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The difference is that Raising predicates occur in Raising constructions, and Equi predicates occur in Equi constructions. Being precise about the relationship between the predicates and the constructions was the subject of George Lakoff's dissertation Irregularity in Syntax. (And it is discussed in McCawley's SPHE.)


Well, not simultaneously, no. Not in the same sentence. But as these exercises makes clear, it can happen that a particular English verb, like want, governs Equi (aka "Equivalent Noun Phrase Deletion" and "Control") in one context, Bill wants ___to leave. Bill wants to be examined by the doctor. ≠ The doctor wants to examine Bill. and Raising (aka "...


Probably not, or at least not believe in English. Control is a relation between an argument of the matrix clause and a (big) PRO in the embedded one, which supplies the PRO with reference. In examples with believe, the trace left after raising to object seems to be the only (relevant) empty category in the sentence: (1) I [believe [the cat]i [ti to be out ...

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