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17

Just a set of words, or is there also a reconstructed grammar letting us speak in Common Proto-European? Absolutely! In fact, one of the best ways to show that a language is Indo-European is through its grammar—words are easy to borrow, swaths of morphology, not so much. The Hittite words wādar "water" and ēd- "eat" were a good clue that the language was IE,...


7

This is the official IPA chart. As you can see, the front round vowel in that region is the open front round vowel [ɶ], the round counterpart of [a], and [æ] has no round counterpart. Note that symbols are not exact vowels, and [a] can be located in a number positions in that general vicinity (as one can see by comparing placement in specific languages, in ...


5

"How do you go about deciphering a language without any spoken basis, no native speakers to converse with, or another other leads to go on besides ones provided by context alone?" You don't. With no inroads such as you've mentioned, all you can do is play a game of decipherment; but basically any solution you find will be something you have invented: you ...


5

This sounds like one of the series of papers by Kirby and/or Smith; e.g., Smith, Kirby, Brighton 2003. They just call it 'iterated learning'.


4

"Stress" is a property of syllables, not consonants, so you could drop the restriction "stressed". In fact, no words in English end in [h], leaving out spelling where it is an orthographic device to indicate something else. There are some languages with final h (Sundanese, Arabic, Somali and North Saami in one interpretation), but it isn't common across ...


4

If this List of cases on Wikipedia is complete, then there is no name (yet) for a case which expresses location far away from something. Probably there is just no language that would express this by case (but by use of pre- or postpositions instead); location near by something or movement away from something is a more frequent thing to say. You could ...


4

Since you're asking on Linguistics instead of Constructed Languages, here's a real-world example! Look at Ancient Greek (Attic/Koine dialect) τείν-ει /tiːn-iː/ "she spreads", next to Latin ten-et /tɛn-ɛt/ "she holds" (from the same PIE root). The original vowel in the ending was /eː/; Latin shortened it to /e/ before final /t/, and it later became /ɛ/. ...


4

The question is "What are the reasons Artificial Languages should not be under the scope of Linguistics" (it's not a question about writing systems). As a question about personal opinion it is not suited for SE because it's not a question about fact, but that can be remedied: what reasons can be given that ALs are not within the scope of Linguistics? That is ...


4

Latin's case system is fairly standard for Indo-European languages. But it's by no means the only option even within that language family. At most, English has nominative, accusative, genitive, and possessive. Only the pronouns still distinguish them: they, them, their, theirs. (In general English has no noun cases at this point, except for arguably the 's ...


3

Regardless of the fact that you've described physical impossibilities, if you can do them, that suggests you mis-analyzed the sounds. There are very many strange sounds in human languages. The first step to doing something with these sounds is to actually capture them, meaning, make some decent recordings (preferable in the context [a__a]). Those sample can ...


3

If you wish to explore the adequacy of PIE vocabulary and grammar, as reconstructed, for purposes of narration, I would impishly suggest that you take a stab at composing a fable, retelling some of the tales from early chapters of Genesis, or translating Psalm 104 (in modern Protestant numbering). You will inevitably be obliged to make numerous decisions: ...


3

In a conlang, you can essentially try out whatever you want. When you want to go for a naturalistic, but simple case system, there are are languages with just two cases termed nominative (for the subject of a sentence) and oblique (for everything else, including direct and indirect objects as well as nouns in prepositional phrases).


3

Speculating about how people could better communicate doesn't seem relevant or useful to linguists, who seek to understand how people do actually communicate. Linguistics is a science, based on evidence collected from observations. That is a quite different activity from that of artificial language fans, who seem to think they already know how real ...


3

The problem is that if all consonants are the same thing, what are they? Aspiration is generally understood to refer to voice onset time, with larger values being "aspirated". But there is no threshold for deeming a sound "aspirated" as opposed to "unaspirated" if all consonants are the same. You might take the VOT values of unaspirated stops in languages ...


2

Since "small person" doesn't mean "child", this indicates that you're willing to put up with phrasal idioms, like "kick the bucket", where the meaning of the phrase has to be learned separate from the meaning of the individual words. In that case, it does not matter what the meaning of the 20 words is. The words can therefore be ta, ti, te, to, tu and so on. ...


2

According to Wikipedia's article on Semantic Primes, you'd need about 60 to say everything. Is that too many?


2

You should describe it everywhere that is relevant. In the phonology chapter, you would describe vowel-harmony and denasalization pronunciation variants. In the morphology chapter, you would describe the position of that suffix relative to various other suffixes on verbs, and also how an alternative suffix -bɨlaʔ is used in future negative clauses. There ...


2

If it is a language (and it could be, lots of games have conlangs) step one is get lots more data, preferably some with known translations or at least known topics.


2

There are essentially two option you have: Skim through the existing Unicode characters and select a subset of them suitable for your conlang Go forth and create a conscript (constructed writing system) for your conlang. Don't expect the Unicode consortium to add your conscript to the Unicode standard soon—they have some rather strong criteria for ...


2

This is properly the domain of https://conlang.stackexchange.com , but at least one actor in Discovery (the one who played T'Kuvma) made a point of saying that he wanted his Klingon to sound African (http://hellenisteukontos.opoudjis.net/what-is-tkuvma-saying-in-the-trailer/, citing https://www.reddit.com/r/startrek/comments/72v35m/...


2

The English sound 'i' as in 'ink' is closer to Ыы [ɨ], which is usually transliterated into the Latin alphabet as Yy. And don't forget, there's also a letter Її that you can use as you like, in reality it's used in the Ukrainian Cyrillic alphabet and is pronounced as [ji]. Also, the Serbian Cyrillic alphabet uses the Latin Jj for [j], so if you use the three ...


2

In one interpretation of the concept "pattern", there are infinitely many patterns. Some example of "patterns": [det N aux V det N], [det adj N aux V det N], [det N aux V det adj N], [det N aux V det N V], [det N aux V det N V det N]. (Examples: the boy has seen the girl, the little boy has seen the girl, the boy has seen the little girl, ...


1

One personal example: my mother tongue has no case structure and most people I know do not speak a language that has a real, rough case system like Latin. After I learned some languages that had cases I felt the need to create a conlang with a very simple case structure in order to teach my friends what cases were. Now, most of them already spoke English, so ...


1

I've seen a ligature of (ɔ + e) being used unofficially. maybe that


1

A typical approach to pronouncing final consonants is adding a short Schwa [ə] after it and then practicing with gradual shortening the vowel to the minimal possible length. I have no academic books on this topic, but I have personal experience teaching my Thai friends how to pronounce English final consonants. In Thai language, a considerable amount of ...


1

There's a nice table drawn in the Wikipedia's page for Finnish locative system. You may find it useful. | System || Entering | Residing | Exiting | +--------++-----------------------+---------------+--------------------------+ | Inner || "into" illative | "in" inessive | "from in" elative | | Outer || "onto" ...


1

The UCLA Phonological Segment Inventory Database lists these languages as having /ph/ but not /p/: ADZERA AKAN ALAMBLAK BOBO-FING EWE FARSI GA JACALTEC KHALKHA KOHUMONO KOTA NORWEGIAN SELEPET TUNICA WAPISHANA I have my doubts about some (all?) of these languages, but at least it gives you a place to start looking!


1

In German, unvoiced consonants are frequently, if not always aspirated, and the aspirated and non-aspirated consonants are allophones which do not make a difference in meaning. In fact, spakers of German often find it hard to even tell a difference between aspirated and non-aspirated unvoiced consonants; and similarly, speakers of German who are not used to ...


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