10

Eastern and Western are just two codifications, the total dialect variation within Armenian is similar to that within English and arguably much less than that within German. As noted in the other answer, while the spoken dialect continuum developed over a thousand years, the minor fork in codifications only happened in the past two centuries. One soft ...


8

I'm fairly sure that the language is Armenian. For example, the second word on the top line is միշտ (mishd) meaning "always", and the fourth line has the words քեզ (kez) "you" and մարդ (mard) "man". I'm not fluent enough in Armenian to easily decipher the whole text, but the final line appears to read "January 1861".


8

Hindi gẽd does indeed descend from Skt. genduka-. The latter is considered to be a loan from Dravidian (see Turner 4248). Armenian gund is a borrowing from Parthian or Persian gund < Iranian *gṛnda-. In Middle and New Persian gund is attested only in the meaning ‘testicle’. So the answer to your question is that they are probably not related.


7

The oldest attested form is Old Armenian լինիմ (linim), whose origin in uncertain. Possibly derived from PIE *ḱley- "to lean", whence Ancient Greek κλίνω, Latin clino. See wiktionary for more. The descendant of PIE *h₁ésmi is եմ (em).


7

As the other answer somewhat obscurely tells you, all these words are related, but Armenian yes is not the common origin. There is also nothing particular in your question that justifies centering that chart around Armenian rather than any of the other languages. To learn more about how such relationships can reliably be established, you could read up on the ...


6

There are the following differences: The current Armenian language (which is also considered as Eastern Armenian) was created by Khachatur Abovian, who is best remembered for his novel, Wounds of Armenia. Written in 1841 and published posthumously in 1858, it was the first novel published in the modern Armenian language using Eastern Armenian based on the ...


6

I would say probably not. Despite its name, Esperanto is not a simplified Romance language. Though much of its vocabulary comes from Romance languages, its phonemic inventory is Slavic, and its morphology is agglutinative. See the Wikipedia article on Esperanto for more details. https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Esperanto#Linguistic_properties As far as ...


5

The two languages have a similar set of sounds, and both have even intonation. But: Armenian has two r, one of which is soft, Georgian r is always the hard one. Armenian has k and q but no qʼ. Georgian words often end in -o, in Armenian it is rare at the end of a word or sentence, other than nicknames. Certain vowel combinations like -au- and -eu- are ...


5

The English Wiktionary is a pretty decent source for this kind of thing, at least to get you started. There are all kinds of etymology categories of which these are relevant to your question: Turkish terms derived from Armenian Ottoman Turkish terms derived from Armenian Armenian terms derived from Turkish Armenian terms derived from Ottoman Turkish ...


5

Highly unlikely. Where PIE /*g *gw/ had shifted to /g/ in Sanskrit, they had shifted to /k/ in Armenian. Also, Armenian /u/ comes from PIE /*ō *u *uH/, so the vowels don't line up. It might, on the other hand, be a borrowing from an Iranian language into Armenian, but they are not native cognates.


5

You're right that all of these are (probably) related! However, it's almost certain that Modern Armenian is not the common source. Armenian is a relatively modern language (it's not attested until the fourth century CE), while Indo-European written records go back to the sixteenth century BCE, two millennia earlier. The original form is reconstructed as ...


5

It is a coincidence. The prefix "yotta-" is in no way Greek. It is a modern, invented, coinage, derived from Greek ὀκτώ (okto) by a very roundabout and idiosyncratic route. Armenian յոթ (yot') derives from Old Armenian եօթն (eot'n), older եւթն (ewtʿn), ultimately from IndoEuropean *septḿ̥ See Wiktionary here and here


4

Since this question is likely to disappear soon into the limbo of unspeakable queries I will restrict myself to a brief answer. The Armenian word for the 1st person singular pronoun is /es/, which in modern Armenian is pronounced [jes]. The [j] on-glide is not indicated in Armenian script. Armenian /es/ is cognate with the word for “I” in almost all other ...


4

There are much more propedeutic languages. Latin is the first that comes to mind but if you already knew it. Learning it on purpose for Italian is not really convenient, you'd be better off using that time to learn Italian directly. If you had knowledge of Spanish and French, that'd be certainly a good help. Spanish is very similar to Italian (a stereotype ...


4

The Armenian word was borrowed from Western Middle Iranian (Parthian or Middle Persian) tāg-āwar (or tāg-āwur) “crown bearer”. It is not attested in Old Iranian languages, but one would expect either *tāk-ā-bar-a- (full grade) or *tāk-ā-bṛ-a- (zero grade, which would explain the –or in Armenian). As you can see, this has no real similarity with the Greek ...


4

“Armenian” is հայերեն for which the usual transliteration is hayeren. ր is a single-tap /r/, as opposed to the trilled ռ, transliterated as ṙ.


4

The study in the TED talk you referenced was for students who probably had not learned another language before learning French. The reason why Esperanto was considered helpful was because it allowed the students to become acquainted and become comfortable with speaking a language other than their own. Esperanto is very simple and shares roots with many ...


4

You probably want to check out the book Armenian loanwords in Turkish by Robert Dankoff. He lists azap 'torment', deri 'leather' and zekrek etc. as examples of Armenian words in Turkish.


4

I consider Armenian to be a "saturated" language, because of Urartian (non-IE), Luwian and Iranian influence. Proto-Armenian was probably a bit different from how Armenian is today, but in its basis it is obviously Indo-European. It just needs a little bit more attention and things clear up. I usually make comparisons with Greek, Hittite and other Anatolian ...


3

Armenian (at least Western Armenian) seems to place stress mainly on the final syllable. From the little I've read about Georgian, it seems to prefer penultimate stress. Overall, Armenian sounds much more "lilting" when spoken than the Georgian I've heard in various video clips (and more lilting than standard English, for that matter). Also, I think that ...


3

You may distinguish Armenian by two types of R used in a phrase (provided its sound sequence is long enough): there are trilled /r/ ռ = ṙ (similar to Spanish, Swedish or German phoneme) and tapped /ɾ/ ր = r, which is more like English phoneme. Georgian, on the other hand, uses the rhotic r/რ, which is more like Russian. The melos of speech also differs in ...


3

According to Wiktionary the ultimate origin of the Armenian word for to be "լինել" (linel) is unknown. Old Armenian had such forms as լինիմ, լինենամ, and back to the earliest known *լէնիմ (lēnim) - which looks to be a hypothetical form from its asterisk. If you follow links around the Armenian and Old Armenian entries you will find some other words. "To be"...


2

This is Armenian. I'm failing to translate whole text, though it's not a dialect, on the contrary, it seems to me to be a literary language, quite standard, it's just that I'm failing to understand 10% (or to read, some letters are unclear) of words, but this is 100% Armenian. Some words I understand but never heard in that form (like "ջուրիկ խըմելու"). ...


2

Eastern and Western Armenian developed from Old Armenian, not from each other. Both are equally Armenian. I don't know the answers to the rest of your questions.


1

In PIE the verb was e̯esmi/e̯essi/e̯esti (I/you/he is). As such the Armenian word cannot be inherited from PIE.


1

There have been studies (or at least small amounts of research) done on Swedish University students, among other nationalities, where the students learnt Esperanto AFTER already knowing multiple languages (in the case of Swedes, most know English, Swedish, and French/German/Spanish at least - and then continue their third language or pick up a fourth one in ...


1

I would not say, "go for it before learning Italian, Spanish, Portugese, French or Romanian..." However, if you're tempted... it will expose your mind to a linguist life's work. I think Esperanto helps understanding/accepting/explaining different language structure mentally. Easily. Nonetheless, be aware that Esperanto have lots of roots from all ...


1

Yes, there are a great many, especially in spoken language and in regional and archaic dialects. On average, there are more Turkish terms in spoken Armenian than Armenian in Turkish, and many many more that came from Persian into both Armenian and Turkish and many other languages, including English. Quite simply, Persian and Turkish were regional lingue ...


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