9

Within some branches of linguistics, it may be referred to as any of the following: reference resolution pronoun resolution pronoun reference resolution anaphora resolution Notice that reference resolution is a more general term which includes pronoun resolution.


7

In Latin the two words are unrelated. The basic meaning of vīcus (of which your form vīcī is the genitive) is actually "district, neighborhood, village, etc.", although it does also sometimes mean "road, street". Vīcus is from a Proto-Indo-European root weiḱ- (which gives among other things Greek oîkos "house", whence eco-nomy, eco-logy). Vīcī "I conquered", ...


7

I have a single native language (Russian) and have learned English. I can say that I occasionally think either in Russian or English even though I have never lived in English-speakling environment. The key thing here is that thinking is usually modelling a phrase in a conversation with imaginable opponent. So if I model some phrases to counter arguments of ...


7

It depends what you mean by "tend to create". For one, there are certain words that do tend to be the same across unrelated languages—for external reasons. English boom and Ancient Greek bómbos look very similar, because they're both imitating the same sound. Quite a lot of languages have a word for "mother" that sounds like mama, ...


6

In short, no. The various tactile writing systems developed for blind readers have all been alphabetic in nature. Some, such as Braille and its historical competitor New York Point, use arbitrary symbols, while others, such as the still-in-use Moon type, are based on embossed Latin letters. Most are true alphabets, with symbols mapping directly to ...


6

This is probably not the kind of answer you are looking for, but I guess the following two points would have to be considered as strong indications that meaning is not computed from phonology. Polysemy (wood: the stuff a tree is made of as well as a collection of trees growing together) and homophony (pear, pair). This implies g is not a function. Also I ...


6

"people will grade ODD NUMBERS for centrality, even though the category ODD NUMBER has a clear definition in terms of necessary and sufficient features" means that you can ask people things like "which is a better example of an odd number, 19 or 1001" and at least some of them will answer with one or the other (I'd guess most people will go with 19) rather ...


5

First, one big thing you're going to run into, almost no matter who you read: Most people in CxG focus their arguments against Chomskyan transformational grammar and other major competing approaches,1 not against non-hierarchical grammar or purely statistical approaches or other things that far outside the theoretical linguistics mainstream. For example, ...


5

Me, I am bilingual with English and Norwegian, and I master/have mastered some other languages as well. I'll have some thoughts in English, some in Norwegian or something else, and sometimes in a programming language or mathematics or something. Of course, I sometimes have thoughts which are not linguistically formed, such as remembering someone's appearance ...


4

Abstract vs concrete or figurative vs literal is a function of a word and its context, not of a dictionary entry lemma, a surface form or string literal like tree or dog. For example, if we point to a tree in front of us and say "This tree grows all over the world", we do not literally mean this concrete tree. There are also many tree concepts in ...


4

Interestingly, it is so self-evident that the arbitrariness claim is true that nobody has experimentally verified the claim. But it would not be hard to do, if you have access to a captive subject pool. There are many procedures that could be followed, but the basic idea is to take recordings of actual words from various languages, present them (one at a ...


4

There are a few million answers (32, if I'm not mistaken), here is one. Bantu languages have a complex system of grammatical gender where nouns have some gender, and things that agree with nouns agree in gender (we call them "classes"). The marker that you get depends on a lexical property of the noun, but also on whether it is singular or plural. ...


3

Seeing you nor anyone else knows what you consider to be good in a language, or what a language should be good for as opposed to be could be good for, nobody can tell you what is the best language. I can tell you that when you are doing your French A-level in the UK, the best language to use for your essay is French. I personally find that Georgian script ...


3

As a native speaker of French, my feeling is that your premise that the phenomenon is primarily of cognitive origin is most likely false. It is not the case, I think, that I conceptualize water differently when thinking/speaking in French or in English, it is rather that the same cognitive process are not syntactically encoded in the same ways in these two ...


3

It is not clear to me how fine-grained the resource should be, but for a starter there is the Princeton Wordnet. For specialised domains several ontologies exsts (some free, some to be licenced).


3

For one thing, some languages apparently do not have a way to coordinate two noun phrases on an equal level (or at least, no documented way). See this question: What is the difference between AND and WITH in general? and the related WALS article Noun Phrase Conjunction, by Leon Stassen. Stassen says The basic distinction is between those languages which ...


2

Langacker uses gestalt principles to argue for many structures of conceptualization(and thereby language). I think he would argue that the mental ability(and usual tendency) of reification (conceptualizing separate entities into a whole)allows us to abstract away from specifics into higher order organizational relationships which ultimately could yield what ...


2

These answers deal with the parts of our thoughts that take place in language, and yes, that is largely context dependent, as others have outlined. That is to say, if you're thinking about best way is to phrase something, or trying to understand a specific sentence you've just heard, then you'll think in the language you're thinking about. However, it's ...


2

Many people I know who are otherwise perfectly multilingual have strong preferences for memorizing e.g. phone numbers in one of their languages, and find it much more difficult to do so in their other language(s).


2

This is actually not a bad question and one to which a fairly definitive and informative answer is possible. This would be useful for many other branches. Key points of Cognitive Linguistics (this is in contrast to Chomskyan linguistics which is sometimes also referred to as 'cognitive' but with a small 'c'): Language is part of our general cognitive ...


2

Only one: do. to run = do running/do run (run as a noun) etc.


2

A house is alienable because it does not obligatorily need to be possessed (not by a supernatural entity, if that's what you're thinking), i.e. it can be a house that is not owned by anyone. Inalienable possession is the opposite in that an inalienable possession is inherently possessed by someone. For example, an arm is always someone's arm even if it is ...


2

These words are related by derivation. In each case, one of the parts of speech was first. Then others were created from one or more of its senses, but can then take on a semantic life of their own. (In English it is very subtle because the surface forms are identical or, in your life N / live V / live ADJ example, very similar and the derived by a ...


2

I don't see any relationship between the various measures and the notion of some language being "best", a notion that is similar to the question "what is the best car?". However, you might be able to try measuring some of these specific properties. For example, "Grammatical consistency" and "variation" of this between speakers, and how this is ...


2

Language and thought have a very happy marriage and as such the relationship shows up just about everywhere in linguistics. Any good modern (or even somewhat old) linguistics textbook should have a chapter on psycholinguistics or sociolinguistics, which may be what you're looking for. For a more rigorous explanation of general linguistics, I read: ...


2

To extend Araucaria's analogy, this is a bit like going to Physics.SE and asking "what is the best unit?". Well, it depends on your use case. If you want to measure time, then the best unit might be the second, or the microsecond, or the hour, or the year. If you want to measure distance, the best unit might be the meter, or the kilometer, or the light-year. ...


2

It may be related to Cognitive Metaphors we use. Our brain tries to simplify abstract concepts, and tries to find some similarities with physical experiences. For example, when the amount of money a person receives becomes more, we say "salary rise" although the height of money does not increase. It is because our brains are accustomed to seeing ...


1

I believe you are conflating arbitrariness with other concepts in your question. Phonetic arbitrariness means that in a language, semantics are independent of the choice of phonetics. First, let's talk about what choice of phonetics means. Any particular language has a finite number of phonemes, a discrete subset drawn from the continuous spectrum of ...


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