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In Cantonese songs, one of two things happen — the tones are preserved in a particular way, or the tones are ignored. The paper Tone and melody in Cantonese by Marjorie K.M. Chan has some information on how often the tones are preserved, showing that the tonal contrasts are largely preserved by the melody in a small sample of 90s HK pop songs. The paper is ...


4

Probably Yale. It's rarely seen nowadays. Wikipedia says The Yale romanization of Mandarin was developed in 1943 by the Yale sinologist George Kennedy to help prepare American soldiers to communicate with their Chinese allies on the battlefield. Rather than try to teach recruits to interpret the standard romanization of the time for Mandarin, the Wade–...


3

In Vietnamese songs the tones will generally follow the melodies. Of course sometimes there still be some odd, out-of-tone sounds but most of it is a product of an amateur musician. As André Müller said in this answer: In my experience, this is different in other tonal languages, pop songs and chansons in Vietnamese have quite clearly audible tones and ...


3

"Pitch" is the perceptual correlate of fundamental frequency which is the rate of vibration of the vocal folds (in speech). "Intensity" is the perceptual correlate of... I'll say RMS amplitude. There are a lot of things that determine amplitude, such as the openness of the vocal tract. In vowels, Fundamental Frequency (F0) does often correlate with amplitude,...


3

Yes, Cantonese people are able to discern unreleased stops just by listening the syllables without any further context that might help deduce which syllable is meant, moreover, other people in dialect areas like Hu Nan, Fu Jian, Jiang Xi,Zhe Jiang, Jiangsu,Shanghai in China can discern them. With the spectrograms and hearing test, we can find that consonants ...


2

English also has so-called unreleased stops, mainly in consonant clusters, e.g. act [æk̚t] vs apt [æp̚t]. The phonemes that have no audible release are certainly contrastive in English here; they are simply masked by the release of the /t/ that follows. There is of course the case of the glottal stop, which can be considered phonemic, especially in ...


2

In Thai language tone is ALWAYS preserved when singing, some of the most exceptionally composed pieces will even use this to their advantage by applying a a lyric that will in turn producing a pleasing melody which add dimensions to the existing song. From what I heard, there are about 3 generations of a class of music currently employ in Thai language. ...


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