9

Starting with your last request that the answer be based on morphology, this is, in fact, one of the problems of compounding, because it's not entirely a morphological phenomenon. Compound gradience Compounding is gradient, ranging from lexical to phrasal to clausal compounds. Here are some examples: (1) [[dark-]room] :: lexical (...


9

These words are not considered to be related. πίστις ‘faith, trust’ and the verb πείθομαι ‘to trust, obey, be persuaded’ come from Indo-European *bhidh-, related to Latin fides, with *bh- > *ph- > p according to Grassmann’s law. ἐλπίς ‘hope’, ἐλπίζω, ἔλπομαι ‘to hope’, is from Indo-European *uelp-, perhaps cognate with Latin voluptas. There is no prefix ...


5

A lot depends on your theory of morphology - see e.g. Lieber and Štekauer 2011 - see esp. 1.1.4 Summary. Several tests for compounding have been proposed; the biggest problem is that they do not necessarily yield the same results. And then there is no clear-cut, universal boundary between a free word-form and a bound affix. As to be expected, by its very ...


5

I agree that the English spelling of compounds is to a large degree arbitrary, but I also think there is an objectifiable distinction between compounds and phrases, at least in Indo-European languages. In languages like Sanskrit, Greek, Latin, German nominal compounds can be recognised from the fact that the first member is normally uninflected, e.g. ...


4

This is an orthography rule, not a grammar rule. Orthography isn't really a concern for linguistics. I have a feeling that this is rather arbitrary for English. In German (or a other fusional or agglutinative languages) it's quite simple: Everything which belongs together is written together; English makes things more complicated by basically allowing ...


4

Compounding is very rare in Semitic, which appears to contradict the claim. The following is from Orin D. Gensler, 'Morphological Typology of Semitic', in Stefan Weninger (ed.), The Semitic Languages: An International Handbook, pp. 287–288: Compounding as such is almost unknown in Semitic. There are of course lexicalized or semi-lexicalized collocational ...


3

I don't think that bound forms tend to resist sound changes in general. Bound forms might in some cases provide more information about the historical form of a word because they occur in a different phonological environment than free forms. For example, if a language has a sound change that eliminates word-initial or word-final consonants, than bound forms ...


3

This phenomenon is called rendaku, or "sequential voicing". Many phonemes in Japanese occur in voiced/unvoiced pairs. In kana writing, these are distinguished with a dakuten "voice mark" over the voiced version: for instance, か /ka/, が /ga/. (Side note: in a few cases this reflects historical rather than current pronunciation: /h/ voices to /b/ because it ...


3

First, you have to be careful to not confuse compounds themselves with the orthography for compounds. What you're asking about is the orthographic variation in how compounds are represented. As far as orthographic variation goes, there has been very little research done in this area, most likely because there's been very little reason to think to look into ...


3

See Why "agoraphobia" not "agorophobia"? myia is a first declension noun, so originally in Greek the correct answer was myiaphagia, just as agoraphobia is actually the correct form, historically. But the -o- of the second declension extended to first declension nouns in compounds very very early—so early that -a- compounds are the ...


3

The rules for the formation of compounds are explained in the more elaborate Greek grammars, but I think you are asking about this specific word. In Classical Greek there are quite a large number of compounds from μυιο- or μυο-, as you can see here: μυιο- μυο- Click on the individual words for their meaning. Myo- or myiophagia would be a correctly formed ...


2

All of your examples involve compounds (even though the two parts of the compound are in most cases written as separate words). English has inherited from Indo-European the principle that the first part of a compound (Vorderglied) is as a rule not inflected for number or case. Some of your (implied) German examples are of the same sort: Zebra(streifen), ...


2

For parsing: if the word is already in your 'dictionary' then treat it as a 'unigram'; but if it is new to you then treat it as an 'ngram'. If you are doing semantic statistics on a corpus then you may need to do both.


2

(Disclaimer: I don't have much background in linguistics) I think - if you are relating to agglutinantive and not polysynthetic languges - it would depend on what you are trying to build and the language too. But, Staatspolizei (Secret State Police) may occur around words like- The (whereas polizei would require and adjective before e.g. The Secret-...


1

I don't know how homogenous is TextGrid across different tools that use it, but there is a Python package, pympi which can be used to read Praat TextGrid files. In particular, pympi.Praat.TextGrid class can be instantiated to read TextGrid files.


1

Xmin and xmax are the starting times in seconds, within the file (which goes from 0 to 4.360703 seconds), and ORT-MAU tells you the same thing (in this instance), but then tells you the time periods of the individual words (where xmax-xmin is the duration of the word). So you would be interested in the texts “trial” and “offer” (not necessarily intervals [7] ...


1

In The Transition to Flexibility by Daniel C. Knudsen, Knudsen calls it flexibilism. Knudsen states the following: "The terms "flexibilism" and "flexible accumulation" refer to flexible production along with its emerging social and political institutions" (pg. 2).


1

The only question I can answer is what conditions incline compounds to vary in this regard. It reflects the morphological type of the language, namely, isolating. Since affixes serve (despite many other functions) to delimit words, the fact that these languages lack affixes disturbs the system and calls for new means of marking it. It also causes context ...


1

The example Men, women and children are people could have a compound noun men, women, and children, but it would be unwise to refer to it that way, using the term "compound noun", because of confusion with another quite different construction, also a "compound noun", which is morphological rather than syntactic and does not use a conjunction. For instance, ...


1

Men, women and children is not a word, but a phrase (a noun phrase = NP 1 ), so you can not apply morphological terminology like compounding here. I don't think there's a special name for NP formation via conjunction other than exactly that - NP formation by conjunction. 1 Depending on theory, replace NP by DP (determiner phrase), assuming additional empty ...


1

At first sight, an analysis as a (binary composed) compound seems to be possible: You could start arguing about the precise labels; for reason of simplicity I just assumed that the suffix "-ed" makes words an adjective. Concerning stress, I would say (I use ˈ for primary and ˌ for secondary stress, the rest is unstressed): for the first part: compressed ...


1

I would edit the question but it wouldn't make much sense after. So, let me explain that faith is πίστις but hope is not ἐλπίζω but ελπίς. Ελπίζω is the verb not the noun. The etymology of those two words is not related: ἐλπίς < ἔλπω (make someone have hope) πίστη < πείθω as you can see. As for the conjugation it self is also different: ελπίς (...


1

As Ivan writes, the example in the question is indeed an example of so-called right node raising (RNR). I can provide some more background information about the phenomenon. First, note the term itself (i.e. right node raising) is due to Postal (1974), and it indicates the analysis he proposed at that time. He assumed that in canonical cases of RNR, e.g. [You ...


1

Is your question about an analysis or about automated parsing? The phenomenon is dubbed right node raising. Search for it or read the wikipedia article that gives a nice overview and mentions the current analysis, including one which states an elided constituent on the left: (1) the need for education and development of education That would be your ...


1

According to R. Huddleston & L. Bauer in The Cambridge Grammar of the English Language ,bitter-sweet is a coordinative compound, where the component bases are of equal status. In, for example, the noun secretary-treasurer, the adjective bitter-sweet, or the verb cook-chill, neither component is dependent on, subordinate to, the other. Coordinative ...


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