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13

This is a case where we have to distinguish between the ability to express something in a language and the presence or absence of a grammatical structure dedicated to expressing that something. English does not have a grammatical structure dedicated to expressing the inchoative aspect. But it is still possible to express inchoativity by using the verbs ''...


13

Tense vs. aspect vs. mood Let's first clarify what the different categories mean in the first place: Tense is a category that locates events on a timeline. Distinctions between different tenses are often described by means of relations between event time (E), speech point (S) and reference point (R). For example, when I utter something like I realized that ...


13

Saying that a language or language variety marks a grammatical category of "habitual aspect" implies that there is some construction that is dedicated to expressing habitual actions. "He works" uses the English "simple present tense" construction, which has perfective as well as habitual interpretations. Even if in practice "he works" would typically be ...


12

In linguistics, “why” is usually a bad question. Actually, in several Indo-European languages the old present tense has died out completely and been replaced by the present participle plus copula. This has happened in Hindi and other North Indian languages. There are similar things in other language families, e.g. in Aramaic. English seems to have gone ...


9

I teach my pupils the matter like this (and I hope it’s useful for anyone who reads this thread): Greek has three ways of representing actions (I’m leaving out future tense because it merely expresses tense). [1] as actions in process or repeated actions – durative [all forms beloning to the præsens stem] e.g. θνῃσκ- = to be dying [2] as (merely) ...


7

(1) is "conative", though strictly speaking, it's not an aspectual category, since it's about more than just the temporal structure of the event. I don't know if there's a term for (2) (and I'm not actually sure exactly what you mean; some more examples might help).


7

Bybee, Pagliuca and Perkins 1996 put it very nicely. Here's what they wrote. Iterative "signals that an action is repeated on a single occasion and differs from the habitual and frequentative, which both signal the repetition occurred on different occasions" (p. 160). Here are the two examples they use: He searched for his keys all morning. iterative He ...


6

Actually, German has even more ways to express progressive aspect: Ich bin am Gehen (am-Progressiv, it becomes more and more accepted) Ich bin beim Gehen (competitor to am-Progressiv) Ich bin im Gehen (very limited as it cannot be used for every verb and context. "im Gehen" means that you're about to go (ie. when someone calls you as you are about to ...


6

Specifically on aspect, Comrie's 1987 Aspect, 3rd printing, in the Cambridge Textbooks in Linguistics series. To fit aspect into the framework of the rest of linguistic semantics, Frawley's 1992 Linguistic Semantics, from Erlbaum. Here's an outline of Chapter 3 in Frawley 1992 (on Entities, i.e, nouns), a list of questions and topics for study in the ...


5

The problem with all grammatical labels used across languages is that they either lose or add some information. A further problem is that the terms are not used consistently by individual researchers or research paradigms. So the answer to this question is both yes and no. Yes, in the sense that perfect is generally applied to tense-related phenomena and ...


5

The distinction between lexical and grammatical aspect is not particularly relevant when it comes to cross-linguistic comparisons. Each language has a number of ways of describing events with respect to their duration, completeness, repetition, etc. which is broadly labelled as aspect. Sometimes aspectual meanings are separated from other types of meanings (...


5

The Max Plank Institute's Department of Linguistics has a few resources, including a questionnaire, for dealing with questions of tense and aspect. But as Dominik hinted, tense and aspect are a tricky thing, and a often very intertwined to the point that it gets quite difficult to pick them apart, and even linguists can disagree (for instance, many sources ...


5

As luck would have it, I'm just preparing a talk on aspect at a conference. The problem, with your question is that you're looking at aspect in isolation. Your sentence (as a sequence of words) is perfectly grammatical. It only becomes ungrammatical (in as much as that means anything) when you put it in context. And what do they do? They build a house next ...


4

The examples you chose are not particularly fortunate but the problem you're alluding to is one commonly encountered when it comes to aspect or tense. For instance, present tense is often used to refer to future events "We're leaving at 5 tomorrow." And even here you could argue that the aspect is misaligned too. And there are many instances in Slavic ...


4

You need to distinguish between tense, aspect and time reference. For instance, the English present continuous combines a present time reference with an imperfective aspect. However, it is often used to denote future time reference as well in some contexts. E.g. "We're leaving at 8 sharp tomorrow morning." What you need to do is a functional analysis of the ...


4

In English, at least, the ordinary simple present is imperfective; but there are genres in which a perfective use is common. In sports broadcasts, for instance: "He shoots, he scores!" describes an ongoing course of action but the individual events are expressed immediately after they happen. Oral storytelling has always alternated frequently between ...


4

I have not heard of such a thing, but I have heard of similar things in other Bantu languages. Generally, when you investigate the pragmatics and semantics of a Bantu language's tense system, you will find many subtle conditions of usage, for example "when you say it this way, you are disputing someone else's claim", or "you say it this way if you want to ...


3

There is actually a chapter on perfective-imperfective aspect in the free online resource, The World Atlas of Language Structures, where this hypothesis is discussed and specifically rejected by the authors. Here is the relevant quotation from it: Even if perhaps not so often formulated as an explicit hypothesis, there seems to be a widespread view of ...


3

I think iterative fits best, although durative is another possibility. The verb keep can express iterative and/or durative aspect, meaning that it indicates the repetition of an event or action that persists. Iterative and durative are listed as an aspect in the Wikipedia article. Looking at that article, however, the number of aspects that one needs to ...


3

No, auxiliary verbs don't always express something other than simple indicative. Yes, there are cases where a sentence with an auxiliary verb is in the simple indicative. For instance, "Hal is a fisherman." The "is" is an auxiliary verb, since it inverts with the subject in the corresponding yes-no question "Is Hal a fisherman?", and it is a simple ...


3

No, the use of auxiliaries is not directly linked to aspect, mood or tense in the first place. This may be so in some or many cases by coincidence when morphological or syntactic marking is not available, but the link between auxiliary verbs and TAM is not a logical necessity. On the one hand, there are (even in English) cases where the use of auxiliaries ...


3

I believe you are asking this question because you have read that the perfective is used for completed actions. This is perfectly true. But it is important to understand in what sense they are completed. Actions described by perfective verbs are completed in the sense that they stop because they have accomplished their object. For example: Я открыл дверь....


3

They are quite similar, and you've isolated the main difference: semelfactive is once, iterative is many times. Although it is translated "aspect" here, it may not be a verbal property at all in some languages. It may be clearer to think of it is a form of lexical aspect, or Aktionsart (after Smith 1997), with the three (Vendlerian) properties: dynamic, ...


2

Here are some possibilities, I guess it depends on your test of telicity. In English telicity depends to a large degree on the semantics of the arguments. rent; allow; cause; cost; guarantee; leave; owe.


2

This might be of interest: Early Contect between Celtic and English (https://www.uni-due.de/IERC/early_contact.htm( "The concern of the present section is with the development of the progressive form in English. There are basically three views on this (Filppula 2002b): (i) it was an independent development in English (Curme 1912, Nickel 1966, Visser 1963-73,...


2

With respect to the 2nd aspect you said you were looking for: "2. an aspect that has a meaning of 'eventual or definitive' ex: he has gone eventually." I'm not certain if this is what you have in mind, but ASL has a grammatical aspect inflection I haven't seen mentioned in the literature which may be similar in meaning to the type of aspect you ...


2

As @hippietrail mentioned, Wiktionary does: https://en.wiktionary.org/wiki/βλέπω#Conjugation So does the Triantafyllides Institute's dictionary, which is the only one of the three major contemporary dictionaries that's online: http://www.greek-language.gr/greekLang/modern_greek/tools/lexica/triantafyllides/search.html?lq=βλέπω&dq= βλέπω [vlépo] -ομαι ...


2

Two common mechanisms are: Choice of tense, other than the perfect. Romance languages often use their imperfective past tense for narrative background and their perfective past tense (e.g. French passé composé or Spanish simple past) for narrative foreground. Suzanne Fleischmann wrote an excellent book about this. Main vs. subordinate clauses. There's a ...


2

Evidentiality is very closely related to modality. It isn't related to aspect. But, morphemes very often combine multiple meanings, and they can form paradigms with semantically unrelated morphemes. I don't know much about Turkish, but Wikipedia calls -miş a 'inferential perfective'. It describes it as The inferential past or miş-past can be understood ...


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