5

Did you make sure you have understood what assimilation means in general, not only, as you said, "in this context"? I think this task is pretty straightforward if you stick close to the definitions and go through them step by step. Basic definition An assimilation is a phonological process by which a sound segment is made more similar to one of its ...


5

Probably the most common explanation of how vowel harmony starts is that it's a grammaticalization of the phonetic effect of coarticulation, where the properties of one segment influence how the speaker articulates surrounding segments. For example, when an upcoming syllable contains a round vowel, it's common for speakers to begin rounding their lips ...


5

This happens with all Greek words in r- when a prefix is added, not just that particular word. A likely explanation (though I don't have a reference for this) is that the sound written as Greek initial ῥ- was a long trill [rr], just like initial r- in Spanish. (The fact that ῥ- always comes from a cluster, *sr- or *wr-, makes this plausible.) Therefore when ...


5

They are called allomorphs. It refers to phonological variations of a same morpheme. See the In English suffixes section of the given wikipedia article. It gives an example of the past tense morpheme -ed. The /t/-/d/ and /s/-/z/ distintion of your example is surely of different phonemes. Any English speaker will naturally "recognize" the difference.


5

It is questionable whether there is such a thing as "assimilation of manner" in the same sense that there is assimilation of place. Assimilation of place traditionally refers to wholesale shift in POA as represented in the IPA charts, to t → p, p → k and so on: columns of cells identify a "place". "Manner" cross-classifies rows ...


4

There is no clear answer to the title question in general; it may depend on the sounds, or the language. (Well, unless you define "assimilation" in such a way as to explicitly refer to a process that changes one phoneme to another.) Examples like these are part of the reason why people have come up with concepts like "archiphonemes" (...


4

Turns out there's at least one other suggested, but controversial, case of voicing by *h3, involving the "Hoffmann suffix" *-Hon- or *-h3on-. Piotr Gąsiorowski discusses it here. The same suffix may be responsible for the voicing alternation in Latin pairs like vertex, vertic- vs. vertigo. I don't know how far these ideas are currently accepted, though.


4

As I understand it, the essential character which you're seeking is that it is regressive suffix-to-root assimilation (not progressive, and not bidirectional), and the trigger has to actually be there. This would leave out cases that are regressive root-to-prefix as well (various dialects of Arabic have such rounding "harmonies"). Various Romance languages (...


3

I don't know of a standard term. I'd refer to it as mutual assimilation. The change in Sanskrit of ai to ee = e: is an example. So far as I know, there's nothing special about it, as compared with other assimilations, except that it's, well, mutual.


3

I believe that Chomsky and Halle's SPE theory predicts progressive assimilation of voice. For English morphologically simple forms, the only way you can have a weak word initial syllable followed immediately by a stressed syllable (as in "Moˌnonga'hela") is when the initial syllable has a secondary stress (as in "ˌMon'tana"). However, in words with ...


3

I think you are conflating two, very different things : how a language acquires a place of social prestige and dominance, and how a language replaces another in the population. Now of course, a language which is associated with high-status in a society, is in a good position to replace a low-status language, but, as you point out, it takes a lot of time ...


3

I don't have an explanation from a synchronic phonetic perspective. From a diachronic and phonological perspective, /v/ in many languages, including Danish and Russian, developed from earlier /w/. This is relevant to voicing because /w/ is not a fricative, but an approximant, and other approximants such as /l/, /r/, or nasals like /m, n/ tend to likewise be ...


2

In good boy, /ɡʊb bɔɪ/, we see that the last consonant of good has become a /b/. In isolation the last consonant of good would be a /d/. If we give these two phonemes their Voice Place Manner labels, /d/ would be a ᴠᴏɪᴄᴇᴅ ᴅᴇɴᴛᴀʟ ᴘʟᴏsɪᴠᴇ and /b/ would be a ᴠᴏɪᴄᴇᴅ ʙɪʟᴀʙɪᴀʟ ᴘʟᴏsɪᴠᴇ. So we can see that whilst the last consonant of good is still voiced and still ...


2

You need to frame this as a broader and testable question, and the investigation has to be conducted with some underlying theory of what might be happening. I think you can probably control speaker, register and recording-circumstance variables just by focusing on the corpus of this speaker's productions. There are a lot of linguistic variables that ...


2

Neither term would be wrong. They aren't mutually exclusive: sandhi is broadly defined as a phonological process crossing word boundaries, while assimilation is broadly defined as a phonological process making things more similar. So if a process makes things more similar across word boundaries, it's both sandhi and assimilation.


2

I would have to go look it up to be sure (or you could yourself in Andrew Sihler's comparative grammar of Greek), but I suspect that it has nothing to do with any influence from the dia- prefix, but is a remnant from the much older way of pronouncing any word that began with rho, sc. with an initial w-. The initial w- disappeared throughout, but retained ...


2

Well, in the end it does not actually occur with all instances. A diphthong is not "allowed" to occur before -ρρ-, which means that words with the prefix εὐ- + ρ will not cause gemination, e.g. εὔρους, εὔρυθμος, εὔριζος etc. But, if you split this particular prefix to its possible incontracted form, the phaenomenon will occur, i.e. ἐύρρους, ἐύρρυθμος, ...


2

In German, umlaut is admittedly no longer productive, but it is still very much in evidence in words like Mann > Männer, Kuh > Kühe, and many more.


1

Maybe Standard High German counts in here: In High German, the plural of Fuß "foot" is Füße with double marking: both umlaut and the ending -e /ə/ occur. Note that the dialectal basis of the so-called "Lutheran e" is rather restricted, it is absent in the North, the West, and the South of the German linguistic area and only occurs in the Central and Central-...


1

I'll start with the analytic problem. Suppose in a language, /kon-ie/ → konue. That resembles but is distinct from what you are (apparently) interested in. This is just plain old rounding harmony (or backing harmony, or rounding and backing harmony), which in this case affects diphthongs. If a language has a contrast between diphthongs and glide-vowel ...


1

"Bidirectional assimilation" is an unlikely name for that kind of case, which constitutes "gemination" or "geminate formation". "Bidirectional assimilation" is generally used for the assimilation of a property which both affects a segment on the left and a segment on the right. ATR and nasal harmonies are the canonical examples, where e.g. /wemao/ → [...


1

Here is an attempt at an SPE style rule (except that reference to the "." syllable boundary would not be allowed by SPE conventions): [-son] -> [+son, alpha place, C] / [+son, alpha place, C] __ V C . The main idea here is to get the features of the changed segment right by appealing to the markedness conventions of SPE's chapter 9. The changed segment ...


1

The assimilation you mention is a special case of more general consonant lenition: e.g. täti ("aunt") has genitive singular tädin. This process of lenition only occurs in closed syllables. The standard Finnish essive case suffix (-na/-nä) is of the form -CV, which cannot close the preceding syllable, because the C- is the onset of the following syllable. ...


1

"Secondary articulation" refers to vowel-like properties that are superimposed on consonants with various "primary" articulations. So "alveolar" or "bilabial" are examples of primary (consonantal) articulations, and "rounding", "palatalization", "pharyngealization" are secondary articulations. The best-known example of secondary articulation is ...


1

I thing TKR's and Aorists' answers combined hold the key; the s developped into an h-sound (like most initial sigmas) which caused the subsequent rho to be aspirated and voiceless (al aspirated consonants in Ancient Greek were voiceless contrary to Sanskrit which has voiced aspirates as well). The result probably was an initial rho that took a slightly ...


Only top voted, non community-wiki answers of a minimum length are eligible