3 votes

Do "shew" and "eschew" come from the same root?

No, the two words are not related. There is neither a direct relation nor a negation. "Shew" is an old version of "show" which comes from proto-Germanic "skauwojan", i.e. choose, look at, and other ...
Luboš Motl's user avatar
2 votes

verbal or adjectival suffix -ed in the word "excited"

I think "excited" is definitely an adjective in the first sentence, and most likely an adjective in both sentences. It looks like some people have argued that it must be a verb in the second because ...
brass tacks's user avatar
  • 18.3k
2 votes

What are some of the most prefixing languages?

I would vote for Swahili (the fact that it's the only language there that I am intimately familiar with notwithstanding), I can confidently say that almost every word can be conjugated by adding as ...
Ingasha's user avatar
  • 51
2 votes

Roots categorization

This is a common issue in Austronesian linguistics where the notion of precategorial (=functionally unspecified) roots is often employed to explain the fact that roots don't have a POS category until ...
Gaston Ümlaut's user avatar
2 votes
Accepted

Roots categorization

Yes, some linguists consider this possible. Here are some such concepts/authors: "roots": Pesetsky, David. 1995.Zero syntax: Experiencers and cascades (CurrentStudies in Linguistics 27). ...
purlupar's user avatar
  • 648
2 votes

Roots categorization

Your hypothesis is true, partially. Tamil employs agglutinative grammar. Suffixes may be used to mark noun class, number, case, verb tense and other grammatical categories. Wikipedia has a great ...
vvg's user avatar
  • 164
2 votes

The classification of morphemes

• Are the two featured categorizations correct? They do look correct, from my point of view. Unfortunately, you haven't mentioned whose exactly point of view you would like your categorizations to be ...
Yellow Sky's user avatar
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1 vote
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Are there any examples of morphology changes when combining two "word parts", which changes more than prefixes/suffixes/infixes/circumfixes do?

Even the existence of circumfixes is controversial in linguistics. There are two analyses of Arabic. One is that there are, in the imperfective, both prefixes and suffixes, but there are some ...
user6726's user avatar
  • 83.2k
1 vote

Do Turkish sentences have to ever "fall back" to using extra words instead of using suffixes?

If there are a few adjectives and a noun, then you put the suffix in the end of the noun. If there is a possessive adjective in English and you are trying to translate it into Turkish, you put the ...
Mala Vuran's user avatar
1 vote
Accepted

Terminology for this kind of affixes

In the Wikipedia article on Aymara they (i.e., the affix -wa and some similar other affixes) are called phrase-final suffixes with the remark that some authors call them sentence-final suffixes.
Sir Cornflakes's user avatar
1 vote

suffixoid vs null interfix

Suffixoids and prefixoids are words typically referring to some middle stage of grammaticalisation, i.e. when we do not consider the element a stand-alone word but it is not comparable yet to regular ...
Eleshar's user avatar
  • 2,363
1 vote

suffixoid vs null interfix

Note that there is always a grey zone between suffixes and compound words. Arguably, all suffixes were independent words historically, but lost their independent meaning (in German verblassen "to ...
Sir Cornflakes's user avatar

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