16

While this is a fair question, I think there are several factors which argue against Modern Hebrew being considered an artificial language: The degree of mutual intelligibility between the modern language and the ancient language tends to argue that these two are in fact the same language. The fact that the language, as "constructed", was specifically ...


15

There are a number of different goals that the constructors of conlangs might have, such as ease of learning, regularity of grammar, minimal inventory of phonemes, or philosophical hierarchy of knowledge. Conciseness could be such a goal, but I do not remember encountering an actual conlang where it was (John Lawler mentions a fictional example, in Heinlein'...


12

First of all, this goal is seen as somewhat utopic today. If it was ok about 100-130 years ago for Johann Martin Schleyer (the inventor of Volapük, the first constructed language that become relatively widespread), and possibly for Zamenhof (inventor of Esperanto) too* nowadays the goal of introduction a neutral, constructed language for international ...


9

Why would an organization want to create a language? For what purpose would it be used? Who would pay for it? If you're thinking of a language that would suit as a lingua franca, we already have one, it's called English. Best is not the issue here, a language needn't be "good" in order to be popular. Just making a language, by committee or not, won't make ...


7

Most famous is probably Nadsat, created by Anthony Burgess for the novel "A clockwork orange". There is also a common artificial argot used in English literature spoken by uneducated people or criminals. It has a name, but I have forgotten it and therefore don't have a handy handle to it. Characteristic for it are left out consonants (th, r) replaced by ...


7

If there was a language where the case endings were just -a, -e, -i, -o, and -u, would speakers find these too similar to each other? Consider modern Russian, which has six cases: nominative, genitive, dative, accusative, instrumental, and prepositional. In the first declension these are indicated for the most part by single vowels. kniga = a book ...


6

Unfortunately, my sources for this are in Swedish and/or from old periodicals from the actual time when Esperanto was new, so I can't link anything. If you can read Swedish, find the book called "100 years of Esperanto", and in Esperanto there's another book you can try, "La Esperanto-Movado en Upsalo" (as I remember the title). Basically what happened is, ...


6

One good attempt at a language like this is Dutton Speedwords, which was elaborated under a principle known as Zipf's law, namely, that most common words are the shortest. One language that preceded Esperanto was Volapük, which made words unrecognizable and difficult to connect to words in other languages. In the free marketplace of ideas, Esperanto rose to ...


6

I know practically nothing about Hebrew. My answer is based on your claim, "a lot of the things virtually not present in at least two millennia have been given words that were literally invented". There are two classes of words, open class and closed class. Open classes accept the addition of new morphemes (words), through such processes as compounding, ...


6

I think, the accent with which the narrator speaks in Frank Zappa's rock opera "Thing-Fish" is an example of a constructed English accent/dialect. Correct me, if I'm wrong, and that's a real dialect spoken somewhere, but I've never heard anything like that. The narrator says ['lembəˌtɔːriːz] for 'laboratories', ['pouʃəm] and [sə'luʃəm] for 'potion' and '...


6

I suppose what you mean by "non-contradictory grammar" falls under the category of so-called logical languages, which try to establish a strictly systematic and, well, logical grammar without unpredictable irregularities. The most well-known one is Loglan with derivates Lojban and Ceqli. Another, indepedently developed logical language is Ithkuil with ...


5

In a sense, the national language standards of all languages could be said to be 'constructed' (to different degrees). They tend to be more artificial than other dialects and accents, and their histories can often be traced to some more or less purposeful efforts. You also seem to broaden the definition of accent to dialect which includes grammatical forms. ...


5

toki pona is a constructed language which is very close to what you're looking for, it has only 120 words and you cannot add any new ones, you can just combine the existing ones to get the meaning you need. Still the minimalism of toki pona is the point of that language, you're supposed not to construct complex structures of the 120 words it has, but rather ...


5

I'll just drop a list of some philosophical languages dedicated to a strictly compositional system making use of such "primitive meaning blocks", there have been many such attempts (there was a hype among philosophers around the 17th century): 1) Args signorum is a language constructed by George Dalgano in 1661. Quoting from the FrathWiki entry: Words in ...


5

You don't even have to have case endings at all. The overwhelming majority of Niger-Congo languages don't, neither do Salishan, Chinese or most Romance languages. Classical Arabic did just fine with the case ending -i, -u, -a (modern dialects dispensed with that, not because it was uninformative but because final vowels got deleted). Most Russian case ...


5

The way I understand it: Classical Arabic is what was used in the Koran, and the writings of that era. Modern Standard Arabic is what is used today in formal writing, on television and so on which should appeal to or at least be understood by the entire Arabophone market. There is not mutual intelligibility because a person time-travelling from the 8th ...


5

This was an important consideration in the design of Lojban, so while I haven't gone through the process of verifying it myself, I'm fairly confident that it is true for most of the language. (Since just one mistake would make it false overall, it's hard to be certain that it's true for all parts of the language: there are a few difficult parts.) It's not ...


5

I would be extremely skeptical of any claims to having constructed such a language To start with, (most?) words do not strictly define a set of referents, but some sort of fuzzy set, where examples further from the prototype(s) are only partially considered examples. An apple is indisputably a fruit, but lots of people will prevaricate when asked if a ...


4

It would need to be politically expedient to learn it. Like it is now with English and as it was for Greek. The process could be sped up by the simplicity of learning the language, yet people will learn any language that they NEED to learn. This is more a political issue than linguistic, at least in my opinion.


4

There are very many such languages. For example, Shona ha-ndi-za-ka-va-on-a means "I haven't ever seen them" (morpheme breaks included, in case you thought that might be a bare root). Greenlandic Nalunaarasuartaatilioqateeraliorfinnialikkersaatiginialikkersaatilillaranatagoorunarsuarooq "Once again they tried to build a giant radio station, but it was ...


4

In my understanding, you are trying to set the limits for redundancy, regarding the case endings. I think, the direct answer to this question depends on your conlang's articulatory stress patterns: if your conlang allows the stress to lean towards the last syllable (or even better, be able to shift towards the end in noun cases other than Nominative), the ...


4

After a quick look to WALS, my initial impression is that the number of unusual features in world languages tends to increase with historical isolation. Geographical proximity and language contact may result in the formation of Sprachbünde, or areas of linguistic convergence, which favors the use of common features instead of unusual ones. Influential ...


3

The morpheme would probably be best described as a case suffix. In natural languages the oblique case often has the meaning of concerning/regarding, but it also has other meanings. If you wanted a label purely for this meaning I think you'll need to make one up. One option would be regardive. I'd wonder though if you're really being tied too much to the ...


3

The length of the words is not a decisive criteria, when foreigners are trying to express ideas accurately in a language they learned from internet. However, in most cases Esperanto is shorter than English, even if Zipf was (luckily) not involved in assembling it (see http://www.remush.be/rebuttal/index.html#203). Remuŝ


3

One powerful husband and wife couple had created an organization before Interlingua was formalized. http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Alice_Vanderbilt_Morris


3

As a starter for constructed languages I recommend Detlev Blanke, Internationale Plansprachen. But your subquestions seem to go in other directions ... called "language universals" in linguistics and being a highly controversial topic. For simple grammars, look at Creole Languages. Basic vocabulary is hard to define---but you may want to look at Basic ...


3

definitely read Umberto Eco's book on the Search for A Perfect Language; he specifically discusses the approaches of Bishop Wilkins and others to obtain a perfect language whose words are (supposedly) logically derived from the order of things themselves.


3

You should look at the Natural Semantic Metalanguage. This is a (controversial) theory of human language which argues that all human languages are built on about 65 'primes' - basic blocks of meaning which cannot themselves be divided into other blocks. After 40 years of research the list has been refined through the study of languages from many unrelated ...


3

There is, but getting the hang of it and transcribing it isn't easy. It exists in the Kurdish language Hawrami, in the Bantu language Kamba, in another Bantu language Logoori (described by Elizabeth Leung in a Cornell MA thesis), and in Danish, as the lenited voiced lingual stop. In Kamba and Logoori it is basically the way that /j/ is pronounced; it doesn't ...


3

I would say that you have the horse and the cart inverted, that you need to start by deciding how utterances are structured syntactically and semantically, and at the end of the process figure out the sounds and letters that this maps to. You also need to sort out how general and flexible you want this program to be. If you were aiming to randomly select ...


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