Usually the most close relative to PIE among other Eurasiatic languages is considered Chukchi-Kamchadal family.
You probably know this already, but the idea of a "Eurasiatic" language family isn't widely accepted. Nor is the idea of Indo-European being related to Austronesian, or Afro-Asiatic, or really anything else.
The problem is, the comparative method'...
First of all, Chinese is not an isolated language, but a member of the well-established Sino-Tibetan language family. Relationships beyond Sino-Tibetan aren't well established although the Tai-Kaddai language or the Hmong-Mien languages are included in some proposals of a larger Sino-Tibetan family.
Sino-Austronesian was indeed proposed by some linguists (...
This map from Wikipedia assigns dates to the Austronesian expansion, and Proto-Austronesian on Taiwan dates back to before 3000 BC. The line below the map says that the dates are coming from archeological findings and aren't determined by linguistic methods.
Indonesian being the official language of Indonesia, it is widely spoken, so wherever you are you'd stand a better chance at being understood if you speak Indonesian than if you speak Batak. There is always the chance that if you are dealing with Kombai or Wano people that you may need a different language, but no language is more widely used in Indonesia.
There is no linguistic difference between the language called Tagalog or the Tagalog-based Filipino. The use of either term is merely for political reasons. Tagalogs prefer to call it Filipino to give it legitimacy since the Constitution only recognizes Filipino as one of the national language, and not Tagalog. Non-Tagalogs, especially those with strong ...
Consider the following:
Filipino (register) is a standardized register/dialect of Tagalog (language).
Meaning, there are other, non-standard, dialects of Tagalog.
Tagalog (language) is the native language of Tagalog (ethnic group)
Tagalog (people) are one of many ethnic groups in Philippines (country).
There are other ethnic groups who have their own ...
In most languages, there are (at least) two fundamental types of verbs. Transitive verbs require two nouns:
Alice hits Bob.
And intransitive verbs require one noun:
When the verb is transitive, there needs to be some way of marking which noun is doing the action, and which is having the action done to it. In English, this involves the ...