26

First of all I would like to say that these words are not cognates; they are loanwords. The coffee plant is indigenous in the highlands of Ethiopia. It was transplanted to the Yemen in the 14th century (which is fairly recent), where the drink coffee became popular among Sufi circles, and was soon after exported to Istanbul, and hence to Europe. For a long ...


15

The Trésor de la langue française has most the answer to your question in the etymology section for femme: From Classical Latin femina “female”, then “woman, wife” which competed against the Latin words mulier “woman” which no longer survives in French (contrast with Italian moglie, Spanish mujer) except in the archaic form moillier “wife, woman” (which ...


15

Arnaud Fournet's answer is correct: there's no evidence for a relationship. But to add a bit more evidence that there isn't a connection… The Classical pronunciation of vīvere was something like /wiːwɛrɛ/, while the Biblical pronunciation of אָבִיב was something like /ʔɑːbiːb/. Both words are attested well before the relevant sound changes (W-hardening and ...


15

From your paper: Chance is ruled out by probability, because two unrelated language families can’t have 74 accidental resemblances. The problem is, this simply isn't true. Here are 109 accidental resemblances between Mandarin and English. Ruhlen makes a similar claim in his paper, but he's similarly wrong. Look at Vajda 2010 for a specific rebuttal of his ...


14

Calling on the U. Minn. Ojibwe dictionary, Ojibwe gitchigami = Gitche Gumee referred to in Longfellow's Hiawatha means "Big lake". Gichi means "very big". Mich is the initial which underlies michaa and other words meaning or including the meaning "big". Although the deconstruction of mich+?+gami does not seem to work in the ...


11

Armenian: սուրճ [surch] (Wiktionary) English: java (Wiktionary) In the 17th century, the Dutch colonized the island of Java, which is now part of Indonesia. They planted lots of coffee there and began exporting it to the rest of the world. It was successful enough to have become a generic word for coffee. — Quora


11

The problem is that both Greek words are probably not of Indogermanic origin. The case of θάλασσα is pretty clear-cut, the -σσ- cannot be inherited directly from Proto-Indogermanic and must be inherited from a pre-Greek substrate. The case of θάλαμος is less clear, but again a substrate origin is suggested. The nature of the pre-Greek substrate remains ...


10

It's (probably) a true cognate! Back in Proto-Indo-European times, noun endings indicated case as well as number: there was no single specific "plural ending", but there were various endings used for different cases in the plural. The accusative "feminine" one is reconstructed as *-eh₂-ns (though it's unclear if the feminine was actually a distinct category ...


10

You've mixed a bunch of words of very different origin with a bunch of quite weak and poorly defined assumptions (like no considerable interactions between Russians and Swedes). It comes as no surprise that Swedish två and Russian two both have PIE origin deriving from dwóh root. If you think about it, English two looks pretty much similar to "два&...


9

From the Oxford English Dictionary: Probably cognate with Dutch fokken to mock (15th cent.), to strike (1591), to fool, gull (1623), to beget children (1637), to have sexual intercourse with (1657), to grow, cultivate (1772), Norwegian regional fukka to copulate, Swedish regional fokka to copulate (compare Swedish regional fock penis), further ...


9

@shabunc has treated the other examples already, so I will say something about the bear's service: The same idiom is also present in German Bärendienst and it is traced to a fable by La Fontaine titled 'The bear and the garden lover' (my translation of the title) where the bear accidentally kills the garden lover when trying to chase off a fly.


8

The etymologies of those two names is at best conjecture. Given that the individuals in question (the town is named after the chief) are from completely unrelated tribes speaking unrelated languages (Pocahontas – an Algonkian tribe given her father's name, "Powhatan"; Pocatello, whose native name was Tondzaosha – member of the Shoshone tribe, whose language ...


8

the word for "coffee" What if the language doesn't have the word for coffee, and there are several words to express it? For example, in Somali, coffee can be called both bun and qaxwe. does not contain the sounds k/q and f/h/v In Navajo, the word for "coffee" doesn't contain k/q: ahwééh. Yet, it looks like a loanword. the word has a different root ...


8

Some forms of ser are cognate with "essence", but ser itself is not. Ser in Spanish is a "suppletive verb", which is missing some of its forms and has stolen them from other verbs to compensate. Compare English "go", which doesn't have the past-tense form *goed; instead, it's stolen the past form "went" from the ...


8

There are two main ways. ① If there's a good reason to suspect borrowing. For example, English and Hebrew aren't etymologically related at all, but English chutzpah looks very similar to Hebrew חוצפה (ħuzpa, "audacity"). Could they be connected? Well, we don't see the word chutzpah in English before the 20th century, it contains a sound that's ...


7

Just to illustrate that there is not a complete consensus about the definition, this is how David Crystal defines it in A Dictionary of Linguistics and Phonetics cognate (adj./n.) (1) A language or a linguistic form which is historically derived from the same source as another language/form, e.g. Spanish/Italian/ French/Portuguese are ‘cognate languages’ (...


7

Cognates are only words shared in two sister varieties that have been inherited genetically from a parent variety. From Campbell and Mixco's A Glossary of Historical Linguistics: cognate A word (or morpheme) that is related to a word (morpheme) in sister languages by reason of these words (morphemes) having been inherited by the related languages from a ...


7

Shyamsundara Dasa's Hindi Shabdasagar dictionary has an entry (link): बिगुल संज्ञा पुं० [अं०] अँगरेजी ढंग की एक प्रकार की तुरही जो प्रायः सैनिकों को एकत्र करने अथवा इसी प्रकार का कोई और काम करने के लिये संकेत रूप में बजाई जाती है । मुहा०—बिगुल बजना = (१) किसी कार्य के लिये आदेश होना । (२) कूच होना । It says "an English style of horn usually used to call ...


7

It depends what you mean by "tend to create". For one, there are certain words that do tend to be the same across unrelated languages—for external reasons. English boom and Ancient Greek bómbos look very similar, because they're both imitating the same sound. Quite a lot of languages have a word for "mother" that sounds like mama, ...


6

As Draconis says, some conjugations of ser are cognate with Latin esse derived words in English, but not all. I made this chart (based on this blog post) a while ago, it details which are which: ^ Note for ve In voseo dialects, the 2nd person sing. pos. (vos) imperative for ir is andá (from Latin ambulare). This is cognate with Spanish andar, Catalan anar, ...


6

According to the Norske Akademis Ordbok, gøy is from English “gay”.


6

It is indeed true! Proto-Indo-European *ḱel "conceal" > Proto-Germanic *haljō "concealed place" > Old English hell "underworld" > English "hell" Proto-Indo-European *ḱel "conceal" > Latin *ob-celō > occulō "conceal" > occultus "(that which is) concealed" > English "occult"


5

First off, let me say I'm not sure why your question has so many close-votes: it is directly about the etymology of a word, and so is definitely within scope. Okay, elusive comes more-or-less directly from Latin. Latin has the word ēlūdō which apparently can mean "avoided". This word is made up of ex- (out of) and lūdō (a trick). This is evidence against ...


5

Most often, the expression “false cognate” is used as a synonym for “false friend”. If you google with them, you will mostly find pages that use them synonymously. However, other meanings have also been proposed. In Concise Encyclopedia of Semantics edited by Keith Allan, the article “False friends”, p. 308–309, describes false cognates as a special case of ...


5

You can look up PIE roots from Walde-Pokorny here. This contains a link to a language index, which could lead you to the Latin list, although you'd have to know that facio is related to putrefacio and a number of other words (odd that facio itself isn't an entry), which would point you to * dhe, and that would list everything-ish coming from that root.


5

Henning, Das Verbum des Mittelpersischen der Turfanfragmente (1933) p. 187 posited Iranian *xwaz, ‘wish, want’, represented by Middle and New Persian xwāh-, with long-grade present stem, the regular SW Iranian shift of /z/ to /d/, and then a specifically Persian dialect shift of /d/ to /h/. Johnny Cheung, Etymological dictionary of the Iranian verb (2007), ...


5

In Proto-Germanic (PG) the prototypes of all the four words had the diphthong /au/ in the root: rot < PG *raudaz tot < PG *daudaz kaufen < OHG noun koufo (“merchant”) < Latin caupō (“tradesman, shopkeeper”) laufen < PG *hlaupaną During the transition from Proto-Germanic to Old High German the diphthong /au/ > /ô/ before /r/, ...


5

There are no really secure cognates outside the Germanic languages (see, e.g., The Wiktionary entry expressing the doubts about outer-Germanic relations). A maybe unexpected English cognate is fidget (see http://www.woerterbuchnetz.de/cgi-bin/WBNetz/wbgui_py?sigle=DWB&lemid=GF04100 ) One can try to relate the f-word with Latin pugnus "fist", pugnare "to ...


5

The Bactrian letter <ϸ> is for /ʃ/, not /θ/. It is possible that it originated in the word χϸονο "calendar year", which is probably borrowed from Greek χρόνος. In this case, <ϸ> could have started out as an elongated <ρ>.


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