22

The fourth person is a (rare) synonym for the obviative. In languages with this feature, when there are two third-person referents and one of them is less salient, the less salient one may be marked as obviative and the more salient one as proximative. According to Rice (1989), the fourth-person pronoun go- is used for objects when the subject is third ...


20

As a layman in linguistics I found this explanation pretty illuminating: In English, when we have a non-SAP (speech act participants) involved in the discourse, there is the potential for ambiguity. For example, consider: “John was in a tizzy last night and got into a fight with Bill. He hit him so hard that he broke his jaw.” Here, it isn’t clear that who ...


10

From this book in Asturian: D'una voz indíxena americana HURAKAN que'l cast. huracán fexo llegar al fr. ouragan y al it. uragano (REW s.v. hurakan). L'ast., lo mesmo que'l port. furacão, gall. furacán, cat. furacà, almiten el castellanismu orixinariamente aspiráu adautándolu con f- acordies col sistema fonolóxicu que desconocía l'aspiración d'aniciu, a nun ...


5

Even assuming you're only talking about North America, the answer is no. There are about 300 indigenous languages reliably attested (depending how you count them), some of which are related but many of which aren't (to the limits of our evidence). There's never been a common language, spoken or signed, that was understood by all of them. There were/are sign ...


4

You can read about it, or one, here. Plains Indian Sign language is purportedly still known by about 75 people predominantly among the Crow, Cheyenne, and Arapaho, and was employed roughly in the Great Plains area of North America.


3

The question seems to be about where one would put such materials (not how one would handle the typesetting issue). There are at least three places which don't require content review: Zenodo, Figshare, and the SOAS Endangered Languages Archive (I can't say for certain that the later is appropriate, so read their material).


3

I'm not very familiar with the history of Portuguese phonetics, but my guess is that when the word huracán was imported in Spanish (being then aspirated, unlike now), when it got to the Portuguese, they likely lacked the sound and so f was probably a pretty good substitute.


2

Unfortunately, the book Sign Languages, Cambridge Language Surveys series, 2010, edited by Diane Brentari, which has the “Variation and change” section, doesn't cover PISL, it is about modern sign languages of the world, and in most books written in the 19th and 20th centuries specifically about PISL nothing is said about its varieties or dialects. But ...


2

I think you can find a fairly reliable (more reliable than the Ethnologue, I would say) and pretty much consensual (meaning that even long-rangers would not object to it other than go much further in their speculations, hypothesizing deeper links between them) information in the Glottolog catalogue, as its authors generally tend to avoid controversial ...


2

Another potential archive for documentation of endangered languages is The Language Archive currently hosted by the Max Planck Institute for Psycholinguistics at Nijmegen (The Netherlands).


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