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80

In Arabic, in fact, they've always been separate sounds! The sound we write "K" is spelled with the letter ك in Arabic, and is pronounced a little bit further forward in the mouth; the sound we write "Q" is spelled with the letter ق and pronounced a little bit farther back. In phonetic terms, "K" is a velar sound, and "Q" is a uvular sound. English doesn't ...


27

Cross-culturally, names having transparent meanings is the norm. Europe, and the non-Arabic-speaking Muslim world are notable exceptions and in those cases religion is one of the big motivating factors When you have large religions with a strong scriptural tradition, people will often choose names from that scripture. If the language of that scripture is not ...


20

First, it is not just black and white. Not all English names are opaque, there are transparent names like Hope, Faith, or Grace but also Rose that are current in English and American naming. And there are also some Arabic names like Ammar or Zaynab that are opaque. But it is true that the majority of English names are opaque and speakers of English are used ...


16

Is there a name for this phenomenon? There are several in fact, but there doesn't seem to be a single unified term, which is quite a problem because it makes looking it up a real pain in the neck. Amazingly of languages that have this feature I have yet to see one have a specific native name for it. I myself as a Turkish speaker describe this to people ...


13

This is a linguistic process called rebracketing, and more specifically juncture loss. Rebracketing is when word or morpheme boundaries are re-analyzed, especially when a word is borrowed from one language into another. The standard example of this is hamburger: the original German word was hamburg-er (because it came from the city of Hamburg), but in ...


13

Modern Hebrew is closer to Biblical Hebrew than modern standard Arabic is, by almost any measure of closeness. Educated modern Hebrew speakers can read Biblical Hebrew, typically better than educated English speakers can read Old English which was written much later than Biblical Hebrew. Often when I learn a new word in Arabic, I notice that it is ...


13

Applying the comparative method to contemporary dialects (not MSA) would not result in Classical Arabic, since the contemporary dialects have lost features found in Classical Arabic, such as case. However, parallel to proto-Romance, a proto-language antecedent to the modern dialects could in principle be reconstructed. Ferguson (1959) "The Arabic koine&...


12

I understand you to be saying that you are a native Arabic speaker living in America. Is that correct? In that case I think this teacher has given you extremely bad advice. All professional linguists recognise the great value of learning as many languages as possible when young. Children are the best learners of languages. I assume (correct me if I am wrong) ...


12

I was going to propose Julius Klaproth, in his 1823 book Asia Polyglotta. He notates the difference between ك and ق as k versus q. In earlier works such as Hamer 1806 Ancient alphabets both were represented as "k" with a note that [q] ق is "hard". However, I see that Christian Ravis 1649 in A discourse of the orientall tongues : viz. Ebrew, Samaritan, ...


12

The answer to this question has multiple layers. Draconis has already noted that the two sounds are distinct (phonemic) in Arabic and user6726 has added that the convention of writing one using k and the other using q dates back quite a number of centuries. But why does the Latin alphabet even have this ‘spare letter’ (Draconis) q that turns out to be nigh ...


12

Part of the reason is that people with Muslim names tend to have a better knowledge of Arabic. But most people have very little knowledge of Old English, and don't know what "Harold" or "Alfred" derive from (owing to the much more substantial change in English over versus Arabic). There is no constant source of re-connection with the ...


10

A comment in this review by Daniels points to the former: the consonantary (my ''abjad'') and the ''semi-syllabary'' (my ''abugida'') [...] (Neither of my terms is an invention; they are names in Arabic and Ge`ez respectively for exactly the phenomena I imported them into English to name.) Peter T. Daniels, Review of Writing Systems: An ...


10

Although I haven't heard of the term "degrees of passive/active" before, they are almost certainly talking about the verbal stems. This is a concept indeed alien to Western European (or broader) but common to all Semitic languages. The core idea is that the stems differentiate voice and Aktionsart. In an earlier stage of the language (pre-1000 BCE) there ...


10

By policy, UNICODE does not assign code points for contextual variants. Some contextual variants are in by exception—their purpose is to guarantee round-trip equivalence with some older legacy standards that were in existence before UNICODE. So you should go with the single code point for ARABIC LETTER DOTLESS FEH (U+06A1) and let the typesetting engine do ...


9

As a native Hebrew speaker i have ever heard the root שׂ.ל.מ (s.l.m), or any of it conjugations used in the context of submission. Neither does the root שׁ.ל.מ (Sh.l.m). The word שלם (shalem) means, as the Wikipedia article states, whole (and all its derived meanings like perfect or or complete) or peace. Here is the Wiktionary entry on the root and its ...


9

Are the languages spoken in various Arabian countries actually mutually intelligible? If no then it makes more sense to regard them as separate languages. In China the government likes to officially categorize various Chinese languages as "dialects", but the reality is that the difference is really huge between some of them, e.g. comparing Mandarin and ...


9

The present answers are in principle correct, but do not explain the fundamental issues with this idea. In short: The "God" lexeme is relatively infrequent to develop into a definite article. Comparative evidence from Ugaritic and Aramaic suggest that the developments must have taken place largely independently, which makes such an unlikely derivation even ...


8

Persian had used to use a variety of alphabets throughout the time, so I think it would not make any particular difficulty to read in Persian Arabic alphabet as well. The main difficulties are a) sounds not present in Arabic, yet noticeable in Persian (or other languages using the script), and b) a richer stock of vowels. These two factors elicit in ...


8

Like you said, the French term salut comes from Latin and to be precise from salūs salūtis. This term appears in other Romance Languages as well: It. saluto, Es. saludo. The meaning which is health, well-being, is carried out also by other descendants: It. salute, Es. salud, Port. saúde. I don't think there is a connection to salaam which actually means ...


8

Unifying and subdividing speech forms under an ISO code is not a rigorous ontological claim: it is the standardization statement "this linguistic thing is to be abbreviated that way". "Quechua", "Luyia", and "Arabic" (also "Latvian") are examples of macrolanguages, under ISO 639-3. The individual languages are different enough that they are not all mutually ...


8

آ U-0622. It is called Alef with madda.


8

You don't break words in Arabic. Instead of breaking words, the Arabic script uses optional stretching of words to justify text columns. You can stretch the inter-letter joins and also some individual letters (especially the letter kaf). The feature is briefly mentioned in §8.5 of the ArabTeX manual and described in any decent introduction to the Arabic ...


8

In fact, alif ا does not mean anything particular and that differs it from the rest of the Arabic letters. It is a kind of a service letter, now it is a support for hamza, now it is written as a horizontal line as in alif maddah آ, now it looks like a dotless yā’ ى, alif maqṣūrah, now it is not written at all (although it should have been there) as in ذٰلِكَ ...


7

I was only able to find the Arabic word ṭayyib (طَيِّب) meaning "good". The word is a cognate to Hebrew tov (טוֹב) comes to the Proto-Semitic ṭayb and further etymology is unavailable. The etymology for the word you mentioned is unavailable, but I want to put out that the spelling usually indicates the former pronunciation. This means that if the word ...


7

Loan words in Arabic are generally borrowed in something approaching their original form, but they are often perceived as being built around a three or four-letter root, from which purely Arabic derivatives can be formed. E.g. Greek philosophos was borrowed into classical Arabic as faylasūf, then reanalysed as f-l-s-f, with the regular Arabic plural falāsifa,...


7

Nişanyan gives this table in his etymological dictionary of Turkish (Sözlerin Soyağacı, ISBN: 9789752896369): Front consonants: ب‎ ت‎ ث‎ ج‎ ز‎ س‎ ش‎ ك‎ ل‎ م‎ ن‎ ه‎ ی‎ Back consonants: ح‎ خ‎ ص‎ ض‎ ط‎ ظ‎ ع‎ غ‎ ق‎ Unstable consonants: د‎ ذ‎ ر‎ ف‎ و‎‎ You can look here for what consonants they correspond to in Ottoman Turkish (it didn't change much since ...


7

The numbers represent Arabic letters of similar shapes, which mostly don't have an intuitive Roman equivalent: http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Arabic_chat_alphabet For example, 7 is ح and 3 is ع, which represent [ħ] and [ʕ]. A similar phenomenon exists in transliterated Cyrillic, you sometimes see 4 being used for Ч; the similarity in shape is reinforced by ...


7

7 represents ħ (voiceless pharyngeal fricative). This is referred to as the Arabic Chat alphabet.


7

This is one of the topics addressed by Mike Brame in his MIT dissertation Ch. 5, for Classical Arabic, however I have to say that I find his discussion inconclusive. The prosodic pattern of verbs and deverbals (CCVC, CVCVC, CVC:C...) is convincingly reducible to non-lexical factors (e.g. "is this is 2nd measure derived verb; is this perfective, or ...


6

There are many non-Semitic languages written in Arabic-based script. Persian or Farsi, presently used in Iran is an Indo-European language and use a variant of the Arabic script. Mozarabic language was a language used by Spanish Christians back when Arabic was the main language of learning and literature. It is primarily written in the Arabic script. It is ...


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