17

It must be remembered that in the Japanese language system, the lexeme's sound and the lexeme's spelling are much less correlated with each other than even in Chinese; the phenomenon of 訓読み kun'yomi means that one lexeme can be written with several different spellings (even if the spellings overlap in meaning). The most well known example for beginners is あう ...


13

This is a linguistic process called rebracketing, and more specifically juncture loss. Rebracketing is when word or morpheme boundaries are re-analyzed, especially when a word is borrowed from one language into another. The standard example of this is hamburger: the original German word was hamburg-er (because it came from the city of Hamburg), but in ...


12

dušman and δυσμενής are Indo-European cognates. The Persian word comes from Old Iranian *duš-manyu- (cf Avestan dušmanah-), “whose mind is bad”. The Punjabi word (also Hindi, Urdu etc.) is a borrowing from Persian.


11

Yes, some people think Akkadian š was pronounced [s]. For the sibilants, traditionally /š/ has been held to be postalveolar [ʃ], and /s/, /z/, /ṣ/ analyzed as fricatives; but attested assimilations in Akkadian suggest otherwise. For example, when the possessive suffix -šu is added to the root awat ('word'), it is written awassu ('his word') (https://en....


10

Let me speak only about Thai language and what rules govern the loanwords. Other languages may well "behave" the other way. is it generally true that the "closest" tones will be borrowed as well as the "closest" phonemes? Short answer: Yes, but not always for phonemes; Usually No for tones. I would also say that it's useful to know how words borrowed ...


10

A great number of loanwords from Ancient Greek have been integrated into Czech with great attention to the original forms. For instance, many Ancient Greek nouns from the third (athematic) declension preserve their stem consonants when declined in Czech. Consider the proper name Paris (the Greek mythological prince). In the table given on the linked page, ...


10

Yes, borrowing still happens—in both directions! While Latin is dead in that nobody speaks it as their first language, it's still used for official purposes by scientists and the Vatican. When they need a word for a new concept, they have to either create or borrow one, just like for any language. For example, "internet" in modern Latin is interrete (...


10

As jk says, there are very few Latin loans in English from pre-Saxon times. English does have quite a lot of words borrowed from Latin and Romance, but the vast majority of them come from well after the Saxon invasion. It's worth noting also that there was a lot of contact between Latin/Romance and Germanic all throughout Europe. When we see Latin words ...


9

You have to a large degree answered the question yourself, really: clann is indeed a very early loan word. Like Common Celtic, Common Insular Celtic had no /p/, but it had /kʷ/. The Brythonic branch changed /kʷ/ to /p/ (keeping the labiality, losing the velarity) quite early on, whereas in the Goidelic branch, /kʷ/ merged with /k/ (retaining the velarity, ...


9

It's because of a generalized phenomenon where loans generally have a narrower, more specific meaning in their destination language than in their original language. The best example is in my opinion the inuktitut word ᐃᒡᓗ iglu which simply means "house", whereas english igloo means a special kind of house, made of ice, such as is made by inuit people. ...


9

First off, it's worth noting that the main contact between Semitic and Sumerian involved Akkadian, not Hebrew, and the Akkadian words are a bit different—"mother" is ummu, and "father" is abu. And there was another Sumerian word for "father", ad(a); ab(a) probably originally meant "elder" (it's sometimes translated into Akkadian as šību, "elder" or "witness")...


8

How about აფალინა /apʰalina/? the Black Sea bottlenosed dolphin (Tursiops truncatus ponticus)? It is/used to be common in the Black Sea and has a similar name in (all?) languages bordering on the Black sea: afalina (Turkish), афала (Bulgarian), afalin (Romanian), афаліна (Ukranian), афалина (Russian).


8

In general, anything can be borrowed, given intensive and prolonged language contact (Thomason 2001: 63) Borrowed relative pronouns (sources didn't mention examples): Gondi (Dravidian) has borrowed a Hindi relative pronoun (Thomason 2001: 116) Bodo and Rabha (Tibeto-Burman) have borrowed a relative pronoun from Indo-Aryan (Subharao 2011: 276) After a ...


7

Yes as you speculate, when Chinese borrows a Japanese word, its pronunciation is often determined by the Chinese characters, no matter how it is pronounced in Japan. This results in loanwords that sound totally different, especially when they are native Japanese words, rather than Sino-Japanese words (i.e. Japanese-coined words that are made of Chinese-...


7

Nişanyan gives this table in his etymological dictionary of Turkish (Sözlerin Soyağacı, ISBN: 9789752896369): Front consonants: ب‎ ت‎ ث‎ ج‎ ز‎ س‎ ش‎ ك‎ ل‎ م‎ ن‎ ه‎ ی‎ Back consonants: ح‎ خ‎ ص‎ ض‎ ط‎ ظ‎ ع‎ غ‎ ق‎ Unstable consonants: د‎ ذ‎ ر‎ ف‎ و‎‎ You can look here for what consonants they correspond to in Ottoman Turkish (it didn't change much since ...


7

Just to illustrate that there is not a complete consensus about the definition, this is how David Crystal defines it in A Dictionary of Linguistics and Phonetics cognate (adj./n.) (1) A language or a linguistic form which is historically derived from the same source as another language/form, e.g. Spanish/Italian/ French/Portuguese are ‘cognate languages’ (...


7

Cognates are only words shared in two sister varieties that have been inherited genetically from a parent variety. From Campbell and Mixco's A Glossary of Historical Linguistics: cognate A word (or morpheme) that is related to a word (morpheme) in sister languages by reason of these words (morphemes) having been inherited by the related languages from a ...


7

Loan words in Arabic are generally borrowed in something approaching their original form, but they are often perceived as being built around a three or four-letter root, from which purely Arabic derivatives can be formed. E.g. Greek philosophos was borrowed into classical Arabic as faylasūf, then reanalysed as f-l-s-f, with the regular Arabic plural falāsifa,...


7

If you read German authors down to the end of the 18th century you will see that they used lots of Latin words (and in the 18th century lots of French borrowings as well). But in the 19th century there was a conscious effort to replace foreign words by German equivalents.


7

In the old Slavic languages, the sound [o] could never follow the palatalized consonants (which in those times also included the hushing consonants Ш [ʃ], Ж [ʒ], Ч [tʃ], Щ [ʃtʲ], and also Ц [tsʲ]), since in the Proto-Slavic language [o] in this position had changed into [e]. In the 12th-16th centuries in the Russian language, the pronunciation of the ...


7

Personally I find all this laryngealist madness highly unscientific. Some scholars use laryngeal phonemes as a jolly when there is something uncertain in the etymology of some word. These reconstructions are not only typologically unlikely, but also inconsistent with the initial, and brilliant, idea of "sonant coefficients" suggested by de Saussure. This ...


7

The set of candidates is small. The word "tundra" is from Saami (Proto-Sami *tuonder), though I don't know if it went direct to Swedish, or via Russian. There are some Saami words used in Norwegian (at least northern Norwegian) which therefore might also be used in Swedish, namely "duotji" (handicrafts, not sure how it's spelled in Norwegian), and "joik", ...


6

The word აფალინა /aphalina/ is a word of Greek origin, derived from φάλλαινα, "whale". This word came from Greek φαλλός which in late Greek meant "penis" due to similar shape of the whale. This word in turn came from PIE root bhel- "to swell, blow".


6

Most likely, it's just a coincidence. I don't have direct proof, but here are some speculations that may (or may not) lead to an answer. I think you may have been confused hearing this word with a negative particle: ไม่เอา [mâj au] which may be perceived as [mâj jau] which is used very often e.g. buying food. Most Thai loanwords with Mid-Chinese origin ...


6

I do not believe that “borrowing languages” is a meaningful concept in linguistics. All languages have borrowed from other languages, though obviously not all to the same degree. Just to stay with your question, French has borrowed lots of words from mediaeval and scholastic Latin (as opposed to the “genuine” French words derived organically from Vulgar ...


6

Yard, bard, computer, paradise are all considered to be English words. You can find each of them listed in an English dictionary, non-italicized, with no usage note saying they are words in another language. The phrasing "inherited word from a Celtic substrate" is weird. "Bard" would just be called a borrowed word, not an inherited word. (...


6

This is more likely to happen when the original language is fairly well known amongst the community of writers–speakers of the adopting language. Latin often does it for Greek words. That is, one usually has two options in Latin: either one translitterates the Greek endings directly into Latin, or one Latinises the entire paradigm. Which option is chosen ...


6

While Akkadian š is generally cognate with Hebrew š or ś, there's good reason to believe its pronunciation was quite different! The reason it's transcribed as š is mostly historical—Akkadian was first deciphered by comparison to other Semitic languages, so when a certain phoneme seemed to correspond regularly to Hebrew š, they named it š. But there's ...


6

Many of the 外来語 gairaigo loanwords in Japanese are indeed from German, many of which date from the very late 19th century / early 20th century. アレルギー arerugī (note the long i at the end!!!) is attested in written form in 1910, alongside テーマ tēma from German Thema, and of the same epoch as カプセル kapuseru from German Kapsel.


5

You might want to check out this page http://sealang.net/thai/chinese/middle.htm which indeed claims that the word is related to 要. เอา Prapin gloss: to want Prapin: 606 (class 1) Chinese gloss: idem   Karlgren: 1142a   Big5: 要 (1) yao1 {yao4} (0) yao4 yao3 {yao1} (1) [1] [v] invite; request the presence of [2] [v] engage; date; make ...


Only top voted, non community-wiki answers of a minimum length are eligible