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TL;DR: language contact between Japanese and Korean has been particularly strong due to historical factors. There have been some papers that break down the different paths of divergence between them and with Modern Standard Chinese. A lot of Sino-Japanese (specifically go-on readings from 4th-6th centuries CE) was filtered through an early layer of Sino-...


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Many languages have a distinction between past and non-past that doesn't explicitly mark the future. Japanese, for example: 食べます tabemasu "eat, eats, will eat" 食べました tabemasita "ate" English sometimes does the same thing: After I finish this report, I'll come to the meeting. The "finishing" is clearly in the future, but ...


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This isn't really an answer, but I'd like to poke at a few different aspects of the question and this is too long to be a comment. First, where are you getting 214 phonemes? Are you sure you aren't thinking of the 214 Kangxi radicals, as Colin Fine suggested? Most analyses I've seen have between 20 and 30 phonemes, depending how you interpret the vowels and ...


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In both Polish and Mandarin, the alveolo-palatal spirants (fricatives or affricates) originated from other spirants before (high) front vowels. The vowels may have shifted a little since, but the tendency for them to occur before those vowels persists. As this is a common origin for alveolo-palatal sounds cross-linguistically, this tendency likely holds ...


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The term 發脾氣 fapiqi which literally means ‘emit the air of the spleen’ is often translated as ‘lose temper’. Its deeper cultural meaning will be explained in the section on metaphorical expressions. At this point, we would just note its reference to an internal feeling which is externalized, an emotional and physiological action which moves to the external ...


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The question makes the standard assumption that language sounds have objectively comparable phonetic properties, which are described by some set of features, and that the "phonemic value" is whatever is underlyingly present, for example in the case of English surface [k kʲ k̚ kʰ] the presumed underlying phoneme is /k/, or the features describing a &...


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