I would look at the Algonquian languages (Meskwaki, Ojibwe, Arapaho, Blackfoot, Migmaq etc.). They display both obviation and personhood hierarchies, and have fairly good collections of published glossed texts. To start out, check out the work of Ives Goddard (the high priest of Algonquian linguistics), Richard Rhodes, Amy Dahlstrom, and John Nichols; you ...
A method for introducing variation in language data is round-trip translation to a different language and back. Shalom Lappin used machine translation for this purpose (and noted that Google translate is already too good for this purpose and he had to resort to a 2007 version of MOSES).
NoiseMix is made for exactly this. (Full disclosure: I am advisor to the project.)
It applies simple transformations to rows of text data while preserving labels.
The word-level perturbations are: add_letter, repeat_letter,
remove_letter, lowercase, remove_punct, word_swap,
char_swap, flip_letters and typo_qwerty. The sentence-level
Compared to images, data augmentation in NLP is tricky as even a slight change in the sentence can entirely change its meaning.
However, there are some augmentation techniques I have seen in the existing literature. These try their best to not change the meaning of the sentence after augmentation.
Replace words in sentences with ...
OK, there are only two basic flavours of such files
"Inline", as you call it; it is also called "vertical" or "one word per line" or "one token by line"
"Standoff", as you call it, also called "horizontal" or "layered"
For those types there exist lot of different implementations. For the first type there is (besides CONLL that you already mentioned) the ...
Meta-answer: How did I find those doubly annotated treebanks?
I visitied the CLARIN Virtual Language Observatory and entered the following words in the search slit:
treebank dependency constituency
treebank dependency constituent
This provides me with a short list of treebanks.
Szeged Treebank contains manually annotated constituency parse trees; Szeged (Dependency) Treebank contains dependency parse trees that were automatically derived from the constituency parse trees, then corrected by human annotators:
The Szeged Dependency Treebank is a dependency-tree format version of the Szeged Treebank. From the originally ...
Offset annotation is a synonym for stand-off annotation, which is
the kind of markup that resides in a location different from the location of the data being described by it. It is thus the opposite of inline markup, where data and annotations are intermingled within a single location.
I haven't looked at the data, but apparently part of the annotated ...